Skip to main content

Full text of "University musical encyclopedia"

See other formats
























New England Conservatory of Music 

In Ten Volumes : 

I. A History of Music: Primitive, 
Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Euro- 

II. A History of Music: Music in 
America; Special Articles 

III. Great Composers 

IV. Great Composers (Continued) 

V. Religious Music of the World 

VI. Vocal Music and Musicians: The 
Vocal Art; Great Vocalists; Famous 

VII. The Opera: History and Guide 

VIII. The Theory of Music; Piano 

IX. University Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians 

X. University Dictionary of Music 
and Musicians (Continued) 



I b R P H £ U S I 



johann l. dussek 
Karl Czerny Muzio Clementi 

Adolph von Henselt 

John Field 
JOHANN B. Cramer 
Stephen Heller 





Volume I. 



rii , 


Copyrig-ht, 1912 
By The University Society Inc. 

Copyright, 1910 
By The University Society Inc. 

Copyright, 1913, 1909, 1908 
Bv Frederick A. Stokes Company 




The University Dictionary is intended to be a record of fact 
and not of opinion. It is a reference book to which one may turn for 
adequate information on any matter connected with music or musi- 
cians. It is comprehensive, containing a wider variety and, it is be- 
lieved, a greater number of topics than any other musical work. It 
includes, for example, definitions of musical terms, simply expressed ; 
biograpliies of all musicians worthy of remembrance; explanations of 
the theory of music without technicalities ; the stories of all the im- 
portant operas ; besides all the other matters usually included in 
musical encyclopedias. 

Complete lists of the works of great composers are given. Even 
in the case of more or less obscure musicians, the titles of at least a 
few works are included. At the end of every important article is 
given a list of books for further reading. To American and English 
musicians, so often neglected in works of this kind, is given a due 
proportion of space. For the first time in an English reference work, 
special articles are devoted to great national schools, such as the 
Madrid and St. Petersburg Conservatories. 

In many matters it has been necessary to compare, weigh, and an- 
alyze all opinions entitled to respect. Wherever a fact is regarded 
as definitely settled, it is stated without discussion, but where it is 
impossible to reconcile divergent views, both sides of the question are 
presented. Every subject is treated in the light of the latest re- 
search, material being presented about many subjects not heretofore 
treated in an encyclopedia of music. 

In order, while giving adequate treatment to the usual topics, to 
include hundreds of new subjects, it has been necessary to adopt some 
method of condensation. Abbreviations have been employed, a list 
of which will be found prefixed to the work, and such useless verbiage 
as, "The time and ])]ace of his death are a matter of dispute," has 
been eliminated. In biographical accounts, the name of the person 
is invariably followed by an active verb leading into that person's 
achievements. If the dates and other facts are unknown, they are 
omitted without comment. 



Add. — Address. 

Aug, — August. 

b. — Born. 

Bar. — Baritone. 

Bro. — Brother. 

Bros. — Broth ers. 

Co. — Company. 

Con. — Contralto. 

a. — Died. 

D.D. — Doctor of Divinity. 

Dec. — December. 

Dr. — Doctor of Music. 

Etig. — England or English. 

Feb. — February. 

Fr. — French. 

Ger. — German. 

Gr. — Greek. 

Heb. — Hebrew. 

Hon. — Honourable. 

//. — Italian. 

Jr. — Junior. 

L. — Latin. 

LL.D. — Doctor of Lav/s. 

m. — Married. 

M. — Monsieur. 

Mez. — Mezzo. 

Mile. — Mademoiselle. 

Mme. — Madame. 

No. — Number. 

Nov. — November. 

Oct. — October. 

Op. — Opus. 

Ph.D. — Doctor of Philosophy, 

Port. — Portuguese. 

ProJ". — Professor. 

Rev. — Reverend. 

Rus.^. — Russian. 

Sp. — Spanish. 

Ten. — Tenor, 

Tr-eb. — Treble. 

Jan. — January. 

The customary abbreviations are employed for the names of all 
American States. In the notation of pitch here employed c' is " Middle 
C " ; c the octave below ; C the octave below that ; c" the octave above 
"Middle C," etc. Operas and other compositions are referred to as 
Boheme, Traviata, Pagliacci, Pipe of Desire, the articles La, I, Der, The, 
etc., being omitted. 




A became the sixth tone of the nat- 
ural key of C upon the adoption of the 
modern SCALE in the 16th century 
and, in International or French 
PITCH, a' is produced by 435 vibra- 
tions per second at the temperature 
of 59° Fahrenheit. A is like\\ise the 
name of the major key having three 
sharps and of the minor key relative 
to C. One string is tuned to A in all 
instruments of the viol family; one 
clarinet is set in A; hence all instru- 
ments in the orchestra are attuned to 
A, usually sounded by the oboe. 

Aaron first introduced Gregorian 
chant into Germany. A Scotch monk, 
he became abbot of St. Martin's, Co- 
logne; d. 1052. 

Aaron or Aron (Pietro) was first 
to abandon Latin for the vernacular 
in writing on counterpoint and musi- 
cal history; established a music school 
in Rome under the patronage of Leo X, 
1516. His works are listed in '' Musik 
Literatur," Becker, Leipsic, 1836. B. 
in Florence; canon of Rimini; d. 

Abaco (Baron) composed for 'cello, 
on which he was a noted amateur per- 
former. B. at Verona; one composi- 
tion is dated 1748. 

Abaco (Evaristo Felice dell') com- 
posed many concertos and sonatas for 
strings, published in Amsterdam; 
served Max Emanuel, Elector of Ba- 
varia, as violinist and concertmeister. 
B. at Verona, 1075; d. in Munich, 
July 12, 1742. 

Abacus. Diagram showing notes 
on the keyboard; Et Palmulae, ma- 
chinery for striking keys of the an- 
cient polyplectrum; Harmonious, 
the disposition of an instrument's 
keyboard and pedals. 

A Ballata. It. In ballad style. 

Abat-voix. Fr. A voice reflector 
or sounding board. 

A Battuta. It. " With the beat." 
Indicates a return to strict time. 

Abbacchioto. It. With melan- 
choly expression. 

Abba-Cornaglia (Pietro) composed 
operas and church music. B. Ales- 
sandria, Piedmont, 1851; d. 1894. 

Abbadare. It. To take care. 

Abbadia (Natale) composed 
masses, motets, a vesper service, and 
operas. B. Genoa, Mar. 11, 1792. 

Abbadia (Luigia) sang mez. roles 
with such success that Donizetti wrote 
"Maria Padilla " expressly for her; 
taught in Milan. B. Genoa, 1821, 
daughter of Natale. 

Abbandonarsi. It. With aban- 

Abbandone, Abbandono, con. It. 
With self-abandonment; despondingly. 

Abbandonevolmente. It. With 
fury, violently. 

Abbassamento. It. Lowering; 
Di Voce, of the voice; Di Mano, of 
the hand in downward beat. 

Abbatini (Antonio Maria) served 
as chapelmaster at St. John Lateran 
and other Roman churches; assisted 
Kircher in his "MUSURGIA"; com- 


posed the opera " Del Male in Bene " ; 
published four books of Psalms, three 
of masses, etc., but declined proposi- 
tion of Urban VIII to supersede Pales- 
trina by rewriting the hymnal. B. 
Tiferno, ICm-, d. 1677. 

Abbe (Joseph Barnabe de St. 
Sevin) published eight works of 
sonatas and trios for violin; played 
violin at the Comedie frangaise and 
Opera from 1739 to 1762. B. Agen, 
France, June 11, 1727, son of Philippe; 
d. near Charenton, 1787. 

Abbe (Philippe and Pierre de St. 
Sevin) were famous 'cellists at the 
Opera, Paris, 18th century, having 
been music masters previously at the 
parish church, Agen. Exquisite play- 
ing of Pierre is said to have caused the 
abandonment of the viol da gamba for 
the 'cello as an orchestral instrument. 
Abbellimenti. It. Agremens, florid 
ornaments indicated by a sign. 

Abbellire. It, To overload a melody 
with ornament. 

Abbellitura. It. Embellishment. 
Abbey (John) built organs of im- 
proved construction for many French 
churches; left business to his sons, 
E. and J. Abbey. B. in England, 
Dec. 22, 1785; d. Versailles, Feb. 19, 

Abbott (Bessie) made her debut at 
the Opera, Paris, 1902. B. in America ; 
sop. Metropolitan Opera, New York, 

Abbott (Emma) sang leading roles 
in her own opera company throughout 
United States ; declined to sing " Trav- 
iata " on moral grounds. B. Chicago, 
1850; d. 1888. 

Abbreviamenti. It. ABBREVI- 

Abbreviations are employed in 
music for terms of expression, as dim. 
for diminuendo, f. for forte; as arbi- 
trary signs, such as two dots on either 
side of an oblique line for repetition 
of a group of notes; or as numerals, 
which serve as shorthand symbols for 
various chords in figured bass. 

A-B-C-IDIREN. Ger. Exercises 

in which names of notes replace words. 

Abd el Kadir (Ben Isa) wrote on 

the history and theory of music, and 

collected Arabian songs, 14th century. 


Abegg Variations were written by 
Schumann in compliment to Meta 
Abegg, on a theme formed of notes 
contained in her last name. 

Abeille (Johann Christian Lud- 
wig) composed " Amor und Psyche," 
"Peter und Annchen," an Ash Wednes- 
day Hymn, songs, harpsichord con- 
certos and trios; was successively 
concertmeister, organist, and music 
director to the Duke of Wiirtemberg 
during 50 years. B. Bayreuth, Feb. 
20, 1761; d. 1832. 

Abel. Thomas Augustine Arne's 
oratorio, performed in London, 17?i.'i. 
proved a failure, although containing 
a beautiful " Hymn of Eve." 

Abel (Clamor Heinrich) published 
dance music for strings, " Erstlinge 
Musikalischer Blumen," reprinted as 
" Drei Opera Musica"; musician to 
Elector of Hanover. B. in Westphalia 
about 1650. 

Abel (Karl Friedrich) first made 
Haydn's symphonies known in Eng- 
land through concerts he directed with 
John Christian Bach; wrote sym- 
phonies, sonatas, etc., once highly pop- 
ular; the last of great viol da gamba 
performers. He studied under Johann 
Sebastian Bach at the Thomas School. 
Leipsic; played 10 years in the Dres- 
den court orchestra ; made London 
debut, April 5, 1759, in programme of 
his own works; became court musi- 
cian to Queen Charlotte. B. Cothen, 
Germany, 1725; d. in London, June 22, 
1787. Leopold August composed six 
violin concertos; conducted and 
played violin at several German 
courts. B. Cothen, Germany, 1720, 
brother of KARL FRIEDRICH. 

Abel (Louis) vrrote an excellent 
violin method; conducted the Munich 
court orchestra. B. in Thuringia, 
1835; d. Munich, Aug. 13, 1895. 

Abela (Karl Gottlob) promoted 
the study of song in German public 
schools; published collections of part 
songs; became cantor of St. Mary's, 
Halle, 1825. B. Boma, Germany, 
April 29, 1803; d. Halle, 1841. 

Abela (Don Placido) composed 
church music and played the organ. 
B. Syracuse, 1814; prior of Monte 
Cassino; d. July 6, 1876. 


Abell (John) won fame as a contra 
ten. and lute player; published "A 
Collection of Songs in Several Lan- 
guages," dedicated to William III, of 
England, and " A Collection of Songs 
in English." Educated in the Chapel 
Royal, favourite of Charles II and 
James II ; dismissed as a Papist after 
the Revolution of 1(588, he wandered 
through Europe, supporting himself 
by his art; returned to London in 
Queen Anne's reign, gaining honours 
on the lyric stage. B. in England about 

Abencerages. Clierubini's three- 
act opera to French book by Jouy, was 
first performed at the Op^ra, Paris, 
before Napoleon, April 6, 1813. It 
deals with the destruction of that 
celebrated princely family by order of 
the sovereign of Granada. 

Abendglocke. Ger. Curfew. 

Abendlied. Ger. Evening song._ 

Abendmusik. Ger. Evening music. 

Abendstandchen. Ger. Serenade. 

A Bene Placito. It. At pleasure. 

Abenhamet e Zoraide. Giuseppe 
Niccolini's opera to Italian text, deal- 
ing with the destruction of the Aben- 
cerages, was first presented at Milan, 

Abenheim (Joseph) directed Stutt- 
gart royal orchestra, 1854 to 1888; 
composed for voice, piano, and orches- 
tra. B. Worms, 1804. 

Abert (Johann Josef) composed 
many German operas, including 
" Anna von Landskron," " Koenig 
Enzio," "Astorga," "Ekkehard," ''Die 
Almahaden"; a symphony in C minor, 
etc. ; became chapelmaster at Stutt- 
gart, 1867. B. Kochowitz, Sept. 21, 

Abgehen. Ger. To retire. 

Abgesang. Ger. Refrain. 

Abgestossen. Ger. Staccato, 

Abblasen. Ger. To pound a trumpet 

Abkiirzen. Ger. To shorten. 

Abkurzung. Ger. Abridgment. 

Abnehmend. Ger. Diminishing. 

Abos (Geronimo) taught Aprile 
and other famous singers; composed 
seven masses and other church music, 
and the operas "La Papilla e'l Tutore," 


" La Serva Padrona," " Ifigenia in 
Aulide," " Artaserse," " Adriano," 
" Tito Manlio," " Creso," etc. B. 
Malta, about 1708; d. Naples, 1786. 

Abraham's Opfer. Peter Joseph 
von Lindpaintiier's oratorio, first sung 
at Stuttgart, 1821, won its composer 
a gold medal from Queen Victoria. 

Abram (John) composed " Jerusa- 
lem," a cantata; "Widow of Nain," 
an oratorio, etc. ; officiated as organist 
in many English churches. B. Mar- 
gate, Aug. 7. 1840. 

Abrams(Theodosia, Harriet, and 
Eliza) sang in concerts and opera in 
London from 1775 to 1790. The eldest, 
Harriet, who composed many popular 
songs, made her Drury Lane debut in 
an opera bv her teacher. Dr. Arne, 
when only 15. B. 1760. 

Abranyi (Kernel) founded the first 
mvisic journal in Hungarian, 1866; 
promoted and taught in National 
Music Academy, Pesth. B. 1822. 

Abrege. Fr. Abridgment. 

Abreger. Fr. To shorten; 

Abruptio. It. Sudden pause ; 
breaking off. 

Absatz. Ger. Cadence. 

Abschieds (Farewell) Sym- 
phonie. Composed by Haydn, 1772, 
was successful in obtaining leave of 
absence for his musicians, which had 
been refused by Prince Esterhazy. 
One by one the instruments are si- 
lenced, and at the first performance, 
each musician, on reaching the end of 
his part, extinguished his lamp, and 
silently left the concert room. 

Abschnitt. Ger. Section. 

Absetzen. Ger. Striking two keys 
in succession with the same finger. 

Absolute. JNIusic is so called which 
does not pretend to descriptive or 
illustrative qualities, as distinguished 
from "PROGRAMME" music, or 

Abstammen. Ger. To be derived 

Abstufung. Ger. Shading. 

Abt (Alfred) conducted at German 
theatres and opera houses. B. Bruns- 
wick, 1855, son of Franz; d. Geneva, 
April 2n. 1888. 

Abt (Franz) composed " When the 


Swallows Homeward Fly," and more 
than 300 other songs ; achieved great 
success as chorus conductor; visited 
the United States in 1872, the guest 
of singing societies, conducted jointly 
with Gilmore. Educated at the 
Thomas School, Leipsic; made chapel- 
master in 1855 by the Duke of Bruns- 
wick; pensioned, 1881. B. Eilenburg, 
Dec. 22, 1819; d. Wiesbaden, Mar. 31, 

Abtonen. Ger. Off key. 

Abu Hassan. C. M. von Weber'g 
comic operetta to German text by 
Hiemer, was first presented at Munich, 
June 4, 1811; later in French, Italian, 
and English versions. The story, 
taken from the " Arabian Nights," re- 
lates how Abu Hassan and Fatima, his 
wife, feign death to extort money 
from Haroim al Raschid and Zobeide. 

Abyngdon (Henry) remembered 
as the friend of Sir Thomas More, who 
wrote his epitaph ; was organist and 
cantor of Wells Cathedral from Nov. 
24, 1447, until his death, Sept. 1, 

Abwechselnd. Ger. Alternating, 
as from one organ manual to another. 

Abweichung. Ger. Variant. 

Abzug. Ger. To lift bow or finger, 
or slide with the finger. 

Academie de Musique exercised a 
profound influence upon French music 
from its establishment, 1669, by let- 
ters patent from Louis XIV, its pur- 
pose being " to present in public opera 
and drama with music, and in French 
verse." Abbe Perrin, Robert Cambert, 
and the Marquis de Sourd<5ac were 
the founders. From the days of LuUy, 
Rameau, and Gluck, the institution 
has fostered the growth of lyric 
drama. It always received a subsidy 
from the government. The various 
etc., are described in their modem 
aspect under tliat title. 

Academie Spirituelle. Fr. Con- 
cert of sacred nuisic. 

Academy of Ancient Music organ- 
ized in London, 1710, by amateurs and 
professionals for practice and study 
and the establishment of a library, 
was disbanded in 1792. While under 
direction of Dr. Pepusch the choirs of 


St. Paul's and the Chapel Royal sang 
at its concerts. 

Academy of Music means, properly 
speaking, an organization of music 
teachers and performers, such as the 
ROYAL ACADEMY, instituted in 
London, 1824. 

Academy of Music (Brooklvn) 
completed in 1908 at a cost of $1,200,- 
000, raised by popular subscription, 
replaces the older building destroyed 
by fire where the Thomas concerts, 
operas, etc., had been given. It in- 
cludes a large and well-appointed 
stage with all modern accessories for 
opera and drama, a symphony hall, 
and a smaller auditorium for chamber 

Academy of Music (New York) 
was built for operatic and concert pur- 
poses, which it admirably fulfilled 
until superseded by the Metropolitan 
Opera House. The first structure, 
opened in 1854, burned in 1866, but 
was rebuilt 1867. 

Academy of Vocal Music merged 
into the King's Concerts of Ancient 
Music after 1731, was formed in Lon- 
don by Dr. Pepusch, Gates, King, 
Green, Gaillard, and Wesley, and gave 
subscription concerts. Bononcini, 
Geminiani, and other distinguished 
musicians were members, although 
Handel does not appear to have 

A or Alia Capella. It. " In church 
style," sung without accompaniment; 
also used for ALLA BREVE. 

A Capriccio. It. At the perform- 
er's fancy. 

Acathistus. Gr. Hymn to the 
Virgin sung in the Greek Church dur- 
ing Lent. 

Accademia. It. Academies for 
the cultivation of the arts and sciences 
which had their birth in the Italian 
renaissance were of great service in 
diffusing knowledge. The earliest 
devoted exclusively to music were 
founded in Bologna, 1482, and in 
Milan, 1484. 

Accarezzevole. It. Flatteringly. 

Accarezzevolmente. It. Caress- 

Accelerando or Accelerato. It. 
Increase the speed. 


Accent is the regularly recurring 
special stress by which rhythm is de- 
fined. Normally the primary accent is 
given the first note to the right of the 
bar. In common time there is a 
secondary or sub-accent to the third 
beat, while in compound time lighter 
accents are given the first of each 
group of notes. These normal, gram- 
matical, or metrical accents may be 
reversed, producing what is called 
SYNCOPATION, a device to which 
Beethoven often resorted. Stress for 
poetic or rhetorical efl'ect is given by 
expression signs or by the words sfor- 
zando or tenuto, or by binding an un- 
accented to an accented chord. 

Accentor. Leader of a chorus. 

Accentuare. It. To accent. 

Accentuation. Emphasizing cer- 
tain notes. 

Accentus Ecclesiasticus. L. The 
system by which singers chanting 
church music governed the inflexions 
of their voices on reaching commas, 
semicolons, colons, periods, question 
marks, etc., in lumoted service books. 
There were seven of these accents : im- 
mutabilis, medius, gravis, acutus, 
moderatus, interrogativus, and finalis, 
each having its proper inflexion, 
though usage differed in various 

Accessisten. Ger. Volunteer choir 

Accessory Movements. Organ 
parts not directly connected with 

Acciaccatura. It. Short appogi- 
atura ; ornament obtained by striking 
the note next below that carrying the 
melody, instantly releasing it, and 
sustaining only the melodic note. 

Accidentals are the sharps, flats, 
and naturals employed to raise, lower, 
or restore a tone independently of the 
signature, or sharps and flats grouped 
after the clef to indicate the key 

Accolade. Fr 
several staves of a score 

Accommodare. It. Attuning one 
instrument to accord with another. 

Accompagnamento. It. Accom- 

Accompagnement. Fr. Accom- 

obbligato " 

Brace connecting 


Accompaniment. Part or parts 
added to tlie principal or solo passage 
to enrich or sustain it, or to a con- 
certed piece. Those styled " ad libi- 
tum " may be wholly omitted at dis 
cretion. Those called 
must be performed. 

Accompanist. One who plays ac- 

Accoppiato. It. Coupled. 

Accord. Fr. The notes to which an 
instrument is tuned; a chord. 

Accord a I'Ouvert. Fr. Open 

Accord de Sixte Ajoutee. Fr. 
Chord of the Added Sixth. 

Accordamento. It. In tune. 

Accordanza. It. In tune. 

Accordando. It. Tuning. 

Accordare. It. To tune. 

Accordato. It. Tuned. 

Accordatura. It. Accord. 

Accorder. Fr. To tune. 

Accordeur. Fr. Timer. 

Accordion. A fine reed musical 
instrument invented by Damian of 
Vienna, 1829, consisting of a bellows 
with metal tongues operated by but- 
tons played with either hand, and lat- 
terly capable of the chromatic scale. 
The principle has been applied to the 
concertina and harmonium. 

Accordo. It. Accord; harmony. 

Accordoir. Fr. Tuning key. 

Accresciuto. It. Augmented. 

Acetabulum. L. Instrument of 
percussion anciently made of earthen- 
w^are and struck with a rod. 

Achromatic. Opposed to chromatic. 

Achtelnote. Ger. Quaver. 

Achtelpause. Ger. Quaver rest. 

A Chula. Port. Dance resembling 
the fandango. 

Ach Gott vom Himmel. Luther's 
hymn, a paraphrase on Psalm xi, pub- 
lished in 1524, retains great popular- 
ity in Germany, where it is still sung 
to the melody as given in the Erfurdt 
Enchiridion. Mozart makes use of 
that chorale in the finale to the second 
act of his " Magic Flute." 

Acis and Galatea. Handel's pas- 
toral opera or masque, to text by Gay 
with lyrics by Dryden, Pope, and 
Hughes, was probably composed at 
Cannons in 1720, and first performed 


there the following year. In 1788 
Mozart rescored the work for Van 

A Cinque. Fr. In five parts. 

Acoustics is the science whicli deals 
with sound and the laws which govern 
it. When a tuning fork is struck the 
vibrations of its prongs may be seen 
and felt. Corresponding vibrations or 
sound waves are set up in tlie air, by 
which they are communicated to the 
ear, which in turn conveys the sensa- 
tion of sound to the brain. If the fork 
be struck violently the AMPLITUDE 
of VIBRATION and consequently the 
intensity of the sound will be greater 
tlian if struck gently, but until the 
vibrating prongs have returned to rest 
the sound waves set in motion will be 
periodic and of uniform length. If the 
fork indicate a' of French or Interna- 
tional pitch, these sound waves will be 
propagated at the rate of 435 per 
second. The essential of soimd, by 
which we have come to mean musical 
tone as distinguished from mere noise, 
is regularity of vibration, and whether 
the sound wave is set in motion by 
an elastic string as when open A is 
sounded on the violin; by a reed, as 
when A is intoned on the oboe; by an 
enclosed column of air, as in the case 
of an organ pipe; a given number of 
vibrations per second will always pro- 
duce a tone of the same pitch. The 
quality of a given tone sounded by 
various instruments or voices shows 
wonderful variety, however, due the 
fact that, in addition to the principal 
tone sounded, which alone is audible 
imder ordinary circumstances, higher 
and softer tones appropriately called 
" overtones " or " upper partials " are 
almost invariably produced, blending 
with the principal tone and modifying 
its quality. Thus when an open string 
is set in vibration it produces a prin- 
cipal tone, high or low, in proportion 
to its length, size, and tension, but the 
string divides iiself into several vi- 
brating segments, separated by nodes 
or spots of minimum vibration, and 
these segments vibrating twice, four, 
or six times as rapidly as the entire 
string, produce tlie harmonics called 
overtones. Such open pipe instru- 

' ACT 

ments as the flute give overtones in the 
ratios of 1, 2, 3, and 4. The overtones 
of a closed pipe are in the ratio 1, 3, 
5, 7, and this ratio governs in the case 
of clarinets, which are closed at one 
end by the mouthpiece. The complete 
series of overtones are given by brass 
instruments, and the tones are *f urtlier 
modified in quality by tlie form of the 
tube, the bell, etc. Computation of the 
number of vibrations required for a 
given tone has been made simple and 
certain by the toothed wheel and the 
siren, and it has been established that, 
to the average human ear, apprecia- 
tion of pitch begins with vibrations of 
from eight to 32 per second, and ends 
with 40,000 vibrations per second. 
The octave of any tone may be obtained 
by doubling the number of vibrations 
by which it is produced. Other pro- 
portions need not be given here be- 
cause, with this exception, in equal 
TEMPERAMENT (whereby the oc- 
tave is divided into twelve nearly equal 
semitones) there are no true intervals. 
In theory the intensity of sound dimin- 
ishes with the inverse square of the 
distance from its source, Jbut this loss 
of the volume of tone is counter- 
acted by the use of sounding boards 
and resonators. Volume of tone in 
musical instruments is often magni- 
fied in the same manner. A violin 
string in vibration sounds faint in 
itself, but the vibrations are com- 
municated to the belly of the instru- 
ment by the bridge, and to the back by 
the sounding board, and the tone is 
thus made louder. Sound waves travel 
in air at the rate of 1090 feet per second 
at 32 F. and between one and two feet 
faster per second with every additional 
degree of warmth. They traverse 
water at the rate of 1435 feet per 
second, iron at the rate of 5030 
feet per second. They may be re- 
flected as light waves are, producing 
the phenomena of echoes and whisper- 
ing galleries. 

Act. Natural division in the drama 
was effected by the Greek chorus, but 
in the time of Horace the Act had 
come to be one of five divisions of a 
play, each more or less complete, and 
with its own climax. Wagner favoured 


a three-act division in opera, tlie num- 
ber generally adliered to in German 
and Italian operas. There are usually 
five acts to French classic operas. In- 
stances of one- and two-act operas are 
to be found, however, in every national 

Acte de Cadence. Fr. Chords in- 
troducinf,' a cadpnce. 

Action. Mechanism affecting 
strings, pipes, or stops of an instru- 
ment, and operated by the keyboard. 

Actinophone. An instrument pro- 
ducing sound from actinic rays. 

Act Music. Cantatas composed for 
special occasions at Oxford by pro- 
fessors of music, to words by profes- 
sors of poetry. 

Acton (J. B.) composed vocal music 
and taught. B. Manchester, 186.3. 

Act Tune. Light music played be- 
tween acts in the theatre. 

Acuite. Fr. Acuteness. 

Acuta. It. Sharp. 

Acuta. L. Shrill pitched organ 

Acuta. Accent employed in Greek 

Acutae Claves. L. Tones between 
a and A. 

Acuteness. Tones ha%ing a larger 
number of vibrations are called acute 
as distinguished from those having 
less, which are called grave. 

Adagietto. It. Slightly faster 
than adagio ; a diminutive adagio. 

Adagio. It. Very slow; gives 
name to movements of symphonies, 
etc.; Assai or Di Molto, extremely 
slow ; Cantabile, in singing style ; 
Patetico, with pathos ; Pesante, 
weightily; Sostenuto, in a sustained 

Adam (Adolphe Charles) com- 
and other comic operas highly success- 
ful in their day, taught composition at 
the Conservatoire, collaborated -with 
his teacher Boieldieu in his DAME 
BLANCHE, lost a fortune in attempt- 
ing to establish a Theatre National, 
composed delightful ballet music, but 
failed in grand opera. Born in Paris, 
July 24. 180.3, son of LOUIS, a piano 
teacher at the Conservatoire, he was 


only permitted to take lessons on 
promising his father never to write for 
the stage. He studied organ with 
Benoist, counterpoint with Eler and 
Reicha ; but so far was he from keep- 
ing his early promise that he engaged 
as triangle player at the Gynmase in 
order to master the technique of the 
stage. It was at Boieldieu's suggestion 
that he devoted himself to comic opera. 
" Pierre et Catherine." his operetta, 
was produced at the Opera Comique, 
1829, and the next year, " Danilowa." 
Other works speedily followed, includ- 
ing " Le Chalet," " Le Brasseur de 
Preston," " Le Roi d'Yvetot," " Cagli- 
ostro," " Richard en Palestine," and 
the ballets " Faust," " La jolie fille de 
Gand," and " Giselle." Adam's failure 
as manager may have been due to the 
Revolution of 1848, which broke out 
less than a year after his opening. 
Five years of his life were manfully 
given to paying debts incurred in this 
disaster, and during this period he 
wrote reviews and stories for the news- 
papers. He became a member of the 
Institute in 1844, was made professor 
at the Conservatoire, 1849, died May 
3, 18.56. 

Adam (Louis) taught Kalkbren- 
ner, the TIrrokls. Le Mnine. Chaulieu, 
his own son Charles Adolphe, while 
professor at the Paris Conserva- 
toire, wrote " Methode de Doigte " 
and " IM^thode Nouvelle pour le 
Piano"; was a distinguished pianist, 
though self taught. B. IMlittersholz, 
Alsace, Dec. 3, 1758; d. Paris, April 
II, 1848. 

Adam(de Fulda) composed motets, 
and in 1490 wrote a tract published 
in " Scriptores eccles. de Mus. Sacr." 
(Gerbert von Hornan), wherein he 
praises Guilielmus Dufay as the first 
to compose in formal style. B. 1450; 
Franeonian monk. 

Adam (de la Hale) wrote " Le jeu 
de la feuillee," performed at Arras, 
France, 1262, and " Le jeu de Robin et 
]\Iarion," performed at Naples, 1285, 
now regarded as the earliest types of 
comic opera. The last named work, 
revived at Arras in June, 1896, at the 
fetes in honour of his memory, has been 
lately published with a modem accom- 


paniment for the songs. In 1872 
Adam's entire works were republished 
by Coussemaker, including a number 
of chansons of which he had written 
both words and music. Destined for 
the church, Adam was drawn away 
for a time by a pretty girl named 
Marie, but in 1263 he took the habit in 
Douai, where he doubtless remained 
until 1282, when he accompanied the 
French army sent against N'aples. 
B. Arras, 1230; d. Naples, 1288. 

Adamberger (Valentin) sang ten. 
and acquired fame as a vocal teacher, 
and was the friend and adviser of Mo- 
zart, who wrote the rule of Belmonte 
for him. B. Munich, July 6, 1743; d. 
Vienna, Aug. 24, 1804. 

Adami da Bolsena (Andrea) wrote 
a history of the Papal chapel, " Osser- 
vazioni per ben regolare il Coro dei 
Cantor i del la Cappella Pontificia." 
B. Bolsena, Italy, Oct., 1663; d. Rome, 
July 22, 1742. 

Adamowski (Joseph) plays 'cello 
in quartet organized by his brother 
Timothee. B. Warsaw; joined Boston 
Symphony Orchestra; m. Antoinette 
Szumowska; add. Boston. Timothee 
organized the Adamowski String Quar- 
tet in Boston, 1888, came to America 
as solo violinist to Clara Louise Kel- 
logg, 1879, later toured with own com- 
pany, played with Boston S,^Tnphony 
Orchestra, teaches New England Con- 
servatory, and composes. B. Warsaw, 
March 24, 1858; add. Boston. 

Adams (Thomas) composed church 
music; organist Carlisle Chapel, Lam- 
beth. B. London, Sept. 5, 1785; d. 
Sept. 15, 1S58. 

Adcock (James) published " Tlie 
Rudiments of Singing " and many 
glees ; master of Choristers, King's 
College, Cambridge. B. Eton, Eng., 
July 29, 1778; d. April 30, 1860. 

Addison (John) composed music to 
" The Sleeping Beauty " and other 
light operas; played 'cello and double- 
bass; taught singing. B. Eng., 1766; 
d. Jan. 30. 1844. 


Additional Accompaniments have 
been written for much of the music 
of the older masters because they 

It. With fingering 


often here resorted to figured bass, anci 
to keep pace with changes in the 

Additional Keys are those em- 
ployed to enlarge an instrument's 
original compass. 

Addolorato. It. Sadly. 

A Demi Jeu. Fr. Half the instru- 
ment's capacity in volume. 

A Deux Mains. Fr. For two 

A Deux Temps. Fr. Common time. 

Adiaphonon, invented in 1820 by 
Schuster, of Vienna, is a piano with 
metal bars instead of strings, which 
remain permanently in tune. 

Adirato. It. Angrily. 

Adjunct Notes. AUXILIARIES. 

Adler (Guido) became professor of 
music. University of Vienna, 1898, 
succeeding Hanslick; edited Fro- 
berger anew, 1903; editor-in-chief 
" Denkmiiler der Tonkunst in Oester- 
reich " since 1894. B. Eibensehiitz, 
Moravia, Nov. 1, 1855; add. Vienna. 

Adlgasser (Anton Cajetan) was 
attached to Salzburg Cathedral, cele- 
brated as organist and contrapuntist. 
B. Inzell, Bavaria, April 3, 1728; d. 
Dec. 21, 1777. 

Ad Libitum. L. At pleasure. 

Adlung (Jacob) wrote valuable 
books on the organ, which instrument 
he played and taught. B. Binders- 
leben, Erfurt, Jan. 14, 1699; d. July 
5, 1762. 

Adolfati (Andrea) composed much 
church music and many operas, " La 
Clemenza di Tito," " L'Artaserse," etc., 
and conducted in Venice and Genoa. 
B. Venice, 1711. 

Adornamento. It. Adornment or 

Ad Placitum. L. Free part added 
to strict canon. 

Adrien or Andrien (Martin Jo- 
seph "I'aine") sang bass at the Paris 
Opera from 1785 to 1804, and com- 
posed " Hymn R la Victoire," etc., 
chorusmaster at the Opera and teacher. 
B. Liege, May 26, 1767; d. Nov. 19, 
1824. His brother published collec- 
tion of songs in Paris about 1802, 
and Ferdinand, a second brother, com- 
posed songs and, from 1798 to 1800, 
was choirmaster at the Opera. 

A DUE ! 

A Due. It. Indicates on a score 
where two parts for voices or instru- 
ments are on one stave they sound in 
unison. A division is indicated by the 
term DIVISI ; Corde, for two strings ; 
Stromenti, two instruments; Voci, 
two voices. 

A Dur. Ger. A major. 

Aelsters (Georges Jacques) wrote 
much church music, including " Mis- 
erere," still used; directed at St. Mar- 
tin's, Ghent, fifty years. B. Ghent, 
1770; d. April 11, 1849. 

Aengstlich. Ger. Timidly. 

Aeolian Harp first described in 
Kircher's Musurgia; is an instrument 
acted on by the wind, hence named for 
Aeolus, the wind god, possibly in- 
vented by Kircher. Six or more 
strings are attached to a shallow 
wooden box to give resonance, passed 
over bridges and tuned in unison, and 
these, set in vibration by air currents 
passing over them, give the tones of an 
open string with its harmonics or over- 
tones, shifting with the pressure, and 
of wonderfully sweet, pure quality. 

Aeolian Mode was fifth in the 
series of MODES of the GREGORIAN 

Aeolian Organ is one equipped 
with the mechanical device for auto- 
matic playing on the principle of the 
PIANOLA, in which the performer 
largely controls expression and tempo 
and stops. The keys are operated 
through the action of a bellows at- 
tachment and by means of rolls of 
paper with perforations for the notes. 

Aeolina or Mouth Organ or mouth 
harmonica, invented by Messrs. Wheat- 
stone, 1829, consists of metal plates 
enclosing free reeds ; a favourite musi- 
cal toy with children in all countries. 

Aeolodion or Aeolodicon, invented 
probably by Eschenbach of Hamburg, 
is an instrument of the harmonium 
family in which the tone is produced 
from steel springs. First known about 
1800, it has been variously modified as 
Aeolomelodicon and Choraleon, but 
though useful for accompanying the 
voice, has become obsolete. 

Aerts (Egidius) played and taught 
flute at the Brussels Conservatory; 
eomposed for orchestra and flute. B. 


Boom, near Antwerp, Mar. 1, 1822; 
d. Brussels, June 9, 1853. 

Aequisonae Voces. L. Tones and 
tlieir octaves or super octaves. 

Aevia. An abbreviation by elision 
of consonants of Alleluia much used in 
ancient church music. 

Affabile. It. Affable. 

Affannato. It. Distressingly. 

AfEannosamente. Restlessly. 

Affannoso. It. Sadly. 

Afifetto, con. It. With affection. 

AfEettuoso. It. With feeling. 

Affinity. Relative connection, as 
between keys of affinity. 

Affilard, V (Michel) wrote a valu- 
able work on sight singing, and sang 
ten. at the court of Louis XIV for a 
quarter of a century beginning 1683. 

Afflizione, con. It. With affliction. 

Affrettando. It. Hurrying, with 

A Fofa. Port. Portuguese dance 
like the FANDANGO. 

Afranio (Canon) invented the bas- 
soon, according to best authorities. 
B. Pavia, Canon of Ferrara, 16th 

Africaine. Giacomo Meyerbeer's 
opera in five acts to text by E. Scribe 
is one of the latest of that master's 
works, not having been completed until 
the year of his death, although begun 
1838, and was first performed April 28, 
1865, at the Academic, Paris. The pro- 
tagonist of the work, which is pseudo- 
historic, is Vasco da Gama, the Portu- 
guese navigator. Tlie curtain rises on 
the royal council chamber in Lisbon. 
Donna Inez, who loves Vasco, has been 
called by her father. Admiral Diego, to 
hear that her hand had been promised 
Don Pedro, a counsellor of the king's ; 
and when she has been told that Vasco 
has perished at sea, she hurries away, 
with Anna, her maid, just as the 
council assembles. Vasco unexpectedly 
appears before the council, describes 
the wreck at the Cape of Storms, which 
he alone survived, and begs for a ship 
in which to continue his explorations. 
Selika and Nelusko, slaves he has pur- 
chased in Africa, are produced as evi- 
dence of unknown countries ; but they 
refvise to answer questions ; Vasco 
quarrels with the Grand Inquisitor*, 


and is thrown into the prison of the from beneath the shade of the deadly 
Inquisition, liis slaves with him. Se- Munzanilla tree, and as Nelusko comes 
lika, a queen in her own country, is to her she dies, and her faithful ser- 
loved by Nelusko, who tries to kill vant dies with her. The original cast 
Vasco but is prevented by Selika. She was: Selika, Marie Saxe, sop.; Inez, 
then tells the explorer how her island Marie Batte, sop. ; Anna, con. ; Vasco, 
home can be reached. As Vasco ex- Naudin, ten.; Nelusko, Faure, bass; 
presses his gratitude, Don Pedro and Don Pedro, Belval, bass; Don Diego, 
Inez enter with his pardon. Diego is bass; Don Alvar, bass; High Priest, 
commissioned to make the exploration Obin, bass; Grand Inquisitore, bass. 
Vasco has planned, and the promise of The principal musical numbers are: 
Inez to become his wife was the condi- Act I : " Del Tago sponde addio," 
tion of Vasco's pardon. Inez suspects Inez; " Tu che la terra adora," and 
that Vasco loves Selika, and to prove " Ribelle, insolente." chorus; Act II: 
her suspicion unfounded he presents "In grembo a me" (slumber song), 
Selika to her. Nelusko undertakes to Selika; " Tranquillo e gia," Vasco; 
serve Don Pedro as pilot, and thus in " Figlia dei Re," Nelusko ; finale, sex- 
the third act most of the characters tet; Act III: " Adamastor, re dell' 
are assembled in the cabin of a ship, onde prof ondo," Nelusko ; Act IV: "O 
Don Alvar warns Pedro that Nelusko Paradiso," Vasco ; " Dove son," Vasco 
is planning treachery, but the warning and Selika; Act V: "Da qui io vedo 
is not regarded. A typhoon arises. Ne- il mar," " O tempio sontuoso," " O 
lusko turns the vessel toward his na- douce extase," Selika. 
five coast, but just then a strange Afzelius (Arvid August) collected 
vessel is sighted. Vasco, who has valuable material regarding Swedish 
hurried after the fleet commanded by national music, edited " Svenska Folk- 
Pedro, knowing the danger of the spot, visor " with Geijer, and wrote his- 
comes aboard to warn his enemy of his torical notes to " Afsked af Svenska 
peril, hoping to save Inez. Pedro Folksharpan." B. Enkoping, May 6, 
orders his luifortunate rival to be tied 1785; d. Sept. 2.5, 1871. 
to a mast and shot. Selika threatens Agazzari (Agostino) wrote on mu- 
unless Vasco's life is spared to kill sical reforms demanded by Coimcil of 
Inez, but she is overpowered. Just Trent; composed masses and madri- 
then the tempest breaks, and before gals ; chapelmaster Sienna Cathedral, 
they have recovered from the panic it B. Dec. 2, 1578, Sienna; d. April 10, 
occasions the vessel is overrun by sav- 1640. 

ages. They recognize their queen in Agevole. It. With agility. 
Selika, and are restrained with diffi- Agevolezza, con. It. Lightly, 
culty from murdering the entire crew. Aggraver la Fugue. Fr. Aug- 
The coronation of Selika takes place in menting the subject fugue, 
the fourth act. The Brahmins demand Agilita, con. It. With agility, 
the lives of the strangers, but to save Agilite. Fr. Perform with light- 
Vasco, Selika swears he is her hus- ness and freedom, 
band, a statement which Nelusko, who Agilmente. It. In lively style, 
loves her more than he hates Vasco, Agitato. It. Restless, agitated, 
confirms. Vasco vows eternal fidelity Agitazione, con. It. With agita- 
to her, but hearing the voice of Inez, tion. 

whom he believed dead, betrays his Agnesi (Louis Ferdinand Leo- 
love for the queen's rival. In the last pold) composed the opera " Harold le 
act Selika has determined to put Inez Norman " and, on its failure, distin- 
to death, but relents on learning how guished himself as bass singer in opera 
she loves Vasco, and directs Nelusko to and oratorio. B. at Erpent, Namur, 
put Inez and Vasco aboard a ship and July 17, 18.33 (real name Agniez) ; d. 
send them home. Unable to survive London, Feb. 2, 1875. 
the absence of the man she adores, Agnesi (Maria Theresa) composed 
Selika watches the ship sail away five operas, several cantatas, and much 


piano music. B. Milan, 1724, sister of Prussia, whose music he arranged; 
Maria Gaetana; d. 1780. studied under Sebastian Bach; wrote 

Agnus Dei. L. " Lamb of God," on musical science and aesthetics. B. 
is part of the music of the MASS. Jan. 4, 1720, Dobitz, Saxony; d. Ber- 

Agostini (Ludovico) wrote music lin. Dec. 1, 1774. 
and words of madrigals and other Agricola (Martin) wrote impor- 
voeal works ; chapelmaster to the tant books on musical science and 
Duke of Este. B. Ferrara, 1534; d. concerning the conflict between tne 
Sept. 20, 1590. old and modem systems of notation ; 

Agoge. Gr. Term applied to writ- sang and taught in Llagdeburg's first 
ing melody by the Greeks, and relat- Protestant school. B. 1500, Sorau, 
ing to the succession and pitch of the Lower Silesia; d. June 10, 1556, 
tones; Rhythmica, succession of ]\Iagdeburg. 

tones in melody as to rhythm and Agricola (Wolfgang Christoph) 
accent. composed motets and masses and 

Agostini (Paolo) composed church "Fasciculus Musicalis." 17th century, 
music, directed at the Vatican Chapel; Agthe (Carl Christian) composed 
played organ at many Roman churches, six operas, songs, and sonatas; played 
B. Valerano, 1593; d. Rome, Sept. orsran. B. Hettstiidt, 1762; d. Ballen- 
1629. stedt. Xov. 27, 1797. 

Agostini (Pietro Simone) com- Agthe (W. J. Albrecht) taught 
posed operas, cantatas, and oratorios; music in Berlin and other cities, num- 
chapelmaster to the Duke of Parma, bering Kullak among his pupils. B. 
B. Rome, 1650. Ballenstedt, April 14, 1790; son of 

Agramonte (Emilio) taught vocal Carl Christian; d. Berlin, Oct. 8, 
music, lectured, composed a " Stabat 1873. 

Mater." B. Puerto Principe. Cuba, Aguado (Dionisio) wrote an excel- 
Nov. 28, 1844; educated in Europe; lent method for guitar and much 
add. since 1868, New York. music for that instrument, on which 

Agrell (Johann Joachim) com- he was a virtuoso. B. Madrid, April 
posed concertos and sonatas; court 8. 1784; pupil of Garcia; d. Dec. 20, 
musician at Cassel and conductor at 1849, Madrid. 

Nuremberg. B. Loth, Sweden, Feb. 1, Aguilera de Heredia (Sebastian) 
1701; d. Nuremberg, Jan. 19, 1765. composed Magnificats for from four 

A Grand Choeur. Fr. For grand to eight voices still sung in Spanish 
chorus. churches; directed music at Sara- 

A Grand Orchestre. Fr. For grand gossa Cathedral. Spanish monk, 17th 
orchestra. century. 

Agremens. Fr. Grace notes, trills, Agujari (Lucrezia), called " La 
turns, and other embellishments indi- Bastardina " or " Bastardella," pos- 
cated by small notes or signs. sessed the extraordinary range of 

Agricola (Alexander) composed three octaves from middle C, sang in 
church music, much of which is still opera with great success, winning high 
in manuscript; symphonist to King praise from Mozart, and at the Pan- 
Philip of Spain. B. Belgium, 1446; theon concerts, receiving $500 for two 
d. Valladolid, 1506. songs when in her prime, " the highest 

Agricola (George IiudTvig) com- price for the highest tones " of her 
posed " Musikalisclie Nebenstunden " ; generation. B. Ferrara, 1743, studied 
chapelmaster at Got ha. B. Grosscn- under Abbe Lambertini ; debut, Flor- 
Furra, Thuringia, Oct. 25, 1643; d. ence, 1764; married Colla, the com- 
Gotha, Feb. 20; 1676. poser. 1780; d. :\ray 18. 1783. Parma. 

Agricola (Johann) composed three Ahle (Johann Rudolph) composed 
collections of motets, taught in Erfurt church music, the hymn "Liebster Jesu 
G.vmnasium. B. Nuremburg, 1570. wir sind hier " still popular in Thu- 

Agricola (Johann Eriedrich) com- ringian Protestant churches; wrote a 
posed for Frederic the Great of successful book on singing. B. Miikl- 




hausen, Dec. 24, 1625; d. July 8, 1673. 
Johann Georg composed liymns and 
was poet laureate to Emperor Leo- 
pold I. B. 1G50; son of JOHANN 
RUDOLPH; d. Dec. 2, 1700. 

Ahlstroem (Olof) edited collection 
of Swedish folk music, composed and 
played organ. B. Aug. 14, 1756, 
Sweden; d. Aug. 11, 1835. 

Ahna, de (Heinrich Karl Her- 
mann) led the Berlin royal orchestra, 
taught in the Hochschule and played 
second violin in Joachim quartet. B. 
June 22, 1835, Vienna; d. Nov. 1, 1892, 

Ahna, de (Eleanora) sang mez. 
sop. roles at Berlin opera. B. Jan. 8, 
1838; d. May 10, 1865. 

Aiblinger (Johann Caspar) failed 
with his only opera, " Rodrigo e 
Chimene," but composed church music 
still popular with Catholics of south- 
ern Germany; conducted Munich 
opera, 1823; collected ancient classic 
music, now in Munich Bibliothek. B. 
Feb. 23, 1779, Wasserburg, Bavaria; 
d. May 6, 1867. 

Aichinger (Gregor) composed 
church music in the Venetian style. 
B. 1565; entered the Church, studied 
in Rome; d. Jan. 21, 1628. 

Aida. Giuseppe Verdi's four-act 
opera to words by Antonio Ghislanzoni 
was composed at the request of the 
Khedive of Egypt and first performed 
during the festivities attending the 
opening of the Suez Canal at the Cairo 
Opera House, Dec. 24, 1871, and the 
following year at Milan. The scene is 
laid in Memphis and Thebes in the 
time of the Pharaohs. Ramfis, High 
Priest of Isis, tells Radames, the 
Egyptian general, that the Ethiopians 
have again broken into revolt, at 
which the soldier rejoices, for he hopes 
to lead the army to victory and thus 
claim as reward Aida, an Ethiopian 
captive who has become the companion 
of Amneris, daughter of Egypt's king. 
A messenger announces that'the Ethio- 
pians are led by their king Amonasro, 
Ramfis declares that Isis has chosen 
Radamos to defend the country, and 
the young general is taken to tlie 
temple to receive the consecrated arms 
and invoke the goddess' blessing. In 

the next act Amneris, by pretending 
that Radames has been killed in battle, 
forces Aida to confess her love, but aa 
she threatens vengeance, the army is 
heard returning in triumph. As the 
victors are welcomed, Aida recognizes 
among the captives Amonasro, her 
father, and Ethiopia's king. Amon- 
asro warns her not to betray his rank, 
and, despite the clamour for their 
death, Radames obtains Pharaoh's 
promise that all tlie prisoners sha'l 
live, though Amonasro is to remain 
in captivity with Aida. Pharaoh an- 
nounces that he will reward Radames 
by giving him Amneris. In the third 
act, Amonasro, having discovered the 
mutual love of Radames and Aida, 
forces her to learn from Radames the 
plan of his next campaign. When he 
has done this, Amonasro discovers 
himself, and urges Radames to have 
recourse to flight, the only outcome of 
the dilemma into which he has been 
draA\Ti. Radames agrees, but Amneris, 
who has been praying for the love of 
Radames in a nearby temple, sur- 
prises them, and, although Amonasro 
and Aida escape, Radames remains 
captive to the High Priest. In the 
final act Radames has been condemned 
as a traitor, to be burned alive, but 
Amneris offers to save him if he will 
renounce Aida. He refuses, and the 
scene changes so as to represent not 
only the hall of judgment, but the vault 
beneath the altar in which Radames 
is to be immured. Aida has managed 
to hide herself in a recess of the 
vault, and together she and Radames 
bid farewell to life. In the temple 
above, the priests are chanting, priest- 
esses are dancing the sacred rites, and 
Amneris, who had repented of her 
jealousy and tried to save Radames 
when it was too late, utters a prayer 
for his eternal happiness. The best 
known musical numbers are: Act I: 
" Ah Celeste Aida," Radames, ten. ; 
"Retorna vincitor " and "Numi,pieta," 
Aida, sop.; Act II: "Alia pompa," 
Amneris, con., and Aida ; " Questa 
assisa," Amonasro, bar.; "Gloria all' 
Egitto," tutti; Act III: "O cieli az- 
zurri," Aida; " Rivedro le foreste," 
Amonasro ; " Fuggiam gli ardori," 

AIGU 13 

Aida; Act IV: "Chi ti salva," Am- 
beris, " Ohimfe morir mi sento," Amne- 
ris ; " O terra addio," Radames and 

Aigu. Fr. Slirill, acute. 

Aimon (Pamphile Leopold Fran- 
gois) composed " Michel et Christine," 
performed with great success in 1821, 
six other operas, much chamber music ; 
conducted IMarseilles theatre orchestra 
at 17. B. L'lsle, near Avignon, Oct. 4, 
1779; d. Feb. 2, 1866, Paris. 

Air. Melody or tune. 

Ais. Ger. A sharp. 

A'Kempis (Nicholas) composed 
three books of symphonies and played 
organ at Ste. Gudule's church, Brus- 
sels, 1628. 

Akeroyde (Samuel) composed 
many popular English songs, 17th 

Akkord. Ger. Chord. 

A la. Fr. In the manner of. 

Al, Air, Alia. It. In the manner 

Ala (Giovanni Battista) played 
organ in Milan churches and com- 
posed operas and sacred music. B. 
Monza, 1580; d. 1612. 

Alabiev (Alexander Nicolavich) 
composed " The Nightingale," nearly 
100 songs, vaudevilles. B. Aug. 30, 
1802. Moscow; d. 1852. 

Alard (Delphin) wrote an excel- 
lent " Violin School " ; succeeded Bail- 
lot as professor of violin at the Paris 
Conservatoire, 1843; was among the 
foremost virtuosi of his dav. B. Bay- 
oniie, Mar. 8, 1815; d. Paris, Feb. 22, 

Alamoth. Eeh. Biblical music 
term occurring in Psalm Ixviii, and of 
unknown meaning. 

Alarum, All ' Arm. It. A call 
to arms. 

Albani (Mathias) made violins 
modelled on those of Stainer, whose 
pupil he was. B. Botzen, 1621 ; d. 
Botzen, 1673. Mathias made violins, 
the best of which nearly equal those 
of the Amatis, with whom he studied 
after a long apprenticeship with 
MATHIAS, his father. B. Botzen; 
d. Rome. 

Albani (Marie L. C. E. Lajeu- 
nesse) sang sop. in opera and oratorio 


with very great success, her roles 
varying from Lucia to Isolde. B. Nov. 
1, 1850, Chambly, near Montreal, sang 
in Cathedral, Albany, N. Y., studied 
with Duprez, Paris, Lamperti, Milan; 
debut in " Sonnambula " at Messina, 
1870, under name Albani, suggested by 
Lamberti; m. Ernest Gye, 1878; add. 

Albeniz (Isaac) wrote " The Magic 
Opal," comic opera, 1893, "Enrico 
Clifford " and " Pepita Jimenez," per- 
formed at Barcelona, 1894 and 1895; 
played piano. B. May 29, 1861, Com- 
prodon, Spain. D. 1900, Cambo. 

Albeniz (Pedro) conducted music 
at Cathedrals of San Sebastian and 
Logrono ; wrote church music and 
book of solfeggi. B. Biscay, 1755; 
entered the Church ; d. 1821. 

Albeniz (Pedro) wrote piano 
method in use at Madrid Conserva- 
toire, 70 piano compositions, and 
songs; secretary to the Queen of 
Spain, 1847. B. Logrono, April 14, 
1795; d. Madrid, April 12, 1855. 

Albergati (Count Pirro Capacelli) 
composed operas, cliurch and instru- 
mental music, while in service of Em- 
peror Leopold I. B. Bologna, 1663; 
d. 1735. 

Albert (Heinrich), " Father of the 
German Lied," was poet, organist, and 
composer, and aided in establishing 
German opera, although his " Como- 
dien Musik," as well as the " Daphne," 
composed by his uncle, H. Schiitz, re- 
garded as the earliest German operas, 
are both lost. First trained in music 
by Schiitz, he became a pupil of Sto- 
biius in later life. " Gott des Himmels 
und der Erden " is one of the many 
hymns still sung for which he wrote 
both words and music, and his secular 
songs, published under royal and im- 
perial patronage, were widely circu- 
lated. B. Lobenstein, Saxony, June 
28, 1604; d. Oct. 6, 1651, Konigsberg. 

Albert (Prince) used the influence 
of his position as consort to Queen Vic- 
toria to advance the cause of music in 
every way; composed songs, church 
music, and an opera; directed the 
Ancient Concerts; introduced many 
great works to England, among them 
Schubert's symphony in C, and Wag- 




ner's " Loliengrin." B. Rosenau, Co- 
burg, Aug. 2G, 1819; m. Feb. 10, 1840; 
d. Dec. 14, 18G1. 

Albert, d' (Charles Louis Na- 
poleon) composed dance music, was 
ballet master at Covent Garden, and 
taught dancing. B. Feb. 25, 1809; son 
of a French cavalry captain; d. Lon- 
don, May 2G, 1886. Eugene Erancis 
Charles composed " Der Rubin," 
1893; '• Ghismonda," 1895; "Gemot," 
1897; "Die Abreise," 1898; a sym- 
phony, cantatas, overtures, piano con- 
certos, and chamber music; in earlier 
life was regarded as one of the greatest 
of pianists. Son of CHARLES LOUIS 
NAPOLEON, b. Glasgow, April 10, 
1804; young d'Albert studied first 
with his father, then with Pauer, 
Stainer, Prout, and Sullivan, complet- 
ing his technical training under Liszt. 
In 1892 he married Teresa Carreno, 
but they were divorced in 1895, the 
year in which d'Albert accepted the 
post of chapelmaster at Weimar. 
D'Albert has since married Hermine 
Fink, the singer. " Tragabaldas," or 
" The Borrowed Husband," produced 
at Hamburg, Dec. 3, 1907, his comic 
opera, was a flat failure. " Tiefland," 
or " The Lowland," a serious work 
of the realistic school, was a dis- 
tinct success in Berlin later in the 
season, and was repeated in Dresden, 
etc. In the summer of 1908 d'Albert 
began an Indian opera to be called 
" Izeyl." 

Albertazzi (Emma) sang con. at 
Madrid, Paris, Milan, and London. B. 
May 1, 1814; maiden name Howson; 
m. at 17; d. Sept. 25, 1847. 

Albert! Bass. An accompaniment 
of broken chords or arpeggios so called 
from its reputed inventor, DOMEN- 

Alberti (Domenico) played piano, 
sang; employed the bass formula 
named for him; pupil of Lotti. B. 
Venice, 1707; d. Formio, 1740. 

Alboni (Marietta) Rossini's only 
piipil, became the greatest con. singer 
of the last century. B. Cesena, Ro- 
magna. Mar. 10, 1823; debut at La 
Scala, Milan, 1843; m. Count A. 
Pepoli, 1854, afterwards residing in 
Paris; d. June 23, 1894. 

Albrechtsberger (Johann Georg) 
taught Beethoven, Hummel, Weigl, 
Eybler, Mosel, and Seyfried; court 
organist and director at St. Stephen's, 
Vienna; composed and wrote on the- 
ory. B. Feb. 3, 1736, Klosterneu- 
burg, near Vienna; d. Vienna, Mar. 
7, 1809. 

Albumblatt. Ger. Album piece. 

Alceste. Christoph Willibald 
Gluck's three-act opera to book by 
Calzabigi was first performed Dec. 16, 
1767, at Vienna. The " Epitre Dedi- 
catoire," in which Gluck explains his 
convictions regarding operatic form, 
is contained in this work, which 
may be said to mark the begin- 
ning of the revolution against de- 
generate Italian form. The work was 
given in Paris in 1776, and was re- 
vived in that city in 1861, Mme. 
Pauline Viardot singing the leading 

Alchymist. Ludwig Spohr's opera 
to text by Pfeiffer, founded on a 
Spanish tale by Washington Irving, 
was first performed at Cassel in hon- 
our of the Elector's birthday, July 28, 

Alcock (John) composed vocal, 
harpsicliord, and church music; or- 
ganist and chorusmaster, Lichfield 
Cathedral. B. April 11, 1715, London; 
d. Lichfield, 1806. John composed 
songs and anthems; church organist. 
B. 1740; son of JOHN; d. Mar. 30, 

Alday (Paul) wrote popular violin 
music, on wliich instrument he was an 
expert performer; founded music 
school in Dublin. B. 1764, pupil of 
Viotti; d. Dublin, 1835. An elder 
brother, b. 1763, wrote a useful method 
for violin, played both mandolin and 
violin, and established a music busi- 
ness in Lyons. Their father, b. in 
Perpignan, 1737, was a mandolin 
player of note. 

Aldrich (Henry) composed church 
music and collected large musical li- 
brary bequeathed to Christ Church, 
Oxford, of which he was Dean. B. 
1047; d. Jan. J9, 1710. 

Aldrich (Richard) wrote music 
reviews for tlie New York Times, pre- 
pared volume on Schumann and edited 




series of nuisical biograpliies, con- 
tributed to magazines. 13. Providence, 
R. I., July 31, 18U.3; graduated from 
Harvard; studied under J. K. Paine; 
critic Providence Journal; associate 
critic New York Tribune; collabora- 
tor with H. E. Krehbiel in " History 
of the Philharmonic Society"; add. 
New York City. 

Aldrovandiui (Giuseppe Antonio 
Vincenzo) composed 1 1 operas and 
" Arnionia Sacra"; member Bologna 
Philharmonic Academy and chapel- 
master to Duke of Mantua. B. Bo- 
logna, 1073. 

Alembert, d' (Jean Le Eond) 
wrote on acoustics and musical topics. 
B. Paris, Nov. 10, 1717; d. Paris, 

Alessandro (Romano) called "della 
Viola " because of his skill on that 
instrument; composed madrigals, 
songs. B. Rome about 1530. 

Alexander Balus. George Frederick 
Handel's oratorio to words by Dr. 
^Morell was first performed at Covent 
Garden, London, Mar. 9, 1748. An 
autograph note on the work states 
that it was begun June 1, 1747, fully 
scored to the end of the second part, 
June 24, and completed July 4 of the 
same year. It was the composer's 
thirteenth oratorio, and the next after 
" Judas Maccabaeus." 

Alexander (Johann or Joseph) 
wrote '"Anweisung fiir das Violoncell," 
a method for the instrument on which 
he was a virtuoso. B. 1770, Duisburg; 
d. 1822. 

Alexander's Feast. George Fred- 
erick Handel's setting of Dryden's 
poem was completed Jan. 17, 1730, 
added to by Newburgh Hamilton, and 
first performed Feb. 1!), 1730, at Co- 
vent Garden, London. Mozart re- 
scored the work. 

Alfieri (Pietro) taught Gregorian 
music at the English College, Rome; 
wrote on plain song and polyphony; 
collected polyplmnic music of the great 
masters. B. Rome, June 2!), 1801; en- 
tered the Church (Camaldulian) ; d. 
June 12. 1863. 

Al Fine. It. "To the end." 

Alfonso und Estrella. Franz 
Schubert's three-act opera to book by 

F. von Schober; first performed at 
Weimar, June 24, 1854; was com- 
pleted Feb. 27, 1822. The overture 
has been played as the prelude to 
" Rosajnunde." 

Alford (John) published his trans- 
lation of Le Roy's work on the lute, 
London, 1508. 

Algarotti (Count Francesco) 
wrote a work pointing out defects in 
opera and describing an ideal theatre 
( 1 755 ) prophetic of Bayreuth. B. 
Venice, Dec. 11, 1712; d. Pisa, May 3, 

Aliani (Francesco) wrote three 
books of duets for 'cellos, taught and 
played 'cello. B. Piacenza, 1820. 

All Baba. Luigi Cherubini's opera, 
first produced July 22, 1833, at the 
Grand Opera, Paris; was built up 
in part from his " Faniska " and 
'■ Aohille " with a new overture to li- 
bretto adapted from his " Koukourgi." 

Aliprandi (Bernardo) composed 
operas ; directed Miurich court or- 
chestra. B. Tuscany about 1710. 
Bernardo composed for and played 
'cello. Son of BERNARDO. 

Aliquot Tones. Overtones or 

A Livre Ouvert. Fr. At sight. 

Alkan (Charles Henry Valentin 
Morhange) played and composed 
etudes and caprices for piano and 
taught. B. Paris, Nov. 30, 1813; d. 
Mar. 29, 1888. 

Alia Breve. It. Quick common 
time, also called A CAPELLA from 
having been employed in ancient 
church music. 

Allacci (Leone) published " Drama- 
turgia " in Rome, 1066, which contains 
names of all Italian operas to that 
date. B. Chios, 1586; custodian Vat- 
ican Library; d. Jan. 19, 1069. 

Alia Caccia. It. Hunting style. 

Alia Camera. It. Like chamber 

Alia Capella. It. 

Alia Diritta. It. 

Alia Hanacca. It. Like a polonaise. 

Alia Marcia. It. March style. 

Alia Mente. It. Obsolete har- 
monic system of thirds and fifths, 
based on plain song. 

With direct 


Alia Militare. It. Military style. AUonger FArcliet. Fr. Length- 

Alla Moderna. It. In modern eniiig the bow stroke, 

manner. All 'Ottava. It. Indicates music 

Air Antico. It. " In ancient to be performed an octave higher or 

style." lower than written. 

Alia Russo. It. Russian style. All 'Unisono. It. In unison. 

AUargando. It. Increased volume Almahide. Tlie first opera to be 

and dignity with decrease in time. sung in England wholly in Italian 

Alia Scozzese. It. Scotch style. (Jan., 171U), anonymous, but in Bon- 

Alla Siciliana. It. Sicilian style, oncini's style; was performed the 

Alia Zoppa. It. SYNCOPATED, year of Handel's arrival in London, at 

Allegranti (Maddelena) sang sop. the Haymarket. 

in opera and oratorio from debut, Almenrader (Karl) improved and 

Venice, 1771 to 1799. played bassoon, for which he also com- 

Allegramente. It. Gaily. posed. B. Oct. 3, 1786, Ronsdorf, near 

AUegrettino. It. Slower than Diisseldorf; d. Sept. 14, 1843. 

allegretto. Alpenhorn or Alphorn used by 

Allegretto. It. Slower than al- Swiss and other mountaineers; is 

legro but faster than andante. constructed of wood and bark and 

Allegri (Gregorio) composed a fa- gives only the tube's open tones and 

mous Miserere for the Sistine Chapel, liarmonics. 

where he was a singer. B. 1580, Alphabet. The letters used in 

Rome; entered the Church; d. Feb. music as they occur in the natural 

IS, 1652. scale are C, D, E, F, G, A, B. The 

Allegro. It. " Cheerful." Quick oldest harps and shepherd pipes are 
tempo between andante and presto, believed to have had seven tones, to 
generally modified by other musical which the Greeks gave the names of 
terms. letters, A being the lowest. Greek no- 
Alleluia. L. Latin form of Hebrew tation became highly complicated with 
Hallelujah, which means " Praise ye the development of the MODES and 
the Lord." Pope Gregory the Great changed 

Allemande. Fr. Slow dance in church notation, again employing the 

common time popular in France from first seven letters, indicating the lower 

the reign of Louis XIV to that of octave by capitals, and the upper by 

Napoleon; movement in early suites small letters. Notes were gradually 

and sonatas; the Deutscher Tanz in added to the lower A, and when the 

triple time; a German folk dance in modern SCALE was adopted in the 

2-4 time. 16th century, the lowest tone had be- 

Allen (Henry Robinson) com- come C instead of A. In addition, 

posed " The Maid of Athens " and Germans use H for B natural, B for 

other popular ballads ; sang bass opera B flat. 

roles with success. B. Cork, 1809; d. Al Rigore di Tempo. It. In strict 

Nov. 27, 1876. time. 

Allentamento. It. Slowing down, Al Segno. It. To the sign. 

Allentato. It. Retarding. Alsager (Thomas Massa) pro- 

Al Loco. It. Cancels direction to moted chamber music, etc. B. Chesh- 

play an octave higher or lower. ire, 1779; d. London, Nov. 15, 1846 

Allison (Richard) composed a ver- Alt. Ger. Alto, high. Notes in 

sion of Psalms for four voices with alt begin with g above the treble 

accompaniment (1599), part songs, staff; those an octave higher are in 

taught music in London during Eliza- altissimo. 

beth's reign. Alta. It. High, higher. 

Allison (Robert) sang in Chapel Altenburg (Johann Casper) be- 

Royal, Eng., for twenty years, giv- came famous as trumpeter; d. 1761. 

ing way to Humphrey Bache, Feb. 8, Johann Ernst wrote a book on the 

1609. trimipet, on which he was a celebrated 




performer. B. 1730, Weissenfels, son 
of Johann Casper; d. ^lay 14, 1801, 

Altenburg (Michael) composed 
and arranged cliurch music. B. May 
27, 15S4, Alach, near Erfurt; pastor 
at Erfurt; d. Feb. 12, 1040. 

Alterata. L. Scales containing 
notes other than those in church 

Alteratio. L. In obsolete nota- 
tion, doubling length of a note. 

Alterato. It. Altered or augmented. 

Altere. Fr. Altered. 

Alternamente. It. Alternating. 

Alternative. It. A trio; a pas- 
sage which may be played two 

Altgeige. Ger. The VIOLA. 

Altieramente. /*. Proudly. 

Altisono. It. High sounding. 

Altissimo. It. Highest. 

Altista. It. Alto singer. 

Altes (Ernest Eugene) conducted 
at Paris Opera, 1879-1887; played 
violin in Conservatoire orchestra ; 
composed. B. Mar. 28, 1830, Paris; d. 
July, 1899. Joseph Henri won celeb- 
rity as flautist. B. Rouen, 1826, 
brother of ERNEST EUGENE; d. 
Paris 1895. 

Althorn. Tenor of the SAXHORN. 

Altnikol (Johann Christoph) 
plajsd organ and composed, studied 
with Sebastian Bach, whose daughter 
Elizabeth J. F. he married. B. Berna; 
d. Naumberg, July, 1759. 

Alto. It. The highest male voice 
or counter tenor, extended to include 
the falsetto tenor register, sung by alti 
natural i or castrati. The term is 
less properly applied to low voices 
of boys and CONTRALTO voices of 

Alto Basso. //. Obsolete Venetian 
stringed instrument. 

Alto Viola. It. The VIOLA. 

Altra Volta. It. Obsolete syno- 
nym for encore. 

Alvary (Max) achieved fame as 
singer of Wagnerian ten. roles. B. 
Diisseldorf, May 3, 1858; son of An- 
dreas Achenbach; d. Nov. 7, 1898, 

Alwood (Richard) composed church 
music, 16th century. 

Alzamento di Mano. It. Up beat 
of the hand in conducting. 

Alzando. Jt. Raising, elevating. 

Amabile. It. Lovely. 

Amabilita, con. It. Gently, 

Aniarevole. It. Sad. 

Amarezza, con. It. With sadness. 

Aniarissiniamente. It. Very 

Amarissimo. It. In mournful 

Amateur. Fr. One who devotes 
himself to art for the love of it, not 
for pay. 

Amati. Celebrated Cremonese fam- 
ily of violin makers, of patrician 
origin, whose instruments are among 
the best in the world to-day, and who 
may be said to have fixed the form of 
that instrument. Andrea made vio- 
lins, tenors, and cellos, probablv 
studied with GASPAR DA SALO or 
MAGGINl. B. 1520; d. 1011. Nicolo, 
his younger brother, made basses from 
1568 to 1035. Antonio, son of An- 
drea, improved on his father's work, 
1550-1038; and Geronimo, his 
brother, developed instruments of su- 
perior qualityand larger pattern, 1551- 
1035. Nicolo, son of Geronimo, with- 
out altering the Amati model, improved 
the qualities of his instruments, and 
was the teacher of ANDREA GUAR- 
He made tenors and 'cellos, and a 
larger type of violins now called 
"Grand Amatis." B. Sept. 3. 1500; 
d. Aug. 12, 1684. Geronimo, son of 
Nicolo, was the last and lenst im- 
portant of the family. B. 1649; d. 

Amber Witch. W. V. Wallace's 
four-act romantic opera to text by 
H. F. Chorlev. was first produced in 
London. Feb.' 28. 1861. 

Ambira. African cylindrical drum 
with wood or iron vibrating tongues. 
Ambitus. L. The compass of a 
church tone. 

Ambo. Platform from which the 
choir sang in ancient Greek churches. 
Ambrogetti (Giuseppe) sang bTiffo 
roles at Paris and London operas from 
1807 to 1821, and is said to have be- 
come a monk. 




Ambros (August Willielm) wrote 
a history of riiusic regarded as the 
most authoritative in Ciernian, uu- 
merous essays, composed, lectured 
at Prague buiversity. B. Nov. 17, 
1811), Mauth, Bohemia ; d. Vienna, 
June 28, 1870. 

Ambrose, St. (Ambrosius) became 
bishojj of Milan and established the 
form of plain song for use in his ca- 
thedral called Ambrosian. B. Treves, 
333; d. Milan, April 4, 397. 

Ambrosian Chant was promul- 
gated at the cathedral of Milan by St. 
Ambrose, 384, and is characterized as 
highly impressive in the " Confessions 
of St. Augustine," but finally became 
merged in the vast collection of GRE- 
GORIAN plain song, by which only 
it can be judged. It has been believed, 
though unproven, that St. Ambrose 
used only the four " authentic " Greek 
modes, which are included as the first, 
third, fifth, and seventh of those ap- 
proved by St. GREGORY THE 
GREAT. Besides the chant, St. Am- 
brose included in the services a number 
of hymns, among them "Eterna Christi 
munera," and " Veni Redemptor Gen- 
tium," and eight others which he 
wrote himself, thus desers'ing to be 
called "The Father of Christian 

Ambrosian Hymn. The Te Deum 
is so called because its authorship 
has generally been attributed to St. 

Ambubajae. L. Strolling Syrian 

Ambulant. Fr. Strolling musician. 

Ame. Fr. Sound post. 

Amen. Heh. " So be it." 

American Organ or Melodeon. A 
free reed instrument in which the air 
is dra\vn in by suction instead of 
forced out by pumping, as in the har- 
monium. Owing to a difference in the 
reeds, the tone is softer than in the 
harmonium, but more uniform. The 
instruments are often provided with 
two manuals, pedals, and the stops, 
named like those of the organ, dia- 
pason, principal, hautboy, gamba, 
flute, and may be governed by an a\ito- 
matic swell, and the vox humana, 
which gives a tremulous quality. 

Mason & Hamlin, of Jioston, perfected 
the instnuuent about 18UU, although 
its principle was discovered in Paris 
in 1835. 

A Mezza Aria. It. Partaking of 
the nature of both aria and recita- 

Amicis, de (Anna Lucia) sang 
sop. in opera, 17li3, London, to 1789; 
Johann Christian Bach composed for 
her. B. 1740, Naples. 

Amicis, de (Domenico) sang with 
Anna Lucia de Amicis in 1763 in 

Amilie. W. M. Rooke's three-act 
romantic opera to book by J. T. Haines ; 
was produced at Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, Dec. 2, 1837. 

Ammon (Blasius) composed church 
music. B. the Tyrol ; chorister to 
Archdid<e Ferdinand of Austria; 
studied in Venice; became a monk; 
16th century. 

Amner (John) published hymns 
for voices and viols; organist at Ely 
Cathedral until his death, 1641. 

Amner (Balph) sang bass in the 
Chapel Royal, Eng. ; d. Mar. 3, 

A Moll. (ler. A minor. 

Amore, con. li. Lovingly, tenderly. 

A Moresco. It. iNIoorisli style. 

Amorevole. It. Affectionately. 

Amorevoli(Angelo)sang in opera, 
Dresden and London. B. Venice, 
Sept. 16, 1716; d. Dresden, Nov. 15, 

Amoroso. It. Lovingly. 

Amor-Schall. Obsolete horn in- 
vented by Koelbel, 1760. 

Amplitude of Vibration. Dis- 
tance between either end of the jour- 
ney of a vibrating particle and its 
point of rest. 

Ampollosamente. It. Pompous, 

Ampolloso. It. Inflated style. 

Ampoule. Fr. Bombastic. 

Amusement. Fr. Light compo- 

Anabasis. Gr. Succession of as- 
cending tones. 

Anabathmi. Gr. Antiphons in the 
Greek Church for the Psalms called 
Graduals in the Roman, and Songs of 
Degrees in the Anglican. 




Gr. Succession of 

Ancient form of 

descending tones. 

Anakara. Gr. 
kettle drum. 

Anakarista. Gr. Drummer. 

Anacker (August Ferdinand) 
founded tlie Singakademie, Freiberg; 
sang, taught music, composed. B. 
Freiberg, Oct. 17, 1790; d. Aug. 21, 

Anacreon. Luigi Cherubini's two- 
act opera-ballet to text by Mendouze 
was first performed at the Paris Opera, 
Oct. 4, 1803. The overture is still 

Anacreontic Society, composed of 
aristocratic London amateurs, gave 
vocal concerts in the latter part of the 
18th century. 

Analysis published with a concert 
programme is meant to enable ama- 
teurs to follow the music understand- 
ingly. The delightful analyses written 
by Philip Hale for the Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra are examples which 
will be familiar to many, but the prac- 
tice has now spread to Chicago, Cin- 
cinnati, Pittsburg, Philadelphia, New 
York, — in fact wherever symphony 
concerts are regularly performed. 
Professor Thomson, of the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, was first to write 
programme analyses in English, 1841. 
Analyses of particular works in pam- 
phlet form are common everywliere. 
Wagner wrote one on the Ninf^h Sym- 
phony, Liszt on " Tannhauser " and 
" Lohengrin." 

Anapest. Metrical foot composed 
of two short syllables and one long 

Anche. Fr. Reeds used in mouth- 
pieces of woodwind instruments. 

Ancia. It. Reeds. 

Ancient Concerts conducted under 
the auspices of the English court, from 
1776 to June 7, 1848, were valuable as 
a means of diffusing musical knowl- 
edge, and brought together the best 
soloists and orchestras and choruses 
obtainable in London. Twelve con- 
certs were given annually, to which a 
thirteenth was added in support of a 
musical charity. The library accumu- 
lated by the society has become the 
property of the Royal College of Music. 

Andacht, mit. Ger. With devotion. 

Andachtig. Ger. Devotional ly. 

Andamento. It. Fugue subject in 
two contrasted parts; ejjisode. 

Andante. It. Indicates time 
slower than allegretto but faster than 
larghetto; slow movement in sym- 
phony, sonata, or an independent piece. 

Andantino. It. Properly indi- 
cates time slower than andante, but 
has come to mean somewhat faster. 

Andare. It. To move; Diritto, 
directly; In Tempo, in time. 

Ander (Aloys) sang ten. in opera, 
favourite of Meyerbeer. B. Oct. 13, 
1817, at Liebititz, Bohemia; d. War- 
tenberg, Dec. 11. 1804. 

Andersen (Karl Joachim) com- 
posed for flute and orchestra, con- 
ducted palace orchestra, Copenhagen, 
a founder of the Berlin Philharmonic 
Society. B. April 29, 1847, Copen- 
hagen ; add. Copenhagen. 

Anderson (Lucy) first woman 
pianist to play at London Philhar- 
monic concerts, taught Queen Victoria 
and her children. B. Bath, Dec, 
1790; daughter of John Philpot; m. 
George F. Anderson, 1820; d. Dec. 24, 

Andre (Johann) composed thirty 
operatic works, songs; directed music 
at Doebblin Theatre, Berlin; estab- 
lished publishing house at Offenbach; 
founded musical family bearing his 
name. B. Offenbach, Mar. 28, 1741; 
d. June 18, 1799. Johann Anton 
published complete thematic catalogue 
of Mozart's works ; wrote on theory 
and the \iolin; taught and composed; 
improved the business of his father 
JOHANN, by alliance with Senefelder, 
who invented lithography. B. Offen- 
bach, Oct. 6, 1775; d. April 0, 1842. 
Johann August published " Univer- 
sal Lexikon der Tonkunst " of Schlade- 
bach and Bernsdorf. B. INIar. 2, 1817; 
son of JOHANN ANTON; d. Oct. 29, 
1887. Johann Baptist became chapel- 
master to Duke of Bernburg. B. Mar. 
7. 1823; son of JOHANN ANTON; d. 
Dec. 9, 1882. Julius wrote "A Prac- 
tical Organ School." etc. B. June 4, 
1808: son of JOHANN ANTON; d. 
April 17. 1880. Karl August opened 
Frankfort branch of the house of 




Andre, added piano factory called 
"Mozartliaus," published "Pianoforte- 
making, its History, etc.," 1855. B. 
June 15, 1806; son of JOHANN 
ANTON; d. Feb. 15, 1887. 

Andre Chenier. Umberto Gior- 
dano's four-act opera was first per- 
formed in 1890 at La Scala, Milan. 
It is based on incidents in the life of 
Marie Andre Chenier, a French poet 
born at Constantinople, 1762, and 
guillotined July 25, 1794, three days 
before the close of the Terror. After 
serving in the anny and diplomatic 
corps, Chenier had thrown himself 
with enthusiasm into the French Rev- 
ohition, but finally alarmed by its 
excesses, he attacked Robespierre, who 
ordered his imprisonment. The ac- 
tion opens in the year 1789 in the 
Chateau of Count de Coigny. Tlie 
next three acts take place in Paris, 
and the opera closes as Chenier passes 
through the courtyard of the prison 
of St. Lazare on his way to the scaf- 
fold, accompanied by Madeleine de 
Coigny, who has elected to die with 
him. In the revival at the Manhat- 
tan Opera House, New York, 1908, 
M. Bassi sang the name part, and 
Mme. Eva Tetrazzini-Campanini that 
of Madeleine. 

Andreoli (Giuseppe) played double 
bass in La Scala and tavight in Milan 
Conservatory. B. Milan, July 7, 1757; 
d. Dec. 20, 1832. 

Andreoli (Evang'elista) played 
organ and taught at IMirandola. Italy. 
B. 1810; d. June 16, 1875. Guglielnio 
played piano with notable success. B. 
Mii-andola. April 22, 18.35; son of 
EVANGELISTA; d. Nice, Mar. 13, 
1860. Carlo taught piano at Milan 
Conservatory, and played in concert 
with success. B. Mirandola, Jan. 8, 
1840; son of EVANGELISTA; add. 

Andrevi (Francesco) wrote on 
theory, composed chureli music, di- 
rected in Barcelona, Valencia, Seville, 
and Bordeaux. B. Nov. 16, 1786, 
Lerida., Catalonia; d. Barcelona, Nov. 
23. 1853. 

Androt (Albert Augiiste) com- 
posed a Requiem, etc., won y)rix de 
Rome at Paris Conservatoire with 

"Alcyone." B. Paris, 1781; d. Aug. 
19. 1804. 

Anelantemente. It. Ardently. 

Anelanza. It. Short of breath. 

Anemochord. Improved ^olian 
harp invented by Jacob Schnell, Paris, 

Anemometer. Wind gauge. 

Anerio (Felice) composed for Sis- 
tine Chapel. B. Rome, about 1500; 
d. 1630. Giovanni Francesco com- 
posed sacred music in all forms. B. 
Rome, about 15G7, brother of FELICE; 
d. 1620. 

Anesis. Gr. From high to low- 
pitch ; lowering pitch of strings. 

Anet (Baptiste) published yiolin 
sonatas, studied with Corelli, became 
virtuoso violinist. B.Paris; d. Lune- 
ville. 1755. 

Anfangsritornell. Ger. Prelude. 

Anfangsgriinde. Ger. Elemen- 
tary principles. 

Anfossi (Pasquale) composed 46 
operas ; directed music at St. John's 
Lateran, Rome. B. Naples, 1736; d. 
Feb. 1797. 

Angelica. Ger. Vox Angelica. 

Angelique. Fr. Vox Angelica. 

Anglaise. Fr. English ; the Eng- 
lish country dance. 

Anglico. It. English; the Eng- 
lish covmtry dance. 

Anglebert, d' (Jean Henri) be- 
came chamber musician to Louis XIV, 
published " Pieces de Clavecin," Paris, 

Angore. It. Anguish. 

Angosciamento. It. Sorrowfully. 

Angosciosissimamente. It. With 
extreme anguish. 

Anhang. Ger. Coda. 

Anima, con. //. With animation. 

Animato. It. Spiritedly. 

Animosamente. It. Energetically. 

Animuccia (Giovanni) " Father of 
the Oratorio " ; friend of St. Filippo 
Neri ; composed the " Laudi " of which 
oratorio was the development, to be 
sung at the Oratorio of St. Filippo; 
preceded Palestrina as music director 
of the Vatican. B. Florence, about 
1500; d. Rome, 1571. Paolo composed 
madrigals; directed music at the 
Lateran, 1550-52. Brother of GIO- 
VANNI; d. Rome, 1563. 




Anklang. (Jer. Harmony, accord. 
Anklingen. Ger. In tune. 
Anlage. Ger. Sketch or outline. 
Anlaufen. Ger. To swell. 
Anleitung. Ger. Preface or 

Anniuth. Ger. Sweetness, grace. 
Anonner. Fr. To stumble or 

Anna Anialia (Duchess of Saxe- 
Weimar) composed music for Goethe's 
" Erwin und Elmire " and encouraged 
music at her court. B. Brunswick, 
Oct. 24, 1739; d. April 10, 1807. 

Anna Amalia (Princess of Prus- 
sia) composed and played clavier, 
sharing musical taste of her brother 
9, 1723; d. Berlin, Mar. 30, 1787. 

Anna Bolena. Gaetano Donizetti's 
opera, to book by Romani, was first 
performed at INIilan, Dec. 20, 1830, and 
later in other European cities. 

Annibale (Padovano) composed 
church music and madrigals, became 
organist of St. Mark's, Venice, and 
chapelmaster to Archduke Carl of 
Austria. B. Padua, 1527; d. about 

Annibali (Donienico) sang so- 
pranist roles in opera under Handel, 
London, 1736-37. 

Ansatz. Ger. Attack; embouchure. 
Anschlag. Ger. " Touch," as of 
keyed instruments. 

Anschwellen. Ger. Swell. 
Ansingen. Ger. Greeting in song. 
Ansprechen. Ger. Singing or 

Anstimmen. Ger. Sounding or 

Anstimmung. Ger. Sound or 

Answer. Repetition of a theme 
proposed by another voice or instru- 

Antecedent. Fugal theme for imi- 
tation or answer. 

Antegnati (Costanzo) composed 
church music. B. 15.57. of Brescian 
family famous as organ builders in 
15th and 16th centuries. 

Anthems are required to be sung by 
the ritual of the Anglican Church at 
morning and evening prayer by the 
choir, and consist of selections from 

the Psalms, otlicr portions of the 
Scripture, or the Liturgj', set to music 
for solo voice or voices, with or with- 
out organ or instrumental accompani- 
ment. Permission to sing hymns in 
church was issued by Elizabeth early 
in her reign, and the anthem is a 
strictly Englisli development of eccle- 
siastical music, although the Weclisel- 
gesang of the Germans, the Antifona 
of the Italians, and the Antienne of 
the French resemble it, liaving com- 
mon origin in the MOTET. Full an- 
thems are sung wholly by chorus, with 
or without organ accompaniment. 
Verse anthems begin with solo pas- 
sage or verse. Solo anthems are sung 
by solo voice, but with chorus at the 
conclusion, even though only for the 
" Amen." Full and verse anthems 
have passages for solo voices, but begin 
and end with chorus. Instrumental 
anthems are those accompanied by 
other instruments than organ. Nearly 
every English composer and many of 
other nationalities have tried tliis 
form of composition which is, there- 
fore, rich in variety and in treat- 
ment, and reflects with peculiar truth 
the taste of each succeeding gen- 
eration — even that of the Common- 
wealth period, when the anthem was 
reduced to the simplest form of psalm 

Anthema. Gr. IMusic with dancing. 
Anthologium. Gr. Antiphonary 
or antiphons with musical setting. 

Anthropoglossa. Gr. Vox 

Anticipation introduces notes or 
parts of chords before the chord itself 
is sounded. 

Antico. It. Ancient. 

Antienne. Fr. Antiphon ; anthem. 

Antifona. It. Antiphon; anthem. 

Antigone. Felix Mendelssohn's 

music to Sophocles' tragedy, consisting 

of an introduction and seven numbers, 

was first performed at Potsdam, Oct. 

28. 1841. 

Antinorl (Luigi) sang ten. at Lon- 
don opera. 1725-26. B. Bologna, about 

Antiphon. Gr. Originally sounds 
in octaves, was applied to the practice 
which grew up in the church of An- 




tioch, 2d century, of having the Psalms 
sung in alternate verses by distinct 
choirs of men, and of women and chil- 
dren. The term also applies to short 
scriptural sentences sung before and 
after the Psalms or Canticles and ap- 
propriate to the church season ; to col- 
lections of Versicles and Responses; 
to anthems, on the theory that the 
English word was corrupted from the 
Latin antiphona. 

Antiphonal. L. A collection of 
antiphonals; Missarum, to be sung 
at Mass (now called Graduale or Can- 
tatorium) ; Responsoriale, to be sung 
at Hours or Breviary offices. 

Antiquis, d' (Giovanni) edited 
"Villanelle alia Napolitana," Venice, 
l.")74, to which he contributed 

Anwachsend. Oer. Crescendo. 

A Piacere. It. At pleasure as to 

Aperto. It. Use damper pedal. 

Apfelregal. Ger. An obsolete 
organ stop. 

Aplomb. Fr. Steadily. 

A Poco. It. By little ; Piu 
Lento, more slowly; Piu MOSSO, nioie 

Apollo-Lyra. An improved PSALM- 

Apollonicon. An automatic organ 
with 19U0 j)ipes and 45 stops, which 
imitated orchestral instruments, (m 
whicli six performers could play in 
the oidinary way. It was invented 
by John Henry Voiler, of Hesse Darm- 
stailt, and set up in London by Flight 
and Robson, 1817, and employed for 
concert purposes until 1840. 

Apotome. Gr. Major semitone. 

Appassionato. It. With passion 
or feeling. 

Appassionata. Beethoven's superb 
sonata, Op. 57, was so named by the 
publisher, Cranz, or at any rate not 
by Beethoven himself. 

Appenato. It. With suflfering or 

Applicatur. Ger. Fingering. 

Appoggiando. It. Leaning on; 
drawn out. 

Appoggiato. It. Notes which sus- 
pend resolution. 

Appoggiatura. It. "To lean 

upon." An ornamental note, either 
short or long, whicli takes its time 
from the principal note, in the one 
case too brief to be accented, in the 
other played louder than the principal 
note. The same rules apply to double 

Aprile (Giuseppe) sang con. at 
the principal European opera houses ; 
taught Cimarosa and others; wrote 
a system of solfeggi still used, and 
composed songs. B. Apulia, Oct. 29, 
1738; d. 1814. 

A Prima Vista. It. At first sight. 

A Punta d'Arco, It. With the 
bow's point. 

Apthorp (W. Foster) wrote " Hec- 
tor Berlioz," " Opera and Opera 
Singers " ; criticism ; taught theory. 
B. Boston, Oct. 24, 1848; Harvard, 
'69 ; studied with J. K. Paine and B. J. 
Lang; add. Boston. 

A Quatre Mains. Fr. For four 

A Quatre Seuls. Fr. For four 

A Quatre Voix. Fr. For four 

A Quattro Mani. It. For four 

A Quattro Soli. It. For four 

A Quattro Voci. It. For four 

Arabesque. In Arabic style; a 
graceful composition in rondo fashion, 

Araja (Francesco) composed "Proc- 
ris and Cephalus " for Empress Eliza- 
beth, 1755, the first opera sung in the 
Russian languag-e; chapelmaster at 
St. Petersburg, 1734-1759. B. Naples, 
1700; d. 1770. 

Aranaz (Pedro) composed church 
music, conducted at Cuen^a Cathe- 
dral. B. Soria, Spain; d. Cuenca, 

Arbeau (Thoinot) nom de plume 
of Jehan Tabourot, a French priest 
who wrote a dialogue on dancing re- 
printed in Paris. 1888. which contains 
many tunes with appropriate words; 
10th century. 
Arbitrio. It. Will, pleasure. 
Arbos (E. Fernandez) taught vio- 
lin at the Hoyal Conservatory, Madrid ; 
studied wiLli Joachim ; leader of Berlin 




Pliilharmonic Societj' ; composed "El 
Centro de la Tiena," comic opera played 
Madrid, Dec. 22, 1895. Tau<;lit viulin, 
Koyal Collejje of INlusic, London. B. 
Madrid, Dec. 25, 1863; add. London. 

Arcadelt (Jacob) composed madri- 
gals and church music; taught singing 
at St. Peter's, Rome ; chapelmaster to 
Cardinal Lorraine. B. Netherlands, 
1514 ; d. Paris. 

Arcato. It. Play with bow. 

Arched Viall. Variety of hurdy- 

Archer (Frederick) composed 
" King Witlaf's Drinking Horn " and 
other cantatas; wrote "The Organ," 
"The College Organist'"; conducted 
Pittsburg Orchestra, 1895-98, Boston 
Oratorio Society, 1887; organist Ply- 
mouth Church, Brooklyn, etc. B. June 
16, 1838, Oxford, Eng., studied Lon- 
don, Leipsic; d. Pittsburg, 1901. 

Archet. Fr. The bow. 

Archicembalo. Cembalo having 
enharmonic scale, long obsolete. 

Archlute. Large double-necked lute 
or theorbo, having eight or ten single 
strings on one necdc and seven or eight 
on the other, used for lowest part of ac- 
companiment ; ITtli century. 

Arco. It. "The bow. 

Arditezza, con. It. Boldly. 

Arditi (liuigi) composed "II Bacio," 
a vocal waltz, conducted opera at New 
York Academy of Music, London Co- 
vent Garden, etc. ; also composed 
operas " I Briganti," " II Corsaro," 
" La Spia." B. Crescentino, Pied- 
mont, July 16, 1822; studied violin 
Milan Consen-atory; d. Brighton, 
Eng., May 1, 1903. 

Ardito. It. Bold, energetic. 

Aretinian Syllables. Ut, Re, Mi, 
Fa, Sol, La, by which Guido Aretino or 
d'Arezzo designated the hexachord 

Arens (Franz Xavier) conducted 
" People's Symphony Concerts." New 
York; played organ, taught, and com- 
posed. B. Germany, Oct. 28, 1856; 
studied with his father and Rhein- 
berger; add. New York. 

Arensky (Antony Stephanovich) 
composed " A Dream on tlie Volea," 
"Raphael," " Nal and Damayanti." 
symphonies, songs; wrote on theory, 

ranked with " Young Russian " schooL 
B. Novgorod, July 31, 1861; d. St. 
Petersburg, Mar., 1906. 

Arghool. Crude form of clarinet 
still i)opular in Egpvi;. 

Argus (Henri) taught solfeggio in 
Paris Conservatoire. B. 1749; d. 
1798. Joseph composed vocal and 
instrumental music published in 

Argyll Rooms were famous as the 
scene of the best London concerts from 
about 1800 to 1829. They were located 
first on Argjdl, and then on Regent 

Aria. It. Air or melody, now ap- 
plied to the elaborate solo passages 
for voice in opera or oratorio. Arias 
are of many kinds : D'Abilita, for dis- 
play of skill ; Buffa, humorous ; Can- 
tabile, flowing gracefully; Concer- 
tante, in concert form ; Di Bravura, 
ornate and difficult ; Fugata, in fugal 
style; Parlante, suitable for decla- 
mation ; Portamento, with long swell- 
ing notes; SenzaAccompagnamento, 
with no accompaniment; Tedesca, 
with obligatory accompaniment. 

Ariane et Barbe Bleue. Paul 
Dukas' opera to text by Maeterlinck 
was first performed at the Paris 
Opgra Comique, 1907, and the follow- 
ing year with equal success at the 
Vienna Folks Opera. Ariane is the 
sixth wife of Bluebeard, to whom he 
entrusted seven keys, but with the 
prohibition that she should not open 
the seventh dnor. Naturally she finds 
the golden key to that door most 
alluring. Critics were of the opinion 
that Dukas had studied the methods 
of Wagner, Debussy and Strauss to ad- 
vantage, and highly praised the conse- 
qiient close relationship of text and 
score, especially when Ariane opens the 
doors in succession, and the flash of 
the gems they contain is accompanied 
by brilliantly effective orchestration. 

Arietta. It. Diminutive of aria. 

Arioso. It. To be sung in aria 
style; combining the free declamation 
of recitative with the smoothness of 

Ariosti (Atillio) composed fourteen 
operas nnd " ]\Iuzio ScaeA'ola " jointly 
with Handel and Bononcini, oratorios 




and cantatas; conducted opera; 
played viol d'arnore ; dispensed fioni 
lioly orders to devote himself to music. 
B. 1660; eclipsed by Handel; retired 

Armer la Clef. Fr. Adding the 
signature to the clef. 

Armes (Philip) composed " Heze- 
kiah," " St. John the Evangelist," and 
"St. Barnabas"; organist Durham 
Cathedral ; professor of music, Dur- 
ham University. B. Norwich, Aug. 15, 
1836; d. Feb. 10, 11)08. 

Armide. Christoph Willibald 
Gluck's opera to the text written by 
Philip Quinault for LuUi nearly a 
century earlier, was first performed at 
the Academic Royale, Sept. 23, 1777, 
and was regarded by the composer 
as his greatest work. The book is 
founded on an episode in Tasso'a 
" Jerusalem Delivered." and the scene 
is accordingly laid in Damascus, 1099. 
Arniida, queen and enchantress, has 
the Crusaders at her feet with the ex- 
ception of Rinaldo, a valiant knight 
temporarily in disgrace with his 
leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, because of 
another's misdeed. Warned to avoid 
Armida's snares by his friend Arte- 
midor, Rinaldo, finding himself in a 
lovely spot, is lulled to sleep by ex- 
quisite music, and thus falls into the 
power of Armida, who wishes to kill 
him, but instead falls in love with 
him. Rinaldo is not insensible to her 
charms, but Godfrey has sent two 
knights to bring him back to camp. 
Despite Armida's witchcraft, the war- 
riors succeed in reaching Rinaldo, and 
he determines to return with them. 
Vainly Armida urges him to stay, and 
Avhen he leaves, in her desnair, she 
converts her beautiful domain into a 

Armingaud (Jules) wrote for 
violin and established string quartet 
which developed into the " Societe 
Classique"; played violin in Paris 
Opera. B. Bayonne, May 3, 1820; d. 
Feb. 27, 1900. 

Armourer of Nantes. Michael 
William Balfe's opera to text by J. V. 
Bridgeman, based on Hugo's " Mary 
Tudor," was first performed at Covent 
Garden, London, Feb. 12, 1863. 

Armoneggiare. It. To harmonize. 

Armonia. It. Harmony. 

Armonica. It. Glasses attuned to 
the diatonic scale on which tones are 
produced by friction ; " the musical 
glasses " of Ben. Franklin, Pickeridge, 
and M. Delaval; the accordion. 

Arne (Michael) composed " The 
Fairy Tale," " The Belle's Stratagem," 
and other operas, songs, and con- 
ducted. B. 1740, son of DR. ARNE; 
d. Jan. 14, 1786. 

Arne (Dr. Thomas Augustine) 
first introduced female voices in ora- 
torio choirs; chiefly known in these 
days for his setting of Shakespeare's 
songs and his charming ballads, but 
was one of England's most prolific 
dramatic composers. His music to the 
Dalton adaptation of Milton's " Co- 
mus " won instant recognition, Drury 
Lane, 1738; he reset Congreve's 
" Judgment of Paris " ; composed the 
music to " Alfred," including the fa- 
iiioiis 8oiig "Rule Britaiinia " ; reset 
Mctastasio's "Artaserse," liaving trans- 
lated the libretto into English ; com- 
posed "Loveiii a Village" (ballad opera), 
"Judith" and "Abel" (oratorios), etc. 
He was the author of " The Contest of 
Beauty and Virtue," " The Guardian 
Outwitted," and "Phoebe at Court," 
as well as the composer. Arne was 
largely self-taught in music, his father 
having intended him for the law, en- 
tering him at a solicitor's after a 
course at Eton. He undertook the 
instruction of his sister, afterwards 
the celebrated actress, Mrs. Cibber. 
Tliis enabled her to sing in " Amelia," 
Lampe's opera, 1732, and it was at her 
suggestion that Arne wrote new music 
for Addison's " Rosamond," in which 
she sang the principal role. B. Mar. 
12, 1710, London; d. Mar. .5, 1778. 

Arnold (Johann Gottfried) com- 
posed for and played 'cello. B. Feb. 
15, 1773, Niedernhall, Wiirtemberg; d. 
July 26. 1806. 

Arnold (Dr. Samuel) composed 43 
operas and dramatic pieces between 
1765 and 1802; organist and composer 
to Chapel Royal, Eng. ; conducted 
latter concerts of Academy of Ancient 
Music. B. Aug. 10, 1740, London- 
d. Oct. 22, 1802. 



Arnold (Richard) organized string 
quartot; concortmeister New York 
Philharmonic Society and the Thoinaa 
Orchestra. B. Eulenbcrg, Jan. 10, 
1845; pupil Felicien David; add. 

Arnoldson (Sigrid) sang sop. at 
Paris Op^ra Comique, in Russia, and 
New York. B. Stockholm, 18G5; 
studied with Maurice Strakosch ; debut 
Moscow, 1880; add. Paris. 

Arnould (Madeleine Sophie) cre- 
ated the name part in G luck's " Iphi- 
genie " ; was celebrated wit. B. Feb. 
14, 1744, Paris; d. 1803. 

Arpa. It. The harp. 

Arpa Doppia. It. Double harp. 

Arpanella. It. A little harp. 

Arpege. Fr. Arpeggio. 

Arpeggiando. It. Arpeggio 

Arpeggiare. It. To break a chord. 

Arpeggiatura. It. Series of 

Arpeggio. It. " In harp style " ; 
broken chord, that is, a chord of which 
the notes are struck successively, not 
sounded together. 

Arpeggione. Obsolete six-stringed 
instrument resembling both guitar and 
'cello, played with a bow. 

Arpicordo. It. Harpsichord. 

Arrangement. The adaptation of 
a composition for performance by other 
instruments or voices than originally 

Arranger. Fr. To arrange. 

Arriaga y Balzola (Juan Crisos- 
tomo Jacobo Antonio) composed 
three string quartets, a symphony, an 
overture. B. Bilboa, Spain, Jan. 27, 
180G; studied at Paris Conservatoire; 
d. Feb., 1825. 

Arrigoni (Carlo) published " Can- 
tate da Camera," in London, 1732; 
lutenist. B. Florence ; engaged with 
Porpora in opposition to Handel's 
operas in London; d. Tuscany about 

Arsis. Gr. "To lift." Upward 
movement of the voice in song, or the 
hand in beating time, opposed to 

Artaria & Co. publish music in 
Vienna, where the house was foimded, 
1750, by Cesare, Domenico, and Gio- 

vanni Artaria, brothers, wlio sprang 
from Blevio, Lake Como. Their sons 
set up the first music printing press 
known in Vienna, 1770. Works of 
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, etc., bear 
the Artaria imprint. C. August and 
Dominik Artaria are the present heads 
of the house. 

Artaxerses. Dr. Thomas Augustine 
Arne's three-act opera to his own 
translation of Metastasio's " Arta- 
serse " was first produced Feb. 2, 1702, 
at Covent Garden, London. It was a 
favourite for many years and was re- 
vived in Dublin, 1877. 

Arteaga (Stefano) wrote an his- 
torical work on Italian opera; member 
Society of Jesus. B. Madrid, 1750; 
d. Oct. 30, 1799. 

Art. Ger. Kind, species, quality. 
Art of Fugue. Sebastian Bach's 
book ( Die Kunst der Fuge ) , teaches 
by examples, giving 14 fugues; com- 
pleted 1749, the year of his death. 

Arthur (Alfred) composed three 
operas, etc., directed Cleveland School 
of Music, and conducted Vocal Society. 
B. Oct. 8, 1844, near Pittsburg; studied 
Boston; add. Cleveland, Ohio. 

Articulation. Distinct pronuncia- 
tion in song; production of correct 
tone by proper adjustment of lips or 
fingers to an instrument. 

Artot (Alexandre Joseph Mon- 
tagney) composed for and played 
violin. B. Jan. 25, 1815, Brussels, son 
of MAURICE; d. July 20, 1845. 

Artot (Marguerite Josephine 
Desiree) sang first mez. sop. and then 
sop. roles in opera, 1858-87; taught 
in Berlin; pupil of Viardot-Garcia; 
m. Padilla v Ramos, bar. B. Paris, 
July 21, 1835; d. Apr., 1907. 

Artot (Maurice) played horn ; 
family name Montagney, assumed that 
of Artot, afterwards borne by all the 
familv; m. daughter of Adam Ries. 
B. 1772; d. 1829. 

Artusi (Giovanni Maria) com- 
posed; combated musical reforms of 
his day; canon of San Salvatore, 
Venice; d. Auc 18. 1013. 
As. Ger. A flat. 

Asantchewsky, von (Michael) ac- 
cumulated large musical library; 
composed; directed St. Petersburg 




Conservatory, 1870-76. B. Moscow, 
1838; d. Moscow, Jan. 24, 1881. 
Ascaulos. Or. Bagpipe. 
Aschenbrenner (Christian Hein- 
rich) composed chamber music; 
chapelmaster to Duke of Merseburg. 
B. Dec. 29, 1654, Altstettin ; d. Jena, 
Dec. 13, 1732. 

Ascher (Joseph) composed salon 
pieces; court pianist to Empress Eu- 
genie. B. Groningen, Holland, June 4, 
1829; d. June 20, 1869, London. 
As Dur. G'er. A flat major. 
Ashantee Trumpet. Horn made of 
an elephant's tusk. 

Ashdown (Edwin) publishes music, 
London; succeeded Wessel & Co. 

Ashe (Andrew) played flute; con- 
ducted Bath, Eng., concerts, 1810-22. 
B. Lisburn, Ireland, 1759; m. Miss 
Comer, singer; d. Dublin, 1838. 

Ashley (John) directed " Lent 
oratorios," Covent Garden, London; 
played bassoon. D. Mar. 2, 1805. Gen- 
eral Charles played violin. B. 1770, 
son of JOHN; d. Aug. 21, 1818. 
Charles Jane, with help of his 
brother " the General," continued his 
father's oratorio concerts; became 
secretary, Royal Society of Musicians ; 
charter memljer the Glee Club, 1793, 
and Philharmonic Society ; owner of 
Tivoli, Margate. B. 1773; d. A\\^. 29, 
1843. John James taught singing; 
played Covent Garden organ. B. 1772, 
son of -JOHN; d. Jan. 5, 1815. 

Ashley, of Bath (John) composed 
popular songs; played bassoon and 
sang at Bath for fifty years. D. 

Ashton (Algernon B. L.) taught 
piano at Royal College of Music, Lon- 
don ; composed " English Dances." B. 
Durham, Dec. 9, 1859; add. London. 

Ash well (Thomas) composed 

masses and songs, Eng.. 16th century. 

Asioli (Bonifacio) \vTote valuable 

books on theory; composed masses 

and a concerto when under age of 

eight; composed for theatre, orchestra, 

etc.; censor at Milan Conservatory. 

li. Correggio, Aug. 30, 1769; d. May 

18, 18.32. 

As Moll. Ger. A flat minor. 

Aspirare. It. To breathe audibly. 

Aspiration. Fr. Dash above a 

note, shortening its duration; obso- 
lete grace note. 

Asprezza. It. Harshness. 

Aspull (George) composed and 
played piano. B. Manchester, June, 
1813; d. Aug. 19, 1832. 

Assai. It. " Very," as allegro 
assai, very fast. 

Assemblage. Fr. Rapid passages; 
double tonguing. 

Assez. Fr. Enough; rather. 

Assmayer (Ignaz) composed fif- 
teen masses, the oratorios " Das Ge- 
lubde," " Saul und David," " Saul's 
Tod"; directed Vienna " Tonkiinstler- 
Societiit." B. Salzburg, Feb. 11, 1790; 
d. Aug. 31, 1862, Vienna. 

Association Artistique was 
founded in Angers, France, for per- 
formance of orchestral music, 1875, and 
had given its 500th concert in 1902, at 
which time Count Louis de Romain, 
one of its founders, was president. 

Assoluto. It. Absolute. 

Assonance. Concord, agreeing in 

Aston (Hugh) composed church 
music and for virginal, Eng.; 16th 
century. Name also written Ashton, 
Austen, Aystoun. 

Astorga, d' (Baron Emanuele) 
composed celebrated " Stabat Mater," 
the opera " Dafni." B. Naples, Dec. 11, 
1681, son of Marquis Capece da Rof- 
frano; d. Aug. 21, 1736, Bohemia. 

A Suo Comodo. At one's leisure. 

Atabal. Moorish drum. 

A Table Sec. Fr. Sung unaccom- 

A Tempo. It. In time. 

A Tre. It. In three parts. 

Attacca. It. Begin at once. 

Attacco. It. A fugue theme for 

Attack. Firmness and precision in 
beginning a passage constitute "good 

Attaque, Chef d'. Fr. Leader of 
the orchestra. 

Athalia. George Frederick Handel's 
oratorio, to words by Humphreys, was 
completed June 7, 1733, first per- 
formed at Oxford, July 10 of that 
year, revived, London, 1845. It was 
composed after " Deborah," and is 
therefore Handel's third oratorio. 




Athalie. Felix Mendelssohn's 
music, consisting of an overture, 
march, and six vocal numbers, to the 
Racine tragedy; was first performed 
completely in Berlin, Dec. 1, 1845. 

Atkins (Ivor Algernon) played 
organ Worcester Cathedral, conducted 
'• Three Choir Festivals," 1890 and 
1902. B. Cardiff, \Yales, Nov. 29, 18G9; 
add. Worcester, Eng. 

Attaignant (Pierre) published 
music in Paris, 16th century, printed 
from movable type invented by Pierre 

Attaque du Moulin. Alfred Bru- 
neau's three-act opera to book by 
Louis Gallet, founded on the tale in 
Zola's " Soirees de Meudon," was first 
performed Nov. 23, 1893, at the Op6ra 
Comique, Paris. 

Attendant Keys. Relative keys. 

Atterbury (LufEman) composed 
popular glees and the oratorio " Go- 
liah"; musician to George III. D. 
Westminster, Eng., June 11, 1796. 

Atto. It. Act. 

Attore or Attrice. It. Actor or 
actress; princi])al singers in opera. 

Attwood (Thomas) composed; 
played organ St. Paul's Cathedral, 
London; treasu'-er Philliarmonic So- 
ciety, 18i3; taught Roval Academy 
of Music. B. London, Nov. 23, 1765; 
d. Mar. 24, 1838. 

Aubade. Fr. Open air morning 

Auber (Daniel Franqois Esprit) 
composed "La MUETTE DE POR- 
TICI," which ranks with the greatest 
of French grand operas ; the delightful 
op6ra comique "ERA DIAVOLO," in 
all more than forty operas between 
1811 and 1869; directed the Paris 
Conservatoire, but was so timid that 
he never conducted, nor even attended 
the performance of his own works. 
Born at Caen, Jan. 29, 1782, of a Nor- 
man family domiciled in Paris ; he 
displayed a genius for music in child- 
liood, composing songs when only 
eleven. Sent to London by his father 
to qualify for a business career, he 
was compelled to return in 1804 by 
the prospect of war. 'Cello concertos, 
which he wrote for his friend Lamarre 
shortly afterwards, introduced him aa 

a promising composer, and when, in 
1811, Cherubini heard a performance 
of " Julie," an opera which he com- 
posed for an amateur organization, he 
volunteered to teach him the techni- 
calities of his profession. " Le sejour 
militaire," his first opera publicly per- 
formed, 1813, proved a complete faiK 
ure, and it was not until six years 
later that he mustered courage to try 
again. '" Le Testament " likewise failed, 
but in 1820 he struck the keynote of 
success with " La bergere Cliatelaine," 
and formed an alliance with Scribe, 
the author of the books of all his other 
operas. Then followed in succession: 
" Emma," '" Leicester," " La neige," 
" VendOme en Espagne," with Herold; 
" Les trois genres," with Boieldieu; 
" Le concert a la cour," " Leocadie," 
" Le Macon," " Le Timide," " Fiorilla," 
" La muette de Portici," " La fiancee," 
" Fra Diavolo," " Le Dieu et la Baya- 
dere," " La marquise de Brinvilliers " 
( with eight other composers) ; " Le 
philtre," " Le sennent," " Gustave III," 
known also as " BALLO IN MAS- 
CHERA," "Lestocq," " Le cheval de 
bronze," " Acteon," " Les chaperons 
blancs," " L'ambassadrice," " Le do- 
mino noir," " Le lac des fees," " Za- 
netta," "Les DIAMANTS DE LA 
COURONNE," known in English as 
" The Crown Diamonds," " Carlo Bros- 
chi," "Le due d'Orlonne," "La part du 
diable." " La Sirene," " La barcarolle," 
"Haydee," "L'enfant prodigue," "Zer- 
line," " Marco Spada," " Jenny Bell," 
" ]\L\NON LESCAUT," " Magenta," 
" La Circassienne," " La fiancee du 
roi des Garbes," " Le premier jour 
de bonheur," " La reve d'amour." " La 
]\Iuette " (Masaniello) , with its stir- 
ring pictures of revolt, is said to have 
provoked the Brussels riots which be- 
gan A\ath its performance in that city, 
Aug. 25, 1830. In 1829 Auber was 
elected to the Academic, and he was 
honoured by Louis Philippe and Na- 
poleon III. His death, which may 
have been hastened by the disorders of 
the Commune, occurred May 13, 1871. 
See Ad. Kohut's memoir, 1895. 

Aubert (Jacques) composed the 
opera " La Reine des Peris," much 
chamber music, played violin at Paris 




Opera and concerts spirituel ; d. Belle- 
ville near Paris, May 19, 1753. 

Aubert (Louis) succeeded his father 
at tlie Opera, 1755, retired 1771. B. 
Paris, May 15, 172U, son of JACQUES. 

Aubert (Pierre Frangois Olivier) 
published instruction books and music 
for 'cello; played 'cello at Opera 
Comique, Paris, 25 years. B. Amiens, 

Audace, con. It. With audacity. 

Audran (Edmond) composed many 
successful light operas, " Les noces 
d'OIivette," "La Mascotte," "Miss 
Ilelyett," " La Poupee " ; church music 
and songs, played organ. B. April 11, 
1842, Lyons; d. Paris, Aug. 16, 

Auer (Leopold) succeeded Wieni- 
awski as professor of violin at St. 
Petersburg Conservatory; violinist to 
the Czar, etc. ; founded noted string 
quartet with Davidov. B. Veszbrem, 
Hungary, June 7, 1845; pupil of Joa- 
chim; add. St. Petersburg. 

Aufgeweckt. Qer. Sprightly, 

Aufhalten. Ger. Retard, suspend. 

Aufhaltung. Ger. Suspension. 

Auflage. Ger. Edition. 

Auflosung. Ger Kesolution of a 

Auflbsungzeichen. Ger. Signs of 
natural, sharp, or flat used in restor- 
ing notes affected by accidentals, or 
altering a key signature. 

Aufschlag. Ger. LTnaeeented beat. 

Aufstrich. Ger. With up bow. 

Auftakt. Ger. The up beat. 

Augarten, where Mozart gave a 
series of early morning concerts; 
where Beethoven and Bridgetower 
played the " Kreutzer Sonata" from 
manuscript, is a public garden in a 
Viennese suburb, opened to the popu- 
lace by Emperor Joseph II, 1775. Con- 
certs are no longer given there. 

Augener & Co. publish music in 
London, having a catalogue of 6000 
works ; and " The Montiily Musical 
Record." The business was foinuled 

Augmentation introduces a fugal 
or canon theme in notes twice the 
length in which it was originally 

Augmented Interval. Eaised a 
semitone above its normal value. 

Auletes. Gr. Player on the aulos 
or flute. 

Aulaeum. L. A theatre's curtain. 

Auguez (Numa) sang bar. and 
taught singing, Paris Conservatoire. 
B. Saleux, Somme, 1847; d. Paris, Jan. 
27, 1903. 

Aulin (Tor) conducted Stockholm 
Philharmonic Society; founded Aulin 
string quartet. B. Stockholm, 1866; 
add. Stockholm. 

Aulos. Gr. The flute, chief in im- 
portance of Greek wind instruments, 
but probably generic term for reed in- 
struments as well. 

Ausdruck. Ger. Expression. 

Ausfiihrung. Ger. Performance 
of a composition; its development by 
the composer. 

Aushaltung. Ger. Duration of a 

Aushaltungszeichen. Ger. Pause, 

Ausweichung. Ger. Modulation. 

Authentic. Church MODES having 
all sounds within the octave of the linal 
or keynote, and upon which others called 
PLAGAL were constructed. 

Authentic Part. The portion of 
a scale between a note and its domi- 
nant; that between the dominant 
and superior tonic being called 

Autos-Sacramentales. Sp. Early 
dramatic form akin to English mys- 
teries and moralities, but with music 
and dancing added. 

Auxcousteaux, d' (Arthur) com- 
posed church music; became master of 
the Ste. Chapelle, Paris. B. Beauvais, 
Picardy; d. 1656. 

Auxiliary Notes. Grace notes not 
essential to a harmony. 

Auxiliary Scales. Those of at- 
tendant or relative keys. 

Ave Maria. L. "Hail Mary." 
The subject of many exquisite compo- 
sitions for use in the Roman Catholic 

Ave Maris Stella. L. " Hail, Star 
of the Sea." Latin hymn. 

Avena. L. An oaten or reed 

Avery (Master) composed church 
music, Eng., 10th century. 




Avery (John) built organs in many 
English churches; d. 1808. 

Avison (Charles), organist, wrote 
on expression and composed 50 con- 
certos. B. Newcastle on Tyne, 1710; 
d. May 9, 1770. 

A Vista. It. At sight. 

Avoglio (Signora) sang sop. roles 
under Handel's direction on his visit 
to Ireland. 1741. 

Aylward (Dr. Theodore) composed 
music for " Cymbeline," " Midsummer 
Night's Dream"; taught at Gresham 
College; played organ. B. 1730; d. 
London, Feb. 27, 1801. 

Ayrton (Dr. Edmund) composed 
two complete morning and evening 
services for Anglican Church. B. 
Ripon, 1734; d. May 22, 1808. Wil- 
liam edited musical publications; 
wrote criticisms ; directed music at 
the King's Theatre, London. B. Lon- 
don, Feb. 24, 1777, son of DR. ED- 
MUND; d. Mar. 8, 1858. 

Ayton (Fanny) sang in opera and 
concert, 1827-32. B. Macclesfield, Eng., 

Azione Sacra. It. Sacred dramas, 
oratorios, passions. 

Azor. Heh. Obscure musical term 
in the Psalms. 

Azor and Zemira. English version 
of Spohr's opera " Zemire und Azor." 

Azzopardi (Francesco) published 
works on theory; chapelmaster at 
Malta ; French translation of his " II 
Musico Prattico " appeared in Paris, 

B is the seventh tone of the natural 
scale of C, called H in Germany, where 
B signifies B flat. B is likewise the 
name of the major scale having five 
sharps and of the minor key relative 
to D major. B was the first tone to be 
chromatically altered, as in the Hexa- 
chordal system there would otherwise 
have been three consecutive whole 
degrees followed by the interval of an 
augmented fourth in the third hexa- 
chord. The flattened B was then indi- 
cated by the round " Rotundum " B 
or B molle or Bemol, and the natural 
B by the square " Quadratum " or 
"Quadrum" or "Durum" B or B6- 
carr6. During the evolution which re- 

sulted in the modern scale the round 
B and square B came to be used as 
signs of accidentals before other notes, 
and thus gave form to these signs as 
used to-day. B flat is the key wherein 
most of the clarinets in military band, 
one clarinet in orchestra, and a large 
number of the brasses are set. 

Baarpyp. "Bear-pipe," Dutch 
organ stop. 

Baas or Base Dance. Slow dance 
resembling minuet. 

Baban (Gracian) composed, di- 
rected music Valencia Cathedral, 1657- 

Babbini (Matteo) sang ten. at the 
courts of Frederick the Great and 
Catherine II of Russia. B. Bologna, 
Feb. 19, 1754; d. Sept. 22, 1816. 

Babell (William) composed for 
harpsichord, etc. ; pupil of his father, 
a bassoon player, and of Dr. Pepusch. 
B. Eng., 1690; d. Canonbury, Sept. 
23, 1723. 

Baccalaureus Musicae. L. Bach- 
elor of Music. 

Bacchanalian Songs. Those sung 
in worship of Bacchus, hence drinking 

Bacchia. Kamschatkan dance. 

Bacciocolo. Guitar of Tuscany. 

Baccusi (Ippolito) composed 
church music, and was among the first 
to introduce instrumental parts for 
support of voice in church pieces ; di- 
rected music at Mantua and Verona 
Cathedrals. D. Verona, 1609. 

Bach was the name of a great Thu- 
ringian family of musicians which 
began, so far as music is concerned, 
with Hans Bach, born at Wechmar 
about 1561; had its most illirstrious 
representative in Johann Sebastian 
Bach, and became extinct on the death 
of his grandson, Friedrich Ernst Wil- 
helm Bach, Berlin, 1845. A genea- 
logical table prepared by Johann Se- 
bastian and supplemented by his son, 
Carl Philip Emanuel, sets forth the 
names of 53 men. Musicians of the 
Bach family so completely monopo- 
lized their art in Arnstadt, Erfurt, 
and Eisenach that Erfurt town musi- 
cians were called Bachs. Veit, as- 
sumed to have been the son of HANS, 
immigrated to Hungary to escape reli- 




gious persecution, but later returned 
to Wechmar, where he plied the trades 
of miller and baker, and in leisure 
moments played the cythringen, which 
may have been a kind of zither. B. 
about 1550; d. Mar. 8, 1610. Hans 
was the first to become a professional 
musician, but combined the gentle art 
with carpet weaving. B. about 1580, 
son of VEIT; d. Dec. 26, 1626. Jo- 
hannes became towai musician and 
church organist at Erfurt. B. Nov. 26, 
1604, son of HANS; d. 1673. Hein- 
rich served as organist at Arnstadt 
for more than 50 years beginning 
1G41. B. Wechmar, Sept. 16, 1615; 
son of HANS; d. July 10, 1692. 
Cliristoph became town musician to 
Arnstadt and court musician to Count 
Schwarzburg. B. Wechmar, April 19, 
1613; son of HANS; d. Sept. 14, 
1661. Georg Christoph composed, 
taught school and sang at Themar and 
Schweinfurt. B. Sept. 6, 1642, Erfurt; 
son of CHRISTOPH; d. April 24, 
1679. Johann Christoph and Johann 
Ambrosius, twin sons of CHRIS- 
TOPH, were so much alike as to be 
hardly distinguishable, even by their 
wives. Both played violin. Johann 
Christoph became court musician to 
Count Schwarzburg at Arnstadt. Two 
of his sons were musicians. B. Erfurt, 
Feb. 22, 1645; d. Aug. 25, 1693. Jo- 
hann Ambrosius joined the Erfurt 
" Raths-Musikanten " in 1667. He 
became the father of JOHANN SE- 
BASTIAN, and died Eisenach, 1695. 
Johann Christoph played organ in 
Eisenach churches, where he finally 
became court organist. B. Arnstadt, 
son of Heinrich, Dec. 8, 1642; d. Mar. 
31, 1703. Johann Michael composed 
72 fugued and figured chorale pre- 
ludes, organist at Gehren, near Arn- 
stadt. He was the father of Maria 
Barbara, 1684-1720, who was the first 
wife of her cousin, Johann Sebastian. 
B. Aug. 9, 1648, Arnstailt, son of 
HEINRICH; d. May, 1694. Johann 
Christian directed the musical society 
at Erfurt in succession to his father, 
JOHANN of Erfurt. B. Aug. 2, 1640; 
d. 1682. Johann Aegidius became or- 
ganist of St. Michael's Church, Erfurt, 
and on the death of his brother, Jo- 

hann Christian, succeeded him as direc- 
tor. These brief references bring us to 
the fifth generation of the Bach family, 
reckoned from Hans of Wechmar, the 
generation in which the genius of the 
race culminates in JOHANN SEBAS- 
TIAN. Reserving Joliann Sebastian 
for a special article, others fifth in de- 
scent from Hans in this period were: 
Johann Bernhard composed four 
orchestral suites, preludes, and clavier 
music, organist at Erfurt, at Mag- 
deburg succeeded Johann Christoph 
as organist at Eisenach. B. Nov. 
23, 1676; son of JOHANN AEGID- 
lUS; d. June 11, 1749. Johann 
Christoph succeeded his father, JO- 
HAKN AEGIDIUS, at Eifurt. B. 
Aug. 15, 1685; d. 1717. Johann 
Christoph became organist at Ohr- 
druf; pupil of Pachelbel of Erfurt, 
and brother of Johann Sebastian, to 
whom he taught clavier. B. June 15, 
1671; son of Johann Ambrosius; d. 
1721. Johann Nicolaus composed 
many suites, the comic opera " Der 
Jenaische Wein und Bier Rufer"; 
manufactured pianos but met with 
great opposition because of his intro- 
duction of equal temperament ; organ- 
ist to town and University of Jena; 
composed the cantata for double chorus 
and orchestra, " Es erliub sich ein 
Streit," the motet " Ich lasse dich 
nicht," well known under the English 
title " I wrestle and pray," and once 
attributed to Johann Sebastian. B. 
1669; son of Johann Christoph of 
Eisenach; d. 1753. Johann Lud'wig 
composed 17 church cantatas (Johann 
Sebastian transcribed 12 of them), a 
suite in G, chapelmaster at IMeiningen. 
B. Steinbach, 1677; son of Jakob Bach 
and probably descended from Veit; d. 
1741. Of the generation succeeding 
Johann Sebastian were : Johann Er- 
nest composed sacred music and a 
clavier fantasia and fugue; graduated 
in law Leipsic University; studied 
music under Johann Sebastian ; 
chapelmaster at Weimar, 1756. B. 
Eisenach, Sept. 1, 1722; son of JO- 
Friedeman, " the Halle Bach," com- 
posed 23 church cantatas and 17 sets 
of instrumental pieces, regarded as 

Enrico Cakuso 


Ernestine Schumann-Heink 

Nellie Melba 

Marcella Sembrich 
LuisA Tetrazzini 




one of the greatest organists and tlie- 
ovists of his time, ruined himself in 
dissipation and died in want. Ehlest 
educated him, he studied at the 
Thomasschule and won honours in 
mathematics at Leipsic University. 
Organist at Dresden, and in 1747 at 
the Liebfrauenkirche, Halle, he was 
without regular employment from 
1764, when he resigned, to his death, 
Berlin, 1784. Johann Christopli 
Friedrich, " the Biickeburg Bach," 
composed operas, oratorios, and pas- 
sion music; chapelmaster to Count 
Schaumberg at Biickeburg. B. Leip- 
sic, June 25, 1732; ninth son of 
1795. Carl Philip Emanuel, greatest 
of the sons of Johann Sebastian, is dis- 
cussed in a special article. Johann 
Christian, " the Milanese or English 
Bach," composed the opera " Catone," 
performed in Milan, 1758; conducted 
Mrs. Cornely's subscription concerts 
in London with Abel from 1765 to 
1775, when they established their own 
series, lasting until 1782; taught 
music to English Royal family; com- 
posed the operas " Temistocle," " Adri- 
ano in Siria," " Lucio Silla," "La 
Clemenza di Scipione," and much 
piano music. B. Leipsic, 1735; 11th 
studied in Berlin with his brother 
C. P. Emanuel ; visited Naples, Milan ; 
organist Milan Cathedral, 1760-62; 
d. London, Jan. 1, 1782. Johann 
Gottfried Bernhard became organist 
to the Marienkirche, Miilhausen, 1735, 
and the following year of the Sanger- 
hausen Jacobikirche. B. May 11, 
1715; son of JOHANN SEBASTIAN; 
d. while studying law at Jena, May 
27, 1739. Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst 
composed " Huldigungs cantata " in 
honour of the accession of Frederick 
William II of Prussia, who made him 
cembalist to the Queen, taught the 
royal children two generations, as- 
sisted with his wife and two daughters 
at dedication of monument at the 
Thomasschule, Leipsic, in honovir of 
Johann Sebastian. B. Biickeburg, 
May 27, 1759; son of JOHANN 

of the descendants of the Johann Se- 
bastian Bachs bearing the name; d. 
Berlin, Dec. 25, 1845. 

Bach (Johann Sebastian) com- 
posed the Passions according to St. 
Matthew and St. John, which have 
caused most works along these lines 
to be forgotten; organ music in every 
form which has never been excelled; 
brought the art of fugue to its highest 
perfection; established the much de- 
l)ated system of equal temperament 
with his " Well Tempered Clavier," 
" Das Wohltemperirte Clavier," which 
enforced its value by presenting pre- 
ludes and fugues in every key; revo- 
lutionized the technique of keyboard 
instruments by first bringing into 
equal play the little finger and thumb ; 
threw his influence in favour of the 
hannonic system as opposed to the 
church modes; invented the viola 
pomposa and the Lauten-clavicymba- 
lum; taught with distinguished suc- 
cess, and composed chamber music in 
all varieties. Born at Eisenach in 
Mar., 1685, baptized Mar. 23, the son 
of Johann Ambrosius Bach and Eliza- 
beth, born Lammerhit ; he received 
violin lessons from his father, but, 
being left an orphan at the age of ten, 
went to live with his elder brother, 
Johann Christoph, organist at Ohr- 
druf. His brother taught him clavier, 
but forbade him to touch a manuscript 
collection of Buxtehude, Frohberger, 
and others, and when the lad managed 
to copy it by moonlight after six 
months' labour, so great was his desire 
for an insight into the best music of 
his day, took it from him. He had 
attended the local lyceum, but at 15 he 
was admitted a free scholar at St. 
Michael's Liineburg, because of hia 
lovely soprano voice. There he studied 
organ with Bohm and made excursions 
to hear Reinken at Hamburg and to 
Celle, where the French composers 
were in fashion. At 18 he joined the 
band of Prince Johann Ernst at Wei- 
mar, and a few months later became 
organist of the new church at Arn- 
stadt. He walked to Liibeck to hear 
Buxtehude play the organ, and re- 
mained until tlie church authorities re- 
called him to Arnstadt. 1707 found 




him organist of St. Blasius Church, 
Miilhausen, and Oct. 17 of that year he 
married his cousin Maria Barbara. Of 
their seven children only a daughter, 
Wilhelm Friedemann, and Carl Philip 
Emanuel survived infancy. In 1708 
he became organist to the court 
of Weimar; in 1714 concertmeister, 
and then he undertook a series of 
concert tours. One of these took him 
to Dresden in 1717 where Marchand, 
a famous French organist, accepted 
his challenge to a contest in music, 
but fled before the appointed time, 
leaving Bach in possession. The same 
year he was made chapelmaster to 
Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Cothen at 
400 thalers per annum, and, while 
holding this office, produced a quantity 
of chamber music. Between 1718-20 
Bach accompanied the Prince to Carls- 
bad. During this absence from home 
his wife died. Bach then applied for 
the position of organist at the 
Jacobskirche, Hamburg, but an un- 
known musician offered 4000 marks 
for the office — and got it. In 1721 
he married Anna Magdalene Wiilken, 
daughter of the Weissenfels court 
trumpeter. Thirteen children were 
born of the marriage, of whom only Jo- 
hann Christoph Friedrich and Johann 
Christian survived him. The period of 
Bach's greatest activity began with 
1723, when he became cantor at the 
Thomasschule and organist and music 
director at the Thomaskirche and 
Nicolaikirche, Leipsic, where he re- 
mained in service 27 years. His duties 
left him ample time for composition. 
His Passions and the famous High 
Mass in B minor were written for the 
Leipsic churches. He was recognized 
as one of the leading men of the com- 
munity and mingled on pleasant terms 
with the best society. In 1736 he was 
made honorary chapelmaster to the 
Elector of Saxony, and in 1747 visited 
Frederick the Great at Berlin, where 
his son, C. P. Emanuel, was court 
cembalist. The king made him test all 
the pianos and organs, and gave him a 
theme to work out which, on his re- 
turn homo, Bach developed and dedi- 
cntod to Frederick as " Musikalisches 
Opfer." Hard work in copying re- 

sulted in the failure of Bach's eyes. 
Two operations failed to restore his 
vision, but suddenly, July 18, 1750, 
sight was restored him. Ten days later 
he died. " Vor deinen Thron tret' ich 
liiemit," a choral, was completed 
shortly before his death. Bach's pu- 
pils included Altnikol, Ludwig Krebs, 
Johann Caspar Vogler, Agricola, and 
Marpurg. Despite tlieir admiration, 
full recognition of Bach's merit as a 
composer was deferred until Mendels- 
sohn, Schumann, and Chopin blazoned 
it to the world. His v-'orks include 
Church Cantatas. Acb Gott, vom 
Himniel sieh darein ; Aoh Gott, wie 
manches Herzeleid; Ach Herr, mich 
armen Siinder; Ach, ich sehe, jetzt 
da ich zur Hochzeit gehe; Ach, lieben 
Christen, seid getrost; Ach wie fliich- 
tig, ach wie nichtig; Allein zu dir, 
Herr Jesu Christ; Alles nur nach 
Gottes Willen ; Also hat Gott die Welt 
geliebt; Am Abend aber desselbigen 
Sabbaths ; Aergre dich, o Seele, nicht ; 
Auf Christi Himmelfahrt allein; Aus 
der Tiefe rufe ich. Herr zu dir; 
Aus fiefer Noth schrei ich zu dir; 
Barmherziges Herze der ewigen Liebe; 
Bereitet die Wege, bereit-et die Bahn; 
Bisher habt ihr nichts gebeten in 
meinem Namen; Bleib' bei uns, denn 
es will Abend werden; Brich dem Hun- 
grigen dein Brod; Bringet dem Herrn 
Ehre seines Namens; Christ lag in 
Todesbanden; Christ unser Herr zum 
Jordan kam; Christen, atzet diesen 
Tag ; Christum wir sollen loben schon ; 
Christus der ist mein Leben; Das ist 
je gewisslich wahr; Das neugebor'ne 
Kindelein; Dazu ist erschienen der 
Sohn Gottes; Dem Gerechten muss 
das Licht ; Denn du wirst meine Seele 
nicht in der Holle lassen; Der Friede 
sei mit dir; Der Herr denket an uns; 
Der Herr ist mein getreuer Hirt ; Der 
Himmel lacht, die Erde jubiliret; Die 
Elenden sollen essen ; Die Himmel 
erziihlen die Ehre Gottes ; Du Friede- 
furst, Herr Jesu Christ; Du Hirte 
Israel, hore; Du sollst Gott, deinen 
Herrn, lieben; Du wahrer Gott und 
Davids Sohn; Ein' feste Burg ist 
unser Gott; Ein Herz, das seinen 
Jesum lehend weiss ; Aeltere Bearbei- 
tung der Kantate; Ein ungefarbt 




Gemiithe; Erforsche mich, Gott, und 
erfahre mein Herz; Erfreut euch, ihr 
Herzen; Erfreute Zeit ini neuen 
Bunde ; Erhalt' uns, Herr, bei deinem 
Wort; Erholites Fleisch und Blut; 
Er rufet seinen Scliafen mit Nainen ; 
Erschallet, ihr Lieder; Ervviinschtes 
Freudenlicht ; Es erhub sich ein 
Streit; Es ist das Heil uns kommen 
her; Es ist dir gesagt, Menscli, was 
gut ist ; Es ist ein trotzig und ver- 
zagt Ding; Es ist euch gut, dass ich 
hingehe; Es ist nichts Gesundes an 
meinem Leibe ; Es reifet euch ein 
schrecklich Ende; Es wartet alles auf 
dich; Falsche Welt, dir trau' ich 
nicht; Freue dich, erloste Schaar; 
Geist und Seele wird verwirret; Ge- 
lobet sei der Herr, mein Gott ; Gelobet 
seist du, Jesu Christ; Gleich wie der 
Regen und Schnee; Gloria iu excelsis 
Deo; Gott der Herr ist Sonn' und 
Schild ; Gott fahret auf mit Jauchzen ; 
Gott ist mein Konig; Gott ist unsre 
Zuversicht; Gott, man lobt dich in 
der Stille; Gott soil allein mein Herze 
liaben; Gott, wie dein Name, so ist 
auch dein Ruhm; Gottes Zeit ist die 
allerbeste Zeit; Gottlob; nun geht 
das Jahr zu Ende; Halt' im Gedacht- 
nis Jesum Christ; Herr Christ, der 
ein'ge Gottessohn; Herr, deine Augen 
sehen nach dem Glauben ; Herr, gehe 
nicht in's Gericht; Herr Gott, Be- 
herrscher aller Dinge; Herr Gott, dich 
loben alle wir; Herr Gott, dich loben 
wir; Herr Jesu Christ, du hochstes 
Gut ; Herr Jesu Christ, wahr'r Mensch 
und Gott; Herr, wie du willst, so 
Schick's mit mir; Herz und Mund und 
That und Leben; Himmelskonig, sei 
willkommen; Hochsterwiinschtes Freu- 
denfest; Ich armer Mensch, ich Siin- 
denknecht; Ich bin ein guter Hirt; 
Ich bin vergniigt mit meinem Gliicke ; 
Ich elender Mensch, wer wird mich 
erlosen; Ich freue mich in dir; Ich 
geh' und suche mit Verlangen ; Ich 
glaube, lieber Herr; Ich hab' in Gottes 
Herz und Sinn; Ich habe genug; Ich 
habe meine Zuversicht; Ich hatte viel 
Bekiimmerniss ; Ich lasse dich nicht, 
du segnest mich denn ; Ich liebe den 
Hochsten von ganzem Gemiitho ; Icli 
ruf zu dir, Herr Jesu Christ; Icli 
steh' mit einem Fuss im Grabe; Ich 

weiss, dass mein Erluser lebt ; Ich will 
den Kreuzstab gerne tragen; Ihr, die 
ihr euch von Christo nennt; Ihr 
Mensclien, riihmet Gottes Liebe; Ihr 
Pforten zu Zion; Ilir werdet weinen 
und heulen; In alien meinen Thaten; 
Jauchzet Gott in alien Landen; Jesu, 
der du meine Seele; Jesu, nun sei 
gepreiset; Jesus nahm zu sich die 
Zwolfe ; Jesus schliift, was soil ich 
hoffen ? Komm, du siisse Todesstunde ; 
Leichtgesinnte Flattergeister; Lieb- 
ster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben? 
Liebster Immanuel, Herzog der From- 
men ; Liebster Jesu, mein Verlangen ; 
Lobe den Herren, den machtigen Kiinig 
der Ehren; Lobe den Herrn, meine 
Seele; Lobet Gott in seinen Reichen; 
Mache dich, mein Geist, bereit; Man 
singet mit Freuden vom Sieg; Mein 
Gott, wie lang', acli lange; Mein 
liebster Jesus ist verloren ; Meine 
Seel' erhebt den Herren ! Meine Seele 
riilimt und preist ; Meine Seufzer, 
meine Thrlinen; jNIeinen Jesum lass' 
ich nicht; Mit Fried' und Freud' ich 
fahr' dahin; Mit Gnaden bekrone der 
Himmel die Zeiten; Nach dir, Herr, 
verlanget mich; Nimm von uns, Herr, 
du treuer Gott ; Nimm, was dein ist ; 
Nun danket alle Gott; Nun ist das 
Heil und die Kraft; Nun komm, der 
Heiden Heiland; Nur Jedem das 
Seine ; ewiges Feuer, o Ursprung 
der Liebe ; Ewigkeit, du Donner- 
wort ; O heil'ges Geist- und Wasser- 
bad; O Jesu Christ, mein's Lebens 
Liclit ; Preise, JerusMlem, den Herrn; 
Scliau, lieber Gott, wie meine Feind'; 
Schauet doch und seliet, ob irgend 
ein Schmerz sei; Schlage doch, ge- 
wiinschte Stunde; Schmiicke dich, o 
liebe Seele; Schwingt freudig euch 
empor; Sehet, welch' eine Liebe; 
Sehet, wir gehn hinauf gen Jerusa- 
lem ; Sei Lob imd Ehr dem hochsten 
Gut; Selig ist der Mann; Sie werden 
aus Saba Alle kommen ; Sie werden 
euch in den Bann thun ; Siehe, ich 
will viel Fischer aussenden; Siehe zu. 
dass deine Gottesfurcht; Singet dem 
Herrn ein neues Lied (Lobe, Zion, 
deinen Gott) ; So du mit deinem 
Munde; Siisser Trost, mein Jesus 
kommt; Time Rechnung! Dminor- 
wnrt; Trauer-Ode auf das Ablebeu 


der Gemahlin Augusts des Starken; sprenget, zerlriimniert die Gruft. Der 
Tritt auf die Glaubensbahn ; Uns ist zufrieden gestellte Aeolus. Motets, 
ein Kind geboren; Unser Mund sci Der Geist liilft unsrer Scliwachlieit 
voll Laclieus; Vergniigte Ruh', be- auf; Fiirchte dich nicht, ich bin bei 
liebte Seelenlust; Wachet auf, ruft dir; Ich lasse dich nicht, du segnest 
uns die Stinime; Wachet, betet, seid mich denn; Jesu, nieine Freude; 
bereit allezeit; Wahrlicli, ich sage Komm, Jesu, komm; Lobet den Herrn, 
euch; War' Gott nicht mit nns diese alle Heiden; Sei Lob und Preis mit 
Zeit; Warum betriibst du dich, mein Ehren; Singet dem Herrn ein ncues 
Herz; Was frag' ich nach der Welt; Lied. Oratorios. Easter Oratorio; 
Was Gott thut, das ist wohlgethan; Christmas Oratorio. Masses. Grand 
Was mein Gott will, das g'scheh' all- Mass in B minor; Mass in F major; 
zeit; Was soil ich aus dir machen, Mass in A major; Mass in G minor; 
Ephraim? Was willst du dich be- Mass in G major; Magnificat in D 
triiben; Weinen, Klagen, Sorgen, major; 5 Sancti in C major, D 
Zagen; Wer da glaubet und getauft major, D minor, G major, D major, 
wird; Wer Dank opfert, der preiset Passion Music. St. John Pas- 
mich; Wer mich liebet, der wird sion; St. Matthew Passion; St. 
mein Wort halten; Wer nur den Matthew Passion; St. Luke Passion 
lieben Gott lasst walten; Wer sich (from the Bach MSS., composer not 
selbst erhohet, der soil emiedriget ascertained ) . Songs and Arias, 
werden; Wer weiss, wie nahe mir Sacred Songs and Arias from the 
mein Ende ; Widerstehe doch der " Schemelli's Gesangbuch " and the 
Siinde ; Wie schon leuchtet der Mor- " Notenbuch " of Anna Magdalena 
genstern; Wir danken dir, Gott, wir Bach; Chorales for mixed Voices, 
danken dir; W'ir miissen durch viel Overtures (Suites). C major, B 
Triibsal; Wo gehest du bin; W'o minor. D major, D major. Concertos. 
Gott der Herr nicht bei uns hillt; F major, F major, G major, G major. 
Wo soil ich fliehen bin; Wohl dem, B fiat major; Concertos for one 
der sich auf seinen Gott. Secular Piano: D minor, E major, D major, 
Cantatas. Amore traditore; Ange- A major, F minor, G minor, F major, 
nehmes Wiederau. Dramma per mu- A minor, D major; Concertos for two 
sica; Auf schmetternde Tone. Drama Pianos: C minor, C major, C minor; 
zum Namenstage Augusts III; Gesch- Concertos for three Pianos; D minor, 
winde, ihr wirbelnden Winde. Der C major; Concertos for four Pianos: 
Streit zwischen Phoebus und Pan; A minor; Concertos for Violin: A 
H()chsterwiinschtes Freudenfest; Ich minor, E major, D minor, Symphony- 
bin in mir vergniigt. Von der Ver- Movements in D major. Chamber 
gniigsamkeit; Lasst uns sorgen, lasst Music. For Violin Solo: Sonata in 
uns wachen. Die Wahl des Herkules; G minor; Sonata in B minor; So- 
]\Ter hahn en neue Oberkeet; Mit nata in A minor; Sonata in D minor; 
Gnaden bekriine der Himmel die Zei- Sonata in C major; Sonata in E 
ten; O angenehme Melodei ; O holder major. For Pianoforte and Violin: 
Tag, erwiinschte Zeit; Non so che sia Suite in A major; Sonata in B minor; 
Dolore; Preise dein Gliick; Sehleicht, Sonata in A major; Sonata in E 
spielende Wellen. Drama auf das major; Sonata in C minor; Sonata 
Geburtsfest Augusts III; Schweigt, in F minor; Sonata in G major; 
stille, plaudert nicht. Kaffee-Kantate ; Sonata in E minor; Fugue in D 
Schwingt freudig euch empor. Die minor. For Pianoforte and Flute: 
Freude reget sich; Tonet, ihr Pauken! Sonata in B minor; Sonata in E flat 
Erschallet, Trompeten. Dramma per major; Sonata in A major; Sonata 
musica; Vereinigte Zwietracht der in C major; Sonata in E minor; 
wechselnden Saiten. Dramma zu einer Sonata in E major. For Violoncello 
T'niversitiitsfeier; Was mir behagt, ist Solo: Suite in G major; Suite in 
nur die muntre Jagd; Wcichet nur, D minor; Suite in C major; Suite 
betrubte Schatten; Zerreisset, zer- in E Hat major; Suite in C minor; 




Suite in D major. For Pianoforte 
and Viola da gamba or 'Cello: So- 
nata in G major; Sonata in D major; 
Sonata in G minor; Sonata in C 
major for two Violins and Pianoforte ; 
Sonata in G major for Flute, Violin 
and Pianoforte ; Sonata from " Mu- 
sikalisclies Opfer " for Flute, Violin 
and Pianoforte. Organ Works. Pre- 
ludes and Fugues in C major, C minor, 
C major, A minor, E minor, B minor, 
A major, G major, E Hat, D major, 
D minor, F minor, G minor; Fan- 
tasias and Fugues in G minor, C 
minor, A minor ; Toccatas and Fugues 
in F major, E major, D minor, C 
major, D minor; Preludes and Fugues 
in G major, E minor, A minor, C 
major, C minor; Eight short Pre- 
ludes and Fugues in C major, D 
minor, E minor, F major, G major, 
G minor, A minor and B tiat major; 
Prelude in C major; Prelude in G 
major; Prelude in A minor; Fugues 
in C minor, C minor, G major, G 
major, G minor, B minor; Canzona in 
D minor; AUabreve in D major; 
Fantasias in C major, C minor, G 
major, G major, B minor; Pastorale 
in F major; Trio in D minor; Con- 
certo in G major; Concerto in A 
minor; Concerto in C major; Con- 
certo movement in C major; Passa- 
caglia in C minor; Sonatas I., in E 
flat major, II., in C minor. III., in 
D minor, IV., in E minor, V., in C 
major, VI., in G major; " Orgel- 
biichlein," 46 short Prel. to Chorales; 
Variations on Chorale : " Christ der 
du bist der helle Tag"; Variations 
on Chorale : " O Gott, du frommer 
Gott"; Variations on Chorale: " Sei 
gegriisset Jesu giitig! "; Variations 
in Canon Form on : " Vom Himmel 
hoch da komm ich her"; Chorale 
Preludes on melody-texts by A — J; 
Chorale Preludes on melody-texts by 
K— W; Piano ("Clavier""). Pre- 
ludes, Inventions, Cappriccio, Suites; 
Six English Suites; Klavier-Uebung. 
Six Partitas; Klavier-Uebung. Ital- 
ian Concerto. The " Partita " or 
French Overture, four Duets. Aria 
with 30 Variations ( " Goldberger 
Variations"); The Well Tempered 
Clavier, vol. I.; The Well Tempered 

Clavier, vol. II. ; 3 Toccatas, Fugiie 
in A minor. Fantasia and Fugue in 
A minor, Chromatic Fantasia and 
Fugue in D minor, 2 Fantasias, Pre- 
lude and Fugue in E flat, 2 Preludes 
and Fughettas, 2 Fugues in C, 3 
Fugues in C minor, E minor, D minor; 
Suites in A minor and in E flat, Over- 
ture (Suite) in F, Sonata in D, Fan- 
tasia and Fugue in D, Toccatas in 
E minor and G, Toccata and Fugue, 
Prelude and Fugue in E flat, A minor, 
A minor. Prelude and Fughetta in F, 
G; Preludes, Prelude in C, Prelude 
(Fantasia) in A minor, Aria variata 
in A minor; Prelude (Fantasia) in 
C minor. Fantasia in G minor. — 
Fantasia on a Rondo in C minor. 
Fugues in C min. A., C, A min., D 
min., A. Fugues on a theme of Al- 
binoni in A a B min. Capriccios in 
E. 3 Minuets in G; Sonata in D 
min.. Suite in E. Adagio in G. So- 
nata in A min. 2 Fugues in B flat. 
10 Concertos arranged fiom Concertos 
by Benedetto Rlarcello, G Ph. Tele- 
mann, A. Vivaldi. See: Spitta's J. S. 
Bach, 2 vols., 1873-80, Leipsic; trans. 
English, Clara Bell and J. A. Fuller 
Maitland, London, 1884; " Ueber 
Bach's Leben, Kunst und Kunstwerke," 
Forkel ; trans. English, Samuel Wes- 
ley. 1820; "Life," Miss Shuttleworth ; 
and the annual publications of the 
Bach Gesellschaft. 

Bach (Carl Philipp Emanuel) 
composed concertos, sonatas, instru- 
mental pieces, etc., with such grace 
and skill that he was for a time deemed 
the superior of his illustrious father, 
JOHANN SEBASTIAN ; wrote " Vor- 
such iiber die wahre Art das Clavier 
zu spielen." setting forth the prin- 
ciples of Johann Sebastian, describing 
the ornaments employed. This book 
may be said to have directed the de- 
velopment of modern piano playing. 
B. Mar. 8, 1714, Weimar, called the 
" Berlin " or " Hamburg " Bach ; edu- 
cated at Tliomasschule ; studied law 
at Leipsic and Frankfort universities; 
entered service of Frederick of Prus- 
sia, 1738, with whom he remained 
until 1767, when called to Hamburg in 
succession to Telemann. Composed 
oratorios "Die Israeliten in der 


Wuste," " Die Auferstehung und Him- 
melfahrt Jesu," 22 Passions, 210 solo 
pieces. D. 1788. 

Bach Choir was organized in Lon- 
don, 1875, for the performance of the 
High Mass in B minor. Otto Gold- 
schmidt, Sir C. Villiers Stanford, and 
Dr. H. Walford Davies have been the 
conductors, and much excellent classic 
music has been revealed to English 
ears by it. 

Bach Festivals. See MORAVIAN 

Bach Gesellschaft was formed by 
Schumann, Hauptmann, Otto Jahn, 
C. F. Becker, aided by Breitkopf & 
Hiirtel, and approved by Spohr, Liszt, 
etc., to publish all authentic works of 
Joliann Sebastian Bach. This excel- 
lent purpose was accomplished after 
46 annual publications. The " Neue 
Bach Gesellschaft " was then formed 
to publish the complete issue in piano 

Bach Society was formed in Lon- 
don, Oct. 27, 1849, to collect the com- 
positions of J. S. Bach, or books or 
MS. bearing on his life and work. Tlie 
collection passed into the custody of 
the Royal Academy of Music when the 
society disbanded. Mar. 21, 1870. 

Bache (Francis Edward) composed 
unpublished operas " Rubezahl " and 
" Which is Which," an overture and 
piano music. B. Birmingham, Eng., 
Sept. 14, 18.33; d. Aug. 24, 1858. 

Bache (Walter) gave concerts at 
which important works of Liszt were 
first heard in London; taught piano. 
Royal Academy of Music. B. Birming- 
ham. Eng., June 19, 1842; younger 
brother, FRANCIS EDWARD,' d. Lon- 
don, ]\Iar. 26, 1888. See " Brother 
Musicians," memoir by their sister 
Constance Bache, London, 1901. 

Bachmann (Sixtus) composed 
masses; boyish rival of Mozart as or- 
ganist. B. July 18, 1754, Ketter- 
hauscn. Bavaria; entered the Church; 
d. near Vienna, 1818. 

Bachofen (Johann Caspar) com- 
posed hymns and ttnight in Zfirich ; 
directed " Chorherrn Gesellschaft." 
B. Zurich. 1697; d. 1755. 

Back. Tjowor part of the sounding 
box of string instruments, connected 


in viols to the sounding board or 
belly by a soimd post set beneath the 
bridge. Its construction and material 
vitally affect the quality of the tone 

Back Choir Organ. Permits the 
player to sit with his back to the 
instrument; RUCKPOSITIV. 

Backer-Grondahl (Agathe- Ur- 
sula) composed songs and played 
piano; pupil of Kjerulf, Kullak, and 
Biilow; m. O. A. Gnindahl, Christi- 
ania, 1775. B. Holmestrand, Norway, 
Dec. 1, 1847; add. Christiania. 

Backfall. Harpsichord or lute 

Bacon (Richard Mackenzie) 
founded the Norwich (Eng.) Trien- 
nial Musical Festival, 1824; wrote 
music criticism ; edited " Quarterly 
Musical Magazine and Review," Eng- 
land's first music periodical, and the 
Norwich Mercury. B. Norwich, May 1, 
1776; d. Nov. 27, 1844. 

Badiali (Cesare) composed songa, 
sang bass with distinction in opera at 
Milan, Vienna, etc. Debut, Trieste, 
1827; d. Imola. Nov. 17, 1865. 

Badinage. Fr. Plavfulness. 

Bagatelle. Fr. " A trifle," sketch. 

Bagge (Selmar) wrote music criti- 
cism and composed; taught composi- 
tion, Vienna Conservatory. B. June 
30, 1823 ; son of the rector of the Co- 
burg gymnase; d. July 17, 1896, 

Bagpipes were played by the an- 
cient Greeks ; were the martial instru- 
ments of Roman armies; during the 
middle ages were common in every 
part of Europe for religious as well as 
secular music, but have gradually dis- 
appeared with the advance of musical 
culture in most civilized countries. 
The characteristics of all bagpipes, 
whether in remote Asia, where the in- 
strument doubtless originated and is 
still played, in Calabria or Scotland, 
are the windchest or bag, the chaunter 
or melody pipe, and the drones or fixed 
pipes. In all cases the pipes are fitted 
with reeds. The compass and scale of 
bagpipes differ with the country of 
their origin. The modern Irish bag- 
pipe, which is the most perfect and 
elaborate now in use, has seven finger 




holes, a thumb hole, and eight keys 
with a chromatic scale from d ' to d ' ' ' 
on the chaunter, and four drones. The 
ecale of the Highland bagpipe is neither 
diatonic nor equal tempered, but rather 
akin to certain oriental modes. 

Baguette. Fr. Drumstick. 

Bai (Tommaso) composed a " Mis- 
erere " ranked with those of Pales- 
trina and AUegri ; chapelmaster of the 
Vatican. B. Crevalcuore, near Bo- 
logna; d. Dec. 22. 1714. 

Baildon (Joseph) won a Catch 
Club prize, 176,3, with his glee " When 
Gay Bacchus Fills My Breast"; pub- 
lished collections of songs; sang in 
Eng. Chapel Royal. B. about 1727; 
d. May 7, 1774. 

Baillot (Pierre Marie Frangois de 
Sales) composed extensively for vio- 
lin ; compiled and edited " Methode de 
Violon " with Rode and Kreutzer ; 
ranked with the greatest of French 
violinists and was the last exponent of 
the classic style taught in Paris before 
the Paganini furore ; wrote " Art du 
Violon," 1834. B. Oct. 1, 1771, Passy, 
near Paris; d. Sept. 15, 1842. 

Baini (Giuseppe) wrote " Memorie 
Storico Critiche " ( Rome, 1828 ) , which 
is at once a biography of Palestrina 
and a review of his compositions, and 
other works on music; composed a 
ten-part " Miserere," still sung in 
the Pontifical Chapel, Rome, of which 
he was master. B. Rome, Oct. 21, 
1775; entered the Church ; d. May 21, 

Baisser. Fr. To lower. 

Baker (George) played violin, 
organ; composed. B. Exeter, Eng., 
1773; d. Feb. 19, 1847. 

Baker (Theodore, Ph.D.) wrote 
" Dictionary of Musicians," " Diction- 
ary of Music," etc.; acted as literary 
adviser and edited for G. Schirmer 
Co.; add. New York City. 

Balafo. An African XYLOPHONE. 

Balalaika. Crude two-stringed 
guitar used by Russian peasants. 

Balakirev (Mily Alexeivich) or- 
ganized what is called the New Rus- 
sian School; founded the Free School 
of Music in St. Petersburg, 18G2, aided 
by Lomakin and Von Stassov; com- 
posed the symphonic poem " Tamara," 

overtures, a symphony; published col- 
lection of folk songs. B. Nijny- 
Novgorod, Dec. 31, 1836; chai>el- 
master to the Czar, 1869; add. St. 

Balancement. Fr. Tremolo. 

Balatka (Hans) composed can- 
tatas; founded Milwaukee Musikve- 
rein, 1860; conducted Chicago Phil- 
harmonic Society. B. Hoffnungsthal, 
Moravia, 1827 ; d. Chicago, 1899. 

Balbi (Lodovico) composed church 
music ; directed in Venice and Padua ; 
Venetian monk, 16th centurs^ 

Baldassarri (Benedetto) created 
ten. role of Timante in Handel's opera 
" Floridante." 

Baldenecker (Nicolaus) founded 
amateur concerts with Schelble. from 
which the Frankfort Caecilien-Verein 
was developed. B. Mayence, 1782; 
first violin Frankfort Theatre, 1803-51. 

Baldi sang counter ten. in operas 
of Handel and Bononcini, 1725-28. 

Balelli sang bass in Italian opera, 

Balf e (Michael William) composed 
" BOHEMIAN GIRL," and in all 31 
operas, several of which were success- 
ful in France and Germany. Bom in 
Dublin, May 15, 1808, son of a dancing 
master, he composed a polacca for band 
at seven, gave a violin concert at nine, 
and Avrote a popular ballad ; became 
pupil of Charles Edward Horn in Lon- 
don, 1823; played violin and some- 
times led the Drury Lane orchestra ; 
went to Italy under the patronage of 
Count Mazzara, 1825. "La Perouse," 
a ballet written during this period, was 
favourably received. Then he visited 
Rossini in Paris, who promised him an 
appointment as baritone at the Italian 
Opera, and after lessons from Bor- 
dogni, he made a successful debut 
there in 1827 as Figaro in the " Barber 
of Seville." " I Rivali di se stessi," his 
first opera was written in 20 days 
during an engagement at Palermo, 
1829-30. There too he married Lina 
Rosa, a Hungarian singer. " The Siege 
of Rochelle," first of his English operas, 
met with success at Drury Lane, 1835, 
then came " Tlie Maid of Artois," con- 
taining "The Light of Other Days," 
immortalized by Malibran. He sang. 


composed, made a fiasco as manager of 
the Lyceum^ Theatre, and then went to 
Paris, where he produced two works at 
the Opera Comique. In 1843 he re- 
turned to England and produced " Bo- 
hemian Girl," which still holds its 
place in popular affection with Ger- 
man, French, and Italian, as well as 
with English audiences, and which, ex- 
panded to five acts, was performed at 
the Opera Comique, Paris, 1869. Balfe 
died Oct. 20, 1870, at his country 
place, Rowney Abbey. Others of his 
operas are: " Geraldine," "Castle of 
Aymon," " The Maid of Honor," " Pit- 
tore e Duca" ("Moro"), "Satanella," 
" Bianca," " The Puritan's Daughter," 
" The Armourer of Nantes," " Blanche 
de Nevers," " The Knight of the Leop- 
ard " (II Talismano), "The Sleeping 
Queen," and the cantata " Mazeppa," 

Balfe (Victoire) sang in Italian 
opera; debut, 1857; m. Sir John 
Crampton and later Due de Frias; 
daughter of MICHAEL WILLIAM. 

Balgetreter. Ger. Organ blower. 

Balgzug. Ger. Bellows stop. 

Balken. Ger. Bass bar. 

Ballabile. /(. Dance music. 

Ballad meant originally a dance 
song (It. ballata), but was early ap- 
plied to the narrative verses, some- 
times of interminable length, sung by 
the Anglo-Saxon " Sceop " or bard, 
who was generally the author of both 
words and music. Much of the earliest 
ballad verse is still extant for the in- 
spection of the curious, but the musi- 
cal settings have been lost. The sub- 
ject might be romantic, historical, reli- 
gious, sentimental, or satirical, and 
the numerous collections of ballads 
throw valuable light on the history of 
tlie times in which they were written. 
Henry VIII found a royal diversion 
in ballad making, but ballads and 
their makers had fallen into dis- 
repute in Elizabeth's reign, and at 
present the term is applied to street 


Ballade. An indefinite term as ap- 
plied to Instrumental music, although 
Chopin's preserve the rhythm of G-4 
or 0-8 time. 

Ballad Opera. English opera of 


was a type. The dialogue is spoken 
throughout, and the songs are set to 
ballad tunes. 

Ballard (Robert) obtained a grant 
from Henri II of France which en- 
abled his family to monopolize music 
printing in that kingdom for two 
centuries ending 1766. 

Ballerina. It. Ballet dancer. 

Ballata. It. A song tune which 
may be danced. 

Ballatetta. It. A little ballata. 

Ballet. Fr. Originally a dance song 
with vocal harmonies, the ballet de- 
veloped along the lines of the masque, 
including songs, dances, and a connect- 
ing spoken dialogue; but in modern 
terms ballet means either one of two 
things — a pantomimic play, telling a 
complete story by dancing and gesticu- 
lation to elaborate musical accompani- 
ment, such as Bayer's "Die Puppenfee" 
or Delibes' " Coppelia," or the dancing 
divertissement associated with grand 
opera. The court ballets at which 
Louis XIV played guitar, sang, and 
danced belonged to the earlier or 
masque tj'pe. Ballets exclusively of 
dancing began with the foundation 
of the Academic Royal de Musique, 
at which the courtiers were permitted 
to take part " without derogation of 
their nobility." The dramatic ballet 
is said to have been invented by the 
Duchess of Maine, and her chapelmas- 
ter, Mouret, composed several for the 
Academic in which the dancing was 
assigi:ed ladies of title. From the time 
of Lafontaine, first of professional bal- 
lerinas, the ballet has continued to be 
an indispensable feature in opera at 
the French capital, although it is 
iisually slighted, if not utterly neg- 
lected, in English-speaking countries, 
and is not regarded as indispensable 

Ballo in Maschera. Daniel Fran- 
cois Esprit Auber's opera in five acts, 
to book by Scribe, was first produced 
at the Academic, Paris, Feb. 27, 1833, 
and is preferred in Germany to Verdi's 
opera of the same name, which it in- 
spired. The French version is gener- 
ally called "Gustave III," the English, 
" Gustavus III." In the year 1792 




Gustavus 111, King of Sweden, forms 
a mutual attachment for the wife of his 
confidant, Ankarstrum, wlio has dis- 
covered a plot against the iving's life, 
of which he vainly warns him. Kaul- 
bart, the minister, desires to banish a 
witch, Arvedson, who is said to com- 
pound love pliiltres, but, unwilling to 
commit an act of injustice, Gustavus 
visits the witch in disguise. Malwina, 
Ankarstrom's wife, is seeking a potion 
to release her from her infatuation for 
Gustavus, and he hears the witch tell 
her to gather an herb which grows 
over the graves of criminals, at mid- 
night. When she leaves the witch is 
required to tell the king's fortune, and 
warns him he will be slain by the man 
who next olTers him his hand. Just 
then AnkarstriJm enters, seeking the 
king, and they shake hands. The 
lovers meet in the third act, but An- 
karstiom, who has been watching over 
the king's safety, appears in time to 
prevent the conspirators from attack- 
ing him, gives the king his cloak, and 
promises to return the veiled lady to 
her home. The conspirators attack 
Ankarstrum, his wife loses her veil, 
he recognizes her, then turns from her 
and promises to join the conspiracy. 
Ankarstrom's house is the meeting 
place of the conspirators. Malwina is 
chosen to draw the lots which shall 
decide who is to kill Gustavus, and 
that duty devolves upon her husband. 
Oswald, the king's page, brings an in- 
vitation to a masked ball, and there 
it is determined Gustavus shall die. 
The last act represents the ball-room. 
The king has resolved to abandon his 
pursuit of Malwina, and has appointed 
Ankarstrum Governor of Finland. An 
anonymous note warns Gustavus not 
to appear at the ball, bvit he disregards 
the warning. Oscar tells Ankarstrom 
how to recognize the king, and, as 
Malwina tries to warn Gustavus and 
he is 'handing her Ankarstrfim's com- 
mission, Ankarstrom shoots him. The 
king pardons his murderer before dy- 
ing. Giuseppe Verdi's four-act opera, 
to book adapted by Somma, was com- 
pleted in 1854 for the San Carlo, 
Naples, but was declined for political 
reasons, it being considered unwise to 

portray the assassination of a king. 
Verdi thereupon changed the scene 
from Europe to America, substituting 
for the king " Count Richard, Governor 
of Boston." The counsellor Ankar- 
strom becomes the secretary "Rene"; 
Malwina, " Amelia " ; the Swedish 
witch a negro, " Ulrica " ; and the 
chief conspirators become " Samuel " 
and " Tom." The scene in the witch's 
den has been somewhat expanded, but 
in other respects the plots are identi- 
cal. There being no objection to the 
assassination of a Governor of Boston, 
the opera was presented at Rome, Feb. 
17, 1859, and it has recently been 
revived and included in the repertoire 
of the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York. The principal musical niunbers 
in Verdi's opera are: Act I: "La 
rivedra nell' estasi," Richard ; " Di 
speranze e glorie plena," Rene ; " Volta 
la terrea," Oscar; the witch-music 
"Re del abisso," " Di' tu se fedele," 
Richard; Act II: "Ma dall arido," 
Amelia; "M'suni, M'ami," Richard and 
Amelia; " Odi tu come," trio; Act III: 
" Morro, ma prima in grazia," Amelia ; 
" O doleezzo perdute," Rene ; " Saper 
vorreste," Oscar. 

Ballonzare, It. Wild, reckless 

Baltazarini (Baltagerini) intro- 
duced Italian dances into Paris from 
which opera and ballet were devel- 
oped; played violin; became intend- 
ant of music to Catherine de Medici, 
1577, who changed his name iv 

Baltzar (Thomas) first great vio- 
linist to visit England ; became leader 
of the King's band, 1G61. B. Liibeck, 
1G30; d. London. July 27, 1663. 

Bancliieri (Adriano) founded the 
Accademia Florida of Bologna, 1623; 
wrote rviles for playing accompani- 
ment from figured bass, and other 
book's on theory; composed church 
music and played organ. B. Bologna, 
about 1567; abbot of Mt. Oliveto; d. 
1634, Bologna. 

Band. Instrumental musicians 
grouped for performance, as a mili- 
tary band, brass band, string band, 
or other sections of the ORCHESTRA. 

Banda. It. Military band. 


Banderali (Davidde) created buifo B. Crema, Lombardy, 1759; m. Zac- 

ten. roles; taught singing in Milan caria Banti, the dancer; d. Bologna, 

and Paris conservatories. B. Lodi, Feb. 18, 1800. 

Jan. 12, 1789; d. June 13, 1849, Paris. Bantock (Granville) conducted or- 

Bandini (Uberto) won Turin musi- chestral concerts, New Brighton, Eng., 
cal prize with overture "Eleonora"; 1897-1901, bringing out works by Mac- 
composed synipliony and " II Bacca- keitzie. Parry, Stanford, Corder, Ger- 
iiale " for orclieslra. B. Kieti, Unibi ia, man, Elgar, Cowen, thus aiding in the 
Mar. 28, 1860. development of British music; cora- 

Bandola or Bandolon. It. Variety posed the operaa " Caedmar," " The 

of lute played with plectrum. ^ Pearl of Iran," 1890; " The Fire Wor- 

Bandore. English variation of shippers," dramatic cantata, 1892; 

Greek Pandoura invented by John " Christus," festival symphony. 

Rose, of London, 1561, having twelve 1901. B. London, Aug. 7, 1868; won 

steel strings. IVIacfarren scholarship, Royal Acad- 

Bandrowski, Bitter von (Alex) emy of Music; toured the world, 
sang ten. at Cologne, St. Petersburg, 1894-95, as conductor of a George Ed- 
New York. B. Galicia, April 22, 1800. wardes production; principal Bir- 

Banestre (Gilbert) composed; mingham and Midland Institute 

Master of Children of the Chapel Scliool of Music, 1900; coiidiicfor 

Royal, Eng., succeeding Henry Abing- Wolverlianipton Festival Choral So- 

don, 16th century. ciety, 1902 ; add. Birmiiigliara. 

Banister (Henry Charles) wrote Baptie (David) wrote "Handbook 

"Musical Art and Study," 1888, "The of Musical Biography," 1883, com- 

Harmonizing of Melodies," 1897; com- posed glees; edited hymn books. B. 

posed and lectured. B. London, June Edinburgh, Nov. 30, 1822. 

13,1831; d. Nov. 20, 1897. Baptiste. Professional name of 

Banister (John) was first to estab- BAPTISTE ANET. 

lish concerts at a profit in London; Baptistin (Jean) composed three 

advertised in the London Gazette, Dec. operas, 15 ballets, cantatas; played 

30, 1672; composed; became King's 'cello at Paris Opera. B. Florence, 

violinist. B. London, 1630; d. Oct. 3, 1690; real name Johann Baptist 

1679. John played first violin at first Struck; d. 1755. 

performance of Italian operas in Eng- Bar divides the time of a composi- 

lish form; musician to Charles II, tion into measures or bars; is a verti- 

James II, William and Mary, and cal line across the stave; when 

A.nne. B. London; son of JOHN; d. doubled, indicates close of a strain 

1735. which, if dotted, is to be repeated. 

Banjo. Popular American instru- Bars determine the position of accent 
ment of the guitar type which may and were used for that purpose be- 
have developed from the banja or fore the adoption of modern musical 
bania brought over from Africa by notation. 

slaves; consists of a hoop over which Barbaja (Domenico) managed La 

parchment is stretched, as a sounding Scala and San Carlo operas in Italy 

board, to which is attached a handle and " Kiirnthnerthor " and "Auf der 

or keyboard. There are generally five Wien " theatres in Vienna. Began 

strings. life as a waiter; gave employment to 

Banks (Benjamin) made violins in greatest singers of his time; first pro- 
London, 1750-95. Benjamin, Jr., duced many operas of Bellini, Doni- 
James, and H. Banks, his three sons, zetti, and Rossini. B. Milan, 1778; 
also made violins. d. Oct. 16, 1841. 

Banti (Brigitta Giorgi) possessed Barbaro. It. Barbarous, 

soprano of great purity and range; Barber of Bagdad, Peter Cor- 

8a ng with great success in opera, 1778- nelius' two-act comic opera to his own 

1802, though never a good musician, libretto was produced at Weimar by 

having been originally a street singer. Liszt, Dec. 10, 1858, where its failure 




caused l^iszt's retirement. Years after 
Cornelius' death it was revived in 
German and English with complete 
success. The story deals with the 
famous barber of the Arabian Nights, 
and his interference with the love 
affairs of Nurredin and Margiana. 

Barber of Seville. The delightful 
" Figaro " comedies of Beaumarchais 
have been the inspiration of many- 
composers. Paisiello's opera was pro- 
duced at St. Petersburg with complete 
success in 1780, and, although Ros- 
sini obtained his permission to treat 
the same subject, it was revived when 
Rossini's opera was presented at Paris, 
and the rival works became the subject 
of heated controversy ; with the result, 
however, that Rossini's alone has sur- 
vived. Rossini's opera, in two acts, 
was written to a libretto by Sterbini, 
and was first performed at Rome, Feb. 
6, 1816. Doctor Bartolo wishes to 
marry his charming ward, Rosina, who 
loves and is loved by Count Almaviva, 
whom she knows as Lindoro. Figaro 
the Barber interests himself in the 
affairs of the lovers; suggests that 
the Count obtain entrance to Bartolo's 
aouse in the guise of a soldier with a 
Dillet for lodgings; tells Rosina of 
Almaviva's love for her, and carries a 
note to him from her. Bartolo's sus- 
picions are aroused by Rosina's inky 
finger, and when the pretended soldier 
appears, he sends Rosina from the 
room, and declares he has a license 
against billets. While he looks for the 
license Almaviva makes love to Rosina, 
and Bartolo, on discovering this, makes 
such a row that the guards enter and 
Almaviva is obliged to retire. The 
second act reveals Almaviva once more 
in Bartolo's house, this time disguised 
as a singing master, come to replace 
Basilio, who is ill. In the love scene 
which follows Rosina is permitted to 
interpolate songs at discretion, as 
Rossini's music has been lost. Un- 
fortunately the real Basilio presents 
himself, but Figaro bribes him to 
silence, and an elopement is planned 
for that night. Bartolo has obtained 
a note of Rosina's to Almaviva ; sends 
for a notary to hasten his own wed- 
ding with her, and then tries to make 

her believe that Lindoro and Figaro 
have conspired to betray her to Count 
Almaviva. Rosina hears with delight 
that Lindoro and Almaviva are one 
and the same, the notary is bribed, and 
Bartolo is tricked into signing what 
he believes is a contract of marriage 
between himself and his ward, but 
which is really the marriage contract 
of Rosina and Almaviva. His rage is 
allayed when Almaviva presents him 
with Rosina's dowry. The original 
east consisted of Figaro, Zamboni, 
bar. ; Almaviva, Garcia, ten. ; Bar- 
tolo, Botticelli, bass ; Basilio, Vitta- 
relli, bass; Rosina, Giogi Righetti, 
sop. ; Berta, Signorina Rossi, sop. 
Tlie principal musical numbers are: 
Act 1 : " Ecco ridente 11 cielo " ( ser- 
enade ) , Almaviva ; " Largo al facto- 
tum," Figaro ; " Una voce poco fa," 
Rosina; " Calumny aria," Basilio; " E 
11 maestro io faccio," Rosina and Fi- 
garo; Act II: "Ma vedi 11 mlo des- 
tlno," Bartolo; " Sempre grid! " (Aria 
di Sorbetto), Berta; " Zlttl, zittl," 
terzetto. Subsequent adventures of 
Figaro are the theme of Mozart's 

Barbers of Bassora. John Hul- 
lah's two-act comic opera, to words by 
Madison Morton, was produced Nov. 
11, 18.37, in London. 

Barbi (Alice) sang mez. sop. in 
concert; debut Milan, 1882; wrote 
poems. B. Bologna, 1860, retired 

Barbieri (Francisco Asenjo) com- 
posed 75 operettas, etc. B. Madrid, 
Aug. .3, 1823; d. Feb. 19, 1894. 

Barbireau (Maitre Jacques) com- 
posed church music; taught boys in 
the Antwerp Cathedral, 1448, to his 
death, Aug. 8, 1491. 

Barbiton. The seven-stringed lyre 
of Anacreon; obsolete variety of 

Barcarole. Fr. " Boat song." 
Melodies of Venetian gondoliers, or 
their imitations. 

Barcrofte (Thomas) composed 
church music; played organ Ely Ca- 
thedral, 1579; d. 1610. 

Bards. Celtic minstrel poets held 
in high esteem, whose memory is per- 
petuated in the EISTEDDFODS. 


Bardella (Antonio Naldi) prob- 
ably invented the theorbo, which he 
played at the court of Tuscany, 16th 

Bardi, Count Vernio (Giovanni) 
composed early form of opera per- 
formed in his home by Corsi, Peri, 
Rinuccini, V. Galilei, and others of 
his friends; was attached to court of 
Pope Clement VIII, 16th century. 

Bardone. Obsolete instrument of 
viol family or baryton. 

Bar em. Ger. Organ stop of 
eight feet, or 16 feet closed flute 

Bargaglia (Scipione) first em- 
ployed word " Concerto " ( Dr. Bur- 
ney), composed and wrote on theoiy, 
Naples, 16th century. 

Bargiel (Woldemar) composed 
symphony in C, overtures " Prome- 
theus," ""Zu Einem Trauerspiel," "Me- 
dea " ; numerovis works for piano, 
orchestra, chorus. B. Berlin, Oct. 3, 
1828, half brother of Clara Wieck 
Schumann; pupil Schumann and 
Mendelssohn ; taught in Berlin Hoch- 
schule fiir Musik and headed "Meister- 
schule fiir musikalische Composition "; 
connected with Academy of Fine Arts ; 
D. Berlin, Feb. 23, 1897. 

Barginet or Bergeret. Shepherd 

Baribasso It. Deep bass. 

Bariolage. Fr. Medley; ca- 

Baritenor. Low tenor. 

Baritone. Male voice between bass 
and tenor, and partaking qualities of 
both, extreme range being G to g'. 
Mozart was first to compose important 
music for this voice, although its 
earlier recognition is proved by the 
special baritone clef (F placed on the 
stave's third line ) , now obsolete, but 
used by Purcell and Handel. The 
term isalso applied to the Saxhorn in 
B flat or C, and to other instruments 
of intermediate range. 

Baritone. It. Baritone. 

Barker (Charles Spackman) in- 
vented the pneumatic organ lever, elec- 
tric organ, and built organs under firm 
name of Barker & Verachneider. B. 
Bath, Eng., Oct. 10, 1806; went to 
Paris, 1837; returned to England, 


1870; d. Maidstone, Eng., Nov. 26, 

Barmann (Heinrich Joseph) 
played and composed for clarinet, friend 
of Meyerbeer, Weber, and Mendelssohn. 
B. Potsdam, Feb. 14, 1784; d. June 11, 
1847, Munich. Karl played bassoon 
in Berlin royal band. B. Potsdam; 
brother of HEINPJCH JOSEPH; d. 
1842. Karl played clarinet; wrote 
a "Clarinet School." B. 1820, Mu- 
nich; son of HEINRICH JOSEPH; 
d. May 24, 1885. Karl taught music 
in Munich and Boston, Mass., 1881. 
B. July 9, 1839; son of KARL; pupil 
of Liszt, Lachner; add. Boston. 

Barley (William) succeeded to 
music printing business conferred by 
Queen Elizabeth's patent upon Thomas 
Morley. Publications are dated Lon- 
don, 1596 to 1609. 

Barnard (Charlotte Alington) 
wrote the " Claribel " ballads. B. Dec. 
23, 18.30; m. C. C. Barnard, 1854; d. 
Jan. 30, 1869, Dover, Eng. 

Barnard (S.ev. John) published the 
first English collection of cathedral 
music, 1 641 ; canon St. Paul's Cathedral. 

Barnby (Sir Joseph) composed 246 
hymns ; the oratorio " Rebekah " ; 
conducted Royal Academy of Music 
concerts ; was organist and choir- 
master at 12; knighted Aug. 5, 1892. 
B. York, Aug. 12, 1838; d. London, 
Jan. 28, 1896. 

Barnett (John) composed about 
4,000 songs ; " The Mountain Sylph," 
" Fair Rosamund," and " Farinelli," 
operas, the first of which achieved 
great popularity; taught and wrote 
on musical subjects. B. Bedford, 
Eng., July 15, 1802; second cousin 
of Meyerbeer; d. April 16, 1890. 

Barnett (John Francis) composed 
the cantata " The Ancient Mariner " ; 
overture to "The Winter's Tale," 
" The Raising of Lazarus." symphony 
in A minor, " Pastoral Suite " ; son 
of Joseph Alfred Barnett and nephew 
of JOHN; won Queen's Scholarship 
in Royal Academy of Music; played 
pianoforte. B. London, Oct. 16, 1837; 
d. April 20, 1898. 

Baron (Ernst Theophilus) wrote 
on the history and theory of music; 
composed; theorbist to Frederick the 




Great. B. Breslau, Fob. 17, 1C9C; d. 
Berlin, April 12, 17G0. 

Baroness, The. Professional name 
of a German opera singer of Bonon- 
cini's time. 

Barre (Antonio) published music 
in Milan, 1555-88; composed; sang 
at St. Peter's, Rome. 

Barre. Fr. " Bar." Placing the 
finger over all the strings of a lute or 
guitar, which raises the pitch like a 

Barre (Leonard) composed motets 
and madrigals; advised Council of 
Trent on church music; sang in Papal 
Chapel, Rome, 1537-52. 

Barrel Org'an. Tlie common street 
organ which has spread to all parts of 
the world dates from the beginning 
of the 18th century, and is the sim- 
plest form of the many mechanical 
devices for automatically producing 
music, requiring only the turning of 
a handle. The barrel is furnished 
with a series of pegs which open the 
valves as it revolves, admitting cur- 
rents of air to a set of pipes. The 
same movement that turns the barrel 
pumps the bellows. The compass is 
generally about two octaves and a 
half. The barrel may be made to shift 
in position, in which case more than 
one tune can be played. Larger forms 
of barrel organ were once employed in 
churches, but have given way to melo- 
deons. The principle may be studied 
in miniature in the music box, where 
the teeth of a steel comb are set in 
vibration by a barrel. It has been 
applied to such elaborate instruments 
as the " APOLLONICON," and to 
organs for private houses ranging in 
cost from $500 to $8,000, which miitate 
orchestral effect. When provided with 
manuals these elaborate instriunents 
are called "Barrel and Finger Organs." 
Street pianos are also operated by the 
barrel mechanism. 

Barret (Apollon Marie Rose) 
wrote " Com])lete Method for the 
Oboe," on which he was a distin- 
guished soloist. B. France, 1804; d. 
Mar. 8. 1879. 

Barrett (John) composed songs, 
act music, etc. ; played organ. B. 
England, about 1674; d. about 1735. 

Barrett (Thomas) made violins in 

London, 1710-30. 

Barrett (William Alexander) 
wrote music criticism for London 
"Morning Post," 1869-91; a life of 
Balfe, " English Church Composers," 
etc. ; edited with Sir John Stainer 
" Dictionary of jNIusical Terms." B. 
Hackney, Oct. 15, 1834; vicar-choral St. 
Paul's, London, 1870; d. Oct. 17, 1891. 

Barrington, The Hon. (Daines) 
wrote description of Mozart in 1764 
(vol. XI "Philosophical Transactions, 
1780). B. London, 1727; d. 1800. 

Barroco. It. Whimsical, eccentric. 

Barry (Charles Ainslie) composed; 
wrote programme analyses; edited 
" INIontldy Musical Record," London, 
1875-79. B. London, June 10, 1830. 

Barsanti (Francesco) published 
"A Collection of Old Scots Tunes," 
Edinburgh, 1742; composed; played 
llute and oboe. B. Lucca, 1690; went 
to England with Geminiani. 

Bartei (Girolamo) composed; 
chapelmaster Volterra Cathedral ; 
general of Augustinian monks. Rome; 
published eight-voice masses, 1608. 

Barth (Karl Heinrich) taught 
piano in the Hochschule, Berlin, 1871; 
highly esteemed as concert pianist. B. 
Pillau, Prussia, July 12, 1847. 

Barth (Richard) directed Ham- 
burg Singakademie and Philharmonic 
concerts. B. June 5, 1850, Grosswanz- 
leben. Saxony; violin pupil of Joa- 
chim ; add. Hamburg. 

Barthel (Johann Christian) 
played organ to court of Altenburg, 
1804, until his death. June 10. 1831. 

Barthelemon (Frangois Hippo- 
lyte) composed niiisic for " Orpheus." 
at Garrick's request, " A Peep Behind 
the Scene," and other burlettas; m. 
Mary Young, a singer; made success- 
ful tours as concert violinist. B. Bor- 
deaux, July 27, 1741; d. July 20, 

Bartholomew (William) adapted 
most of Mendelssohn's vocal pieces to 
English, and translated libretti. B. 
London, 1793; d. Aug. 18, 1867. 

Bartleman (James) sang bass- 
bar, with distinction at London con- 
certs. B. Westminster, Sept. 19, 1769; 
d. April 15. 1821. 


Bartlett (John) composed " A Book 
of Ayres," 1600, Eng. 

Bartolini (Vincenzio) sang sop. in 
London. 1782, Cassel, 1792. 

Baryton. Obsolete instrument of 
the viol family for which Haydn com- 
posed 175 pieces; had six or seven 
strings like viola da gamba, and from 
seven to 44 sympatlietic metal strings. 

Eas-dessus. Fr. Mez. sop. or sec- 
ond treb. 

Basevi (Abramo) wrote on theory ; 
edited musical periodicals ; composed 
operas; helped found " Societa del 
Quartetto." B. Leghorn, Dec. 29, 1818; 
d. Florence, Xov., 1885. 

Basili (Domenico Andrea) com- 
posed 24 clavier etudes; chajielmaster 
at Loretto. D. 1775. Francesco com- 
posed operas, symphonies; chapel- 
master at St. Peter's, Rome. B. Feb., 
1766, son of DOMENICO ANDREA; 
d. Mar. 25, 1850. 

Bass. The lowest male voice, 
ranging from F ', the lowest tone of 
the rare contra basso voice to tlie bari- 
tone register. The Basso Cantante is 
distinguished from the Basso Pro- 
fundo by its flexibility rather than any 
difference in range. The Basso Buffo 
is a bass com.edian. 

Bass. The tones below middle C in 
the musical system as distinguished 
from those above, which are called 
treble; the grave as opposed to the 

Bassa Ottava. It. The lower octave. 

Bass Bar. Strip of wood glued to 
the belly of a viol under the bass foot 
of the bridge to distribute the 

Bass Clarinet. Is generally set in 
B flat, but also in A and in C. The 
instrument is an octave lower than 

Bass Clef. The F clef, so called from 
having been modified from that letter. 

Bass Drum. The largest DRUM in 
the modern orchestra ; serves to define 
rhythm, but is not tuned. 

Bass Flute. An obsolete bass in- 
strument sometimes made like the 
ordinary FLUTE, but 32 inches long, 
sometimes doubled so that it resembled 
a bassoon. The name has been given 
an eight-foot organ stop. 


Bassgeige. G'er. Bass viol. 

Bass Horn. Deep B flat HORN, 
doubled like a basson which suc- 
ceeded the serpent but has given way 
to the ophicleide. 

Bass Lute. THEORBO. 

Bass Tuba. The lowest of the Sax- 
horns; the euphonium. 

Bassani (Giovanni Battista) com- 
posed six operas and .31 vocal and in- 
strumental works and three oratorios; 
directed music at Bologna and Fer- 
rara Cathedrals; played violin. B. 
Padua, 1057; d. Ferrara, 1717. 

Basse Danse. Stately dance for 
two people in triple time popular in 
France, 15th and 10th centuries. 

Basset Horn. The tenor clarinet, 
set in F, usually made curved for con- 
venience in handling. 

Bassevi (Giacobbe) became man- 
ager of Drury Lane, London; played 
'cello during Garrick's management 
(professional name Cervetto) ; ac- 
cumulated fortune equivalent to 
$100,000. B. Italy, 1682; d. London, 
Jan. 14, 1783. James played violin 
solos at the Haymarket, London, when 
II, and in concert and orchestra until 
the death of his father GIACOBBE, 
when he retired. B. London, 1749; 
d. Feb. 5, 1837. 

Bassi (Luigi) sang women's parts 
in opera at 13; developed as baritone 
and created the name part in " Don 
Giovanni," which Mozart wrote for 
him ; became manager Dresden Italian 
opera, 1815. B. Pesaro, 1766; d. 
Dresden, 1825. 

Bassiron (Philippe) composed 
masses published by Petrucci, 1505. 
B. Netherlands. 

Basso Continue. It. Figured bass 
for piano or organ or THOROUGH 

Basso da Camera. It. Small 
double-bass for solos. 

Basso Ostinato. It. GROUND 

Basso Ripiendo. It. Bass of 
chorus parts. 

Basson Russe. Bass horn. 

Bassoon. The bass of the OBOE, 
ranging from B ' flat to b ' fiat. The 
instniiuoiil is doubled on itself, and 
its resemblance to a bundle of sticks 


is said to have caused Afranio, Canon 
of Fcrrara (the probable inventor) to 
liave named it "fagotto." ]o40. Ad- 
ditional mechanism has raised th(» 
compass of modern instruments to f ' '. 
First introduced in orcliestra about 
1(!71, the bassoon has steadily growTi 
in favour with composers, and Mozart 
wrote a concerto for it with full or- 
chestral accompaniment. 

Bastardella. Nickname of the 
singer ACJUJAPJ. 

Bastien et Bastienne. Mozart's 
operetta written in his 12th j^ear. to 
^\■ords by Schachtner, was performed 
1708 in the Messmers' garden-house 
in Vienna. 

Baston (Josquin) composed motets 
and chansons, Flanders, 16tli century. 

Bates (Joah) founded and first 
conducted London's '' Ancient Con- 
certs." 1776. B. Mar. 19, 1740; m. 
Sarah Harrop, singer, 1780; d. June 
8, 1790. 

Bates (William) composed the 
comic opera '' The Jovial Crew," 
'* Songs sung at ]Marylebon Gardens," 
etc., England. 18th century. 

Bateson (Thomas) first to gradu- 
ate in music from Trinity College, 
Dublin ; composed madrigals ; played 
organ Chester and Dublin Cathedrals. 
D. 1631. 

Bathe (William) invented a " harp 
of new device." which he presented to 
Elizabeth; published his "Brief In- 
troduction to the True art of Mu- 
sicke," 1584, the first of its kind in 
English, " A Brief Introduction to the 
Skill of Song," London. 1600. B. Ire- 
land, grandson of Chief Baron and 
son of Jiulge Bathe; entered Society of 
Jesus; published " Janua Lingua- 
rum," Salamanca, IGll; d. Madrid, 
June 17. 1014. 

Batiste (Antoine Eduard) wrote 
"Petit Solff'ge Harmonique"; wrote 
out accompaniments for figured basses 
of solfeggi by Cherubini and others; 
played and composed for organ, and 
taught at the Paris Conservatoire. 
He was the son of Batiste, the com- 
edian, and uncle of Leo Delibes. B. 
Paris. :Mar. 28. 1820; d. Nov. 9. 1870. 

Baton (Charles) composed ; wrote 
on and played vielle or hurdy-gurdy. 


Called " le jeune." An elder brother, 
Henri, played musette. Paris, 18th 

Baton. Fr. " Stick." Originally 
a long baton was used in conducting, 
which was rapped against the floor. 
Tliis gave way to the small conductor's 
wand. A conductor's manner is called 
liis " baton," and the term is also ap- 
plied to a rest of two or more 

Battaille (Charles Amable) wrote 
on the voice and taught singing in 
Paris Conservatoire. B. Nantes, Sept. 
30, 1S22; d. Paris, May, 1872. 

Battement. Fr. Ornament em- 
ployed in singing. 

Batten (Adrian) composed the full 
anthem " Deliver us. O Lord." services, 
etc., played organ Winchester and St. 
Paul's Cathedrals. 17th century. 

Battere. It. Down beat. 

Batterie. Fr. Roll of drum ; group 
of percussion instruments. 

Battery. Harpsichord agremen, 
which indicated a chord was to be 
played twice. 

Battimento. If. Battement. 

Battishill (Jonathan) composed 
songs, glees, anthems, and dramatic 
music, and played organ in London 
churches. B. London. May, 1738; m. 
Miss Davies, a singer. 1703; d. Dec. 
10. 1801. 

Battle of Prague. Kotzwara's 
programme piece descriptive of the 
contest between the Austrians and 
Prussians, 1757, became immensely 
popular and foreshadowed other com- 
positions of like character. 

Battle Symphony. English name 
of Beethoven's " Wellingtons Sieg, 
Oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria." 

Batton (Desire Alexandre) com- 
posed operas, the failure of which was 
largely due bad librettos; collaborated 
with Auber, Herold. and Carafa in "La 
IMarquise de Brinvilliers "; became 
inspector of branch schools in the 
Paris Conservatoire, 1842. B. Paris, 
Jan. 2, 1797; d. Oct. 15. 1855. 

Battuta. //. Strict time. 

Bauernleyer. Ger. Hurdy-gurdy. 

Bauerpfeife. Ger. Eight-foot or- 
gan stop. 

Baulduin (Noel) directed music at 




Notre Dame, Antwerp, 1513-18; com- 
posed motets, etc. B. Netherlands; 
d. 1529. 

Baumgarten (C. E.) composed 
operas and pantomimes, including 
"Robin Hood," 1786, and "Blue 
Beard," 1792, while leader of the 
English opera at Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, 1780-1794. 

Baxoncillo. Sp. Organ stop like 
open diapason. 

Bayaderes. Dancing girls in East- 
ern temples. 

Bayer (Joseph.) composed tlie bal- 
lets " Die Puppenfee," " Die Braut 
von Korea," " Sonne und Erde," " Die 
Welt in Bild und Tanz "; the operettas 
"Der Schoene Kaspar," "Aleister Men- 
ehius," etc. ; became ballet director 
Vienna Court Opera, 1882. B. 1851; 
add. Vienna. 

Bayles. *S'/). Gipsy dance songs. 

Baylor (Eugene) composed " The 
Margrave Galop " in Richmond, Va., 
March, 1864, while major in the Con- 
federate array, and other popular 
pieces. The " Margrave Galop " was 
long a favorite in the Southern states 
after the close of the Civil War. B. 
Virginia ; add. Winchester, Va. 

Bayly (Bev. Anselm) wrote " A 
Practical Treatise on Singing and 
Playing," 1771; "The Alliance of 
Musick, Poetry, and Oratory," 1789; 
sub-dean of Eng. Chapel Royal, 1764. 
B. Gloucestershire, 1719; d. 1794. 

Bayreuth became the centre of the 
Wagner cult from 1872 when Richard 
Wagner took up his residence there 
and began his plans for the " Festspiel- 
haus," the corner stone of which was 
laid May 22, 1872, with elaborate cere- 
monies, including a performance of 
Beethoven's Choral Symphony. Wag- 
ner societies in all parts of the world 
raised the money for the new theatre, 
which was designed by Gottfried Sem- 
per with suggestions from Wagner, 
and opened in Aug., 1876, with per- 
formances of two cycles of the " Ring 
dos Nibelungen," causing a loss of 
nearly .$40,000. " Parsifal " was per- 
formed there first in July and Aug., 
1882, and was restricted to that 
theatre until Dec. 24, 100.'?, when it 
was produced at the Metropolitan 

Opera, New York, under man- 
agement of Heinrich Conried, Alfred 
Hertz condvicting. An excellent Eng- 
lish production by Henry W. Savage 
followed. Bayreuth has continued to 
be the home of Frau Cosima Wagner, 
and of Siegfried Wagner, who bitterly 
opposed the American productions of 
the " Bunenwehfestspiel " or stage 
festival dedicatory play, as Wagner 
termed " Parsifal." However, the 
music had been made known in con- 
cert form before the New York episode. 
Since the beginning Bayreuth has been 
the principal training school of Wag- 
nerian singers and conductors. 

B Cancellatum. L. B flat can- 
celled by a line drawn through it an- 
ciently used as natural, and from 
which our accidentals are derived. 

B Dur. Clcr. B flat major. 

B Durum. L. B natural. 

Bazin (Frangois Emanuel Jo- 
seph) composed " Le Trompette de 
M. le Prince," " Le Malheur d'etre 
jolie," "La Nuit de la Saint-Svl- 
vestre," " Madelon," " Maitre Pathe- 
lin," " Le Voyage en Chine," operas 
performed at the Op#ra Comique, 
Paris; taught in Paris Conservatoire. 
B. Marseilles, Sept. 4, 1816; d. Paris, 
July 2, 1878. 

Bazzini (Antonio) composed 
" Ronde des Lutins " and other works 
for violin, which he played; directed 
Milan Conservatorv, 1882. B. Mar. 
11, 1818, Brescia; 'd. Milan, Feb. 10, 

Beach (Amy Marcy Cheney) com- 
posed Gaelic Symphony; played 1896, 
Boston Symphony Orchestra ; con- 
certo for piano, which she played with 
Boston S\anphony Orchestra, 1900; 
Mass, E flat, for mixed voices, soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, 1892; "The 
Minstrel and the King," male chorus 
and orchestra, 1902; "Festival Ju- 
bilate," mixed voices and orchestra, 
for the Chicago Exposition, 1893; 
played piano in orchestral concerts 
and recital. Studied with Ernst Pe- 
rabo, Carl Baerjuann, and Junius W. 
Hill; debut Boston Music Hall, Oct. 
24, 1883; m. H. H. A. Beach, 1885. 
B. Ilenniker, N. H., Sept. 5, 1867; add. 




Beale (John) taught piano. Royal 
Acadoiiiy of Music, London. B. Lon- 
don, 17'M\. 

Beale (William) composed " Come 
let u.s join the roundelay " and other 
madrigals and glees; organist in Cam- 
bridge and London. B. Landrake, Eng., 
Jan. 1, 1784; d. London, May li, 

Bearbeitet. Ger. Adapted. 

Beard (John) sang ten. under Han- 
del at Coveiit Garden, London; m. 
Lady Henrietta Herbert, daughter of 
Earl Waldegrave, 1739; retired until 
her death, 1743; sang at Drury Lane 
and Covent Garden ; m. Charlotte 
Rich, whose father owned Covent Gar- 
den, 1759; succeeded to management 
of that house, 1761. B. England, 1717; 
d. Hampton, Feb. 5, 1791. 

Bearings. Notes first established 
in tuning, on which to base the rest of 
the compass. 

Beat. Shake or grace note; motion 
by which conductors indicate accent 
or rhythm; part of measure so indi- 
cated ; throb produced when tones dif- 
fering in pitch are produced together. 

Beatrice di Tenda. Vincenzo Bel- 
lini's opera to libretto by F. Romani, 
was first performed in Venice, 1833. 

Beatrice et Benedict. Hector Ber- 
lioz's two-act opera founded on " Much 
Ado About Nothing," for which he 
also wrote the libretto, was first per- 
formed Aug. 0, 1862, at the opening 
of the Baden Tlieatre under Liszt and 
successfully revived by Mottl. 

Beaulieu (Marie Desire) wrote on 
musical historv; composed the operas 
" Anacreon " ' and " Philadelphie " ; 
founded the Philharmonic Society at 
Niort, which was the pioneer of its 
kind in France and grew into the 
" Association musicale de I'Ouest." 
B. Paris, April 11, 1791 (family name 
Martin) ; d. Niort, Dec. 1863. 

Beauniavielle sang bar. in Cam- 
bert's first French opera " Pomone," 
1671. D. 1688. 

Beauty Stone. Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van's musical play in three acts to text 
bv Comvns Carr and A. W. Pinero, was 
first performed ]\Iay 28, 1898, at the 
Savoy Theatre, London. 

Bebisation. Obsolete solmiza- 

tion commended by Daniel Hitzler, 

Bebung. Ger. Clavichord tremolo; 
tremolo organ stop. 

Bee. Fr. " Beak " or mouthpiece. 

Becarre. Fr. Natural. 

Becco. It. Mouthpiece. 

Becco Polacco. II. Large bagpipe. 

Becher (Alfred Julius) composed 
songs, chamber music; wrote music 
criticism. B. Manchester, April 27, 
1803; studied Heidelberg, (i(ittingcn, 
Berlin; edited the " Radikale," Vi- 
enna ; tried by court-martial and shot, 
Nov. 23, 1848. 

Bechstein (Friedrich Wilhelm 
Carl) founded the Berlin piano busi- 
ness bearing his name, headed in 1908 
by Edwin Bechstein, with branches in 
Paris, London, St. Petersbui-g. B. 
June 1, 1826, Gotha; d. Mar. 6. 1900. 

Beck (Franz) composed 24 sym- 
phonies, a " Stabat Mater"; directed 
concerts in Bordeaux and taught. B. 
Mannheim, 1731; d. Bordeaux, Dec. 
31, 1809. 

Beck (Johann Nepomuk) sang 
principal bar. opera roles at Vienna, 
18.53-88. B. Pesth, May 5, 1828; d. 
Vienna, Sept., 1893. 

Beck (Joseph) sang bar. in opera 
at Frankfort. 1880. B. June 11,1850; 
son of JOHANN NEPOMUK; add. 

Becken. Ger. Cymbal. 

Becker (Albert Ernst Anton) com- 
posed ^lass B flat minor, opera " Lore- 
ley," symphony in G minor, songs, 
chamber music; directed Berlin Doni- 
chor: B. Quedlinburo-, June 13, 18.34; 
d. Berlin. Jan. 10. 1899. 

Becker (Carl Ferdinand) wrote on 
music ; taught organ at Leipsic Con- 
servatory and bequeathed valuable 
music collection to Leipsic. B. July 
17. 1804; d. Leipsic. Oct. 26. 1S77. 

Becker (Constantin Julius) wrote 
" Mitnnergesang-Schule," 1845; com- 
posed opera " Die Belagerung von Bel- 
grad." Leipsic, 1848. a symphony: as- 
sisted Sfhumann in editing " Neue 
Zeitschrift fiir Musik." B. 'Freiberg, 
Feb. 3, 1811 ; d. Oberlossnitz. Feb. 26, 

Becker (Dietrich) published "Mu- 
sikalische Friihlingsfriichte," 1668; 




composer and violinist to the Senate 
of Hamburg, 17th century. 

Becker (Hugo) played 'cello in solo 
and in the "Frankfort Quartet"; 
taught in Frankfort Conservatory. 
B. Strasburg, Feb. 13, 18G4, son of 
JEAN; add. Frankfort. 

Becker (Jacob) founded piano busi- 
ness in St. Petersburg, 1841. B. Ba- 
varian Palatinate. Paul Peterson suc- 
ceeded him, 1871. 

Becker (Jean) played violin with 
distinction ; founded the " Florentine 
Quartet"; led London Philharmonic 
concerts. B. Mannheim, May 11, 
1833; d. Mannheim, Oct. 10, 1884. 

Beckwith (John Charles) played 
organ Norwich Cathedral, succeeding 
his father, JOHN CHRISTMAS. B. 
1788; d. Oct. 11, 1810. 

Beckwith (John Christmas) com- 
posed chants, anthems; played organ 
Norwich Cathedral. B. Norwich, Dee. 
25, 1750; d. June 3, 1809. 

Bedos de Celles (Dom Franqois) 
wrote " L'Art du facteur d'orgues," 
Paris, 1766. B. Caux, France; entered 
Benedictine Order, Toulouse, 1726; d. 
St. Maur, Nov. 25, 1779. 

Beer (Jacob Meyer) was the origi- 
nal name of Giacomo MEYERBEER. 

Beer (Joseph) played, composed for, 
and improved ti\e clarinet by adding a 
fifth key. B. May 18, 1744, Griinwald, 
Bohemia; d. Potsdam. 1811. 

Beethoven, van (Lud'wig) com- 
posed nine great svmphonies, the last 
with chorus, the opera " FIDELIO," 
unsurpassed sonatas for piano, and 
established himself for all time as the 
world's greatest master of absolute 
music. He composed, in fact, in every 
fonu known to his time, often ex- 
panding, sometimes modifying, always 
improving, never inventing. Neither 
formalist nor revolutionist, but over- 
riding rules only when they seemed to 
fetter his genius, assuming no pose 
of mysticism, stooping to such pro- 
gramme music as a battle piece, elevat- 
ing that form to the highest pinnacle 
in the Pastoral Svmphony; revising, 
correcting, rewriting his music with 
infinite patience; striving always for 
higher inspiration and clarity of ex- 
pression, he stood aloof from his con- 

temporaries, and he stands alone to- 
day — a sun in the musical firmament 
wherein other composers are the stars, 
the planets, the comets, if you will, — ■ 
or merely the satellites. He was bap- 
tized at Bonn, Dec. 17, 1770, from 
which it may be infen-ed that he was 
born on the previous day. The Bee- 
thovens were not noble, but followed 
the Dutch custom of indicating their 
place of origin by the prefix " van." 
This appears to have been an obscure 
village near Louvain, whence they mi- 
grated to Antwerp in 1650. Ludwig 
van Beethoven went from there to 
Bonn as musician and bass singer to 
the Elector of Cologne. His son 
Johann sang tenor, and became elec- 
toral chapelmaster in Mar., 1773. On 
Nov. 12, 1767, Johann married Maria 
Magdalena Leyrn, bom Keverich, wid- 
owed daughter of the chief cook at 
Ehrenbreitstein, from which union 
were born seven children, the subject 
of this sketch being second, and the 
eldest to survive infancy. Since 1889 
No. 515 Bonngasse, where Ludwig was 
born, has been reserved as a memorial, 
having been purchased by an associa- 
tion of which the late Dr. Joachim 
was president. The elder Ludwig sur- 
vived until Dec. 24, 1773, when his 
grandson, who distinctly remembered 
him in after life, was three years old. 
Young Ludwig began to study both 
clavier and violin when four years of 
age. To these studies his father added 
the three Rs, and until he was 13 he 
picked up a little Latin at a public 
school. At eight he played in public, 
and the following year, having nothing 
more to learn from his father, took 
lessons from PfeiflFer, a musician at- 
tached to the Bonn opera, and studied 
organ Avith Van den Eeden. At the age 
of 10 he composed variations, which 
were published in 1783. Neefe, who 
succeeded to the post of court organist 
and likewise taught Beethoven, pre- 
dicted that he would become a second 
ISIozart, and left him in charge of the 
organ when not yet 12 years old 
Beethoven could then play nearly all 
of Bach's Well Tempered Clavier, and 
read well jit sight. At 12 the child 
became cembalist to the orchestra, 




wliicli required that he should con- 
duct the opera band. In this position 
be became aetiuainted witli operas by 
(lluck, Paisiello, Salieri, and Sarti. 
Three sonatas for solo, piano, and the 
sonf^ " Schilderunf? eines JSliidehens," 
published in 178.3, appear to have been 
composed at this time. For his work 
in the theatre the lad received no 
salary, but soon he was appointed as- 
sistant orf^anist to Neefe, and as such 
received 150 florins. On the death of 
Elector Max Friedrich, his successor, 
Max Franz, made a revision of his 
household, reducinfj the allowance to 
Neefe, but without increasing that of 
lieethoven. The song " An einem 
Sihigling" and a rondo for piano were 
published in 1784, and in 1785 he pub- 
lished the song " Wenn jemand eine 
Reise thut," three quartets for piano 
and strings, and received violin lessons 
from Franz Ries. Beethoven's first 
visit to Vienna, made in 1787, aflforded 
opportunity for a few lessons from 
Mozart, who is said to have remarked 
on hearing him play: " Pay attention 
to him; he will make a noise in the 
world some day or other," He seems 
likewise to have attracted tlie atten- 
tion of Haydn, who wrote to Artaria, 
" I should like to know who this Lud- 
wig is," but may have had in mind 
some other Ludwig. His sojourn in 
Vienna was abruptly terminated by 
the illness of his mother, who died 
July 17. A piano prelude in F minor 
and a trio in E flat are dated 1787, 
and in that year he formed the 
acquaintance of the widowed Frau von 
Breuning, with whose family he main- 
tained a lifelong friendship, and of 
the young Count Waldstein, to whom 
he afterwards dedicated one of his 
greatest sonatas. Frau von Breuning 
engaged Beethoven to give lessons to 
her little girl and the youngest of her 
tliree sons, and soon made him one of 
the family. His acquaintance with the 
Countess Hatzfeld dates from the 
same period. In 1788 Beethovei. while 
retaining his post of assistant organist 
to the electoral court at Bonn, played 
viola in the opera, which had been re- 
modelled by the Elector, included an 
orchestra of 31, led by Reicha, with an 

extended repertoire and a goodly array 
of singers. Mozart's operas were given 
frecjuently. In this year Beethoven 
was recognized as tlie head of his 
family. His father had lost his voice, 
and had become a drunkard, and, while 
the Elector did not strike him oft' his 
pay roll, he directed part of his salary 
be paid the son. In 1790 Haydn, wlio 
was on his way to London, accom- 
panied by Salomon, was the guest of 
the Elector on Christmas Day. It is 
probable that the two masters, one in 
Ids zenith, the other yet unknown, 
met on this occasion, and it is certain 
that two years later, wlien Haydn was 
returning from London, and again 
stopped at Bonn, Beethoven showed 
him a cantata which he praised highly. 
Two cantatas, one of the death of 
Emperor Joseph, the song " Der freie 
Mann," two piano preludes, the " Venni 
Amore " Aariations, the " Ritter bal- 
let" (possibly arranged by Count 
Waldstein), an octet and a rondino 
for strings, a trio for strings, 14 varia- 
tions in E flat for piano, violin, and 
'cello, 12 variations for violin and 
piano, some songs, and an allegro and 
minuet for two flutes were composed 
in these years. By this time, although 
his compositions were fewer than 
those of other great composers at the 
same age, the Elector seems to have 
become impressed with Beethoven's 
genius, for he arranged to send him 
to Vienna to study with Haydn, pay- 
ing his salary for two years. Bee- 
thoven arrived in Vienna in Nov., 
1792, with a matter of 25 ducats, or 
about $62, in his pockets, and was 
cordially received by Haydn, who is 
reported to have said that he meant 
to set him to work on great operas 
in anticipation of his own retirement. 
He lodged in the garret of a printing 
office outside the city walls, and paid 
about 25 cents an hour for his lessons 
from the most celebrated composer of 
the day. Fux's " Gradus ad Parnas- 
sum " was the text book used. The 
relations between master and pupil 
soon ceased to be cordial, and, al- 
though there was no open disagree- 
ment, Beethoven obtained instruction 
from Schenck in secret, and in 1794, 




when Haydn again went to England, 
studied counterpoint with Albreehts- 
berger and violin with Schuppanzigh. 
Beethoven never acknowledged any 
obligation to Haydn, and as it was the 
rule of that master to keep still when 
he could n't speak well of people, his 
opinion of his pupil is doubtful. Al- 
brechtsberger, however, did not hesi- 
tate to warn his other pupils to let 
Beethoven alone because he was " in- 
capable of learning, and would never 
amount to anything." In 1792 Bee- 
thoven's father died, but the Elector 
continued, at Beethoven's request, to 
pay his salary to his brothers in Bonn 
until Alar., 1794, continuing Beetho- 
ven's own allowance as well. A few 
months later the French Republican 
army seized Bonn, and Beethoven was 
thereafter to regard Vienna as his 
home. Despite bad manners, slovenly 
habits, and a total disregard for con- 
ventions, Beethoven made warm friends 
among the nobility, and Prince and 
Princess Karl Lichnowsky, who had 
already presented him with a quartet 
of strings, now made him an allow- 
ance of 600 guldens per annum, be- 
sides keeping a room at his disposal 
in their house. He quarrelled with his 
friends and patrons on the slightest 
provocation, often without any at all, 
though he sometimes made profuse 
apologies when realizing himself in 
the wrong. An amusing instance of 
his arrogance was displayed when he 
learned that Prince Lichnowsky had 
ordered his servant to answer Bee- 
thoven's bell before his own. Beetho- 
ven thereupon promptly engaged a 
servant for his exclusive use. It may 
be tliat the Viennese regarded his in- 
dependence as a joke, it may be that 
his remarkable powers of improvising 
were weighed against his faults. At 
any rate, he was not merely tolerated, 
but cultivated — by women as well as 
men. His industry in composition was 
prodigioiis. He ordinarily arose about 
five o'clock and worked until noon, 
when dinner was served, but he some- 
times forgot to eat. He often took 
long walks in the afternoon, especially 
if living in one of the many villages 
in the environs of Vienna, as was his 

rule in summer; spending his even- 
ing in society or at the theatre. Dur- 
ing his walks he always carried a note 
book in which to jot down musical 
ideas as they occurred to him, and he 
usually kept several compositions in 
hand at a time, working at each in 
turn, as he felt disposed. He hated to 
be interrupted, and often sang the 
melodies he was writing in a voice far 
from pleasant, strumming at his piano, 
stamping, or roaring aloud. Some- 
times he spent days in rewriting. His 
note books show 18 attempts at one 
aria in " Fidelio " (0 Hoffnung) . The 
irregularity of his habits and his need 
of solitude when composing may have 
had something to do with tlie frequency 
with which he changed his lodging, 
often at great expense and incon- 
venience. In 1795 the list of composi- 
tions written in Vienna included some 
trios, the first three piano sonatas, 
which he dedicated to Haydn; 12 Va- 
riations on " Se vuol ballare," 13 on 
" Es war einmal," eight for four hands 
on Count Waldstein's theme, nine for 
solo piano on " Quant' e piii bello," a 
trio for oboes, corno inglese, and piano, 
and a violin rondo in G, the B fiat 
concerto for piano and orchestra, the 
songs "Adelaide," " Opferlied," and 
"Seufzer eines Ungeliebten"; 12 min- 
uets, 12 Deutsche Tanze for orchestra, 
and the canon " Im Arme der Liebe." 
Heretofore Beethoven had only played 
in private houses in Vienna. Mar. 29, 
1705, he appeared at the annual actors' 
fund benefit at the Burg Theatre, play- 
ing his own concerto in C major; 
two days later playing a concerto of 
Mozart's at the benefit given his widow, 
and on Dec. IS, a concerto of his o^^^l 
at a concert given by Haydn. Jan. 10, 
1796, he played with Haydn again, and 
then visited Nuremberg, and perhaps 
Prague, and finally Berlin, where the 
king gave him a box of gold coin. He 
was in Prague during February, and 
composed " All perfido " for Mme. 
Duscliek, but November found him 
back in Vienna, where he composed a 
farewell song for the troops leaving 
for the Napoleonic wars, and later 
gave a concert with the Rombergs. 
Three piano sonatas (Op. 2), 12 varia- 




tions on a minuet " i\ la Vigano," and 
six minuets for piano were publislied 
in 179G; while many more important 
works were under way. In 1798 Bee- 
thoven met Bernadotte, then French 
ambassador at Vienna, from whom it 
is said he first received the idea of the 
Eroica symphony. His amusing en- 
counter with Steibelt, the pianist, 
occurred at this time. Beetlioven had 
composed a trio for piano, clarinet, 
and 'cello which was played at the 
house of Count Fries. Steibelt had 
assumed a haughty manner, and wlien 
they met again a week later, Steibelt 
produced a new quintet, and extem- 
porized on the finale of Beethoven's 
trio ; whereupon Beethoven took the 
'cello part of Steibelt's composition, 
turned it upside down, and played a 
theme and variations which drove Stei- 
belt out of the house. His encounter 
w'ith Woelfl, which happened on his 
return from two successful concerts 
in Prague, had a more agreeable end- 
ing. The two men played together at 
Count Wetzlar's home, and became 
good friends, although Beethoven did not 
return the compliment Woelfi after- 
wards paid him in dedicating a group 
of sonatas to him. The first concert 
which Beethoven undertook for his own 
benefit in Vienna took place April 2, 
1800, at which his Symphony No. 1, 
which had been completed the previous 
year, and his Septet were produced, 
and at which he played a piano con- 
certo of his o^^^l. April 18 he appeared 
with Punto, the horn player, at a con- 
cert given by the latter. They played 
Beethoven's horn and piano sonata, 
which won an encore despite the Burg 
Theatre's rules to the contrary. In 
this year Beethoven began his practice 
of spending the summer in the country, 
going to Unter-D(')bling, a village two 
miles from Vienna. On his return to 
town he accepted Czerny as a pupil. 
Some idea of Beethoven's business 
methods may be had from the state- 
ment that about this time he sold his 
Septet, Symphony in C, Piano con- 
certo in B flat, and B flat sonata to 
HofFmeister of Leipsie for 20 ducats, 
or about .$50 each, himself reducing 
the concerto to half price on the 

ground that it was by no means one 
of his best. Mar. 28, 1801, his bal- 
let, " Prometheus," was produced at 
the Burg Theatre, where it had a run 
of ](J nights. Its popularity resulted 
in the publication of a piano score, and 
the following year it had a second ruii 
of 13 nights. With money in his 
pocket Beethoven exchanged the lodg- 
ings he had maintained for the past 
two years at No. 241 " im tic fen 
Graben" to the more salubrious Sailer- 
stiltte, whence he could overlook the 
ramparts; and in the summer he 
went to Hetzendorf, where he worked 
at "The Mount of Olives," his ora- 
torio to words by Huber. Beethoven, 
at this time entering upon his most 
prolific and useful period as a com- 
poser, began to have premonitions of 
the deafness which was soon to over- 
take him, and of the liver complaint, 
both the result of a severe malady of 
early manhood, which combined to ren- 
der him melancholy and more irascible 
than ever in later life. His constitvi- 
tion was naturally rugged. Although 
but five feet five inches high, he was 
stockily built, with broad shoulders 
and powerful muscles. His hair, which 
became perfectly white toward the 
close of his life, was black and abun- 
dant; his complexion ruddy, and he 
wore neither beard nor moustache, al- 
though he had to shave up to his eyes. 
His teeth were white and sound; his 
eyes dark, almost black, were very ex- 
pressive, redeeming a face which may 
have been uglJ^ but was not without 
nobility. His fingers were short, 
blunt, covered with hair, but very 
strong. The violin sonatas in A 
minor and F, the grand sonatas for 
piano in A flat and D, and the twin 
sonatas he entitled " Quasi Fantasia," 
the second of which has become known 
as " The IMoonlight " from a refer- 
ence to moonlight in a review by 
Pellstab, were all composed at a time 
when he realized his deafness was pro- 
gressive and incurable, and in which 
he wrote: "Every day I come nearer 
to the aim which I feel, though I 
cannot describe it, and o7i which alone 
your Beethoven can exist. No more 
rest for him! " April 5, 1803, "The 


Mount of Olives " was performed at 
the Theatre an der Wien, and the 
Symphony in D had its tirst hearing, 
wliile Beethoven himself played his 
piano concerto in C minor. The lovely 
and much misiuiderstood " Kreutzer " 
sonata was composed for a concert at 
the Augarten, May 17, and performed 
by Beethoven and Bridgetower, the 
Mulatto violinist. During the summer 
Beethoven was at work upon " Fidelio," 
having promised to write an opera for 
Schikaneder of the Theatre an der 
Wien, and upon the " Eroica." This 
great symphony, which was to have 
been called " Napoleon Bonaparte," 
was completed and ready for trans- 
mission to Paris when the news came 
that Napoleon had made himself em- 
peror. Beethoven, who loved to mingle 
with the nobility, but was always a 
radical at lieart, tore off the title page 
in a rage, and afterwards gave it the 
title which may be translated " Heroic 
symphony to celebrate the memory of 
a great man." His revulsion of feel- 
ing toward Napoleon may have had 
something to do with his subsequent 
choice of " Rule Britannia " and " God 
Save the King " as themes for varia- 
tions. In 1805 Beethoven met Cheru- 
bini, then visiting Vienna, and struck 
up a warm friendship with him. He 
esteemed Cherubini above all living 
composers, and Handel best of those 
who had passed away. The opera 
" Fidelio " was complete on his return 
that year from his customary summer 
sojourn in the country. Beethoven now 
took lodgings in the Theatre an der 
Wien, where the work was performed 
with what is now known as the " Leo- 
nore Overture No. 2," Nov. 20. The 
French were then in possession of 
Vienna, which had a depressing effect 
on the populace. Beethoven had been 
disgusted with the reliearsals, and, 
after the third performance, the work 
was withdrawn. Beethoven consented 
to cut it down from throe acts to two, 
eliminating three numbers, and it was 
again presented, and with better suc- 
cess, Mar. 29, ISOO, until Beethoven 
and Baron T'raini, intendant of the 
theatre, quarrollod, and the composer 
withdrew his work. What is now 


known as the " Leonore Overture 
No. 3 " was played at the second 
series of performances. In March, 
1807, Beethoven received a large siun. 
of money from a benefit concert of his 
own works. The extraordinary pro- 
gramme included his first four sym- 
phonies, the fourth recently completed. 
The sonata in F minor. Op. 57, which 
the Hamburg publislier Cranz has 
called " Appassionata," the Triple con- 
certo, and the 32 Variations for piano 
appeared that year; and in 1808 the 
publications included the " Coriolan " 
overture, three string quartets. Op. 59, 
while the C minor and Pastoral sym- 
phonies, and the Choral Fantasia were 
made known at a concert, Dec. 22, at 
the Theatre an der Wien. Jerome 
Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, at this 
time offered Beethoven a salary equal 
to about $1,500 if he would become 
chapelmaster at Cassel. The offer was 
declined, but it caused Arcliduke Ru- 
dolph and Princes Lobkowitz and Kin- 
sky to guarantee Beethoven an annu- 
ity of about $2,000. Its actual value 
speedily declined with the value of 
paper currency, and finally brought 
him into litigation with the Kinsky 
estate, although the suit was compro- 
mised before trial. The second siege 
of Vienna, a sojourn at Baden, where he 
was somewhat benefited by the baths; 
his engagement to harmonize national 
melodies for Thompson, the Edin- 
burgh publisher; his financial troubles, 
caused by the depreciation of the cur- 
rency in which his annuity was paid; 
Wellington's defeat of the French at 
Vittoria, which inspired " Tlie Battle 
S;vTnphony," Avere external episodes of 
the next five years, during which 
Beethoven composed the " Egmont " 
overture, " King Stephen," " The Ruins 
of Athens," the Seventh and Eighth 
symphonies, and many works of smaller 
proportions. " The Battle Symphony," 
celebrating Wellington's victory, pro- 
gramme music suggested by Maelzel, 
was performed at a great concert, Dec. 
8, 1813, in aid of soldiers wounded at 
Hanau, which was likewise the occa- 
sion of the Seventh Symphony's first 
])erformance, and the programme was 
repeated four days later. The Eighth 


Symphony was first played in Jan., 
1S14, but was not as well loceived as 
the Seventh, " because it is so much 
better," said tlie composer. The death 
of Prince Lichnowsky, Beethoven's 
earliest ])atron and continuous friend, 
and his (juanel with Maelzel, whom 
he sued for taking an unauthorized 
copy of " The Battle Symphony " to 
England, and a successful revival of 
" Fidelio," were events of 1814; and 
during the Congress of Vienna Beetho- 
ven gave two gigantic concerts which 
were attended by all the notables (at 
one he had an audience of 6,000 ) , met 
the Empress of Russia, to whom he 
dedicated a polonaise. Op. 89, and the 
piano arrangement of his Seventh Sym- 
phony in acknowledgment of her pres- 
ent of 200 ducats, or about $500. In 
1815 Caspar Beethoven died, leaving 
his nine year old son to the composer's 
care. Beethoven had long assisted this 
brother and his family, and had be- 
come involved in a quarrel with hia 
devoted friend Stephen Breuning be- 
cause of Caspar. But he detested his 
brother's widow, and only obtained 
possession of his nepliew after bitter 
litigation with her. The lad Carl, 
toward whom Beethoven was always 
kind and indulgent, proved a trouble- 
some and expensive care. There was 
compensation that year in the fact of 
his then receiving his first public 
honour — the freedom of the city of 
Vienna. In 1818 Beethoven began his 
grand Mass, meant for the installation 
of his patron Archduke Rudolph as 
Archbishop of Olmutz, although it was 
not completed until after that event. 
He was also busy with sonatas and 
the great Ninth Sym])hony, and he 
seems to have searched eagerly for an 
opera libretto, without being able to 
find one that suited him. In 1824 
Carl Beethoven, who had failed in his 
examinations at the University and at 
the Polytechnic as well, attempted sui- 
cide, and in consequence was arrested 
and ordered to leave Vienna. Finally 
)ie enlisted in the araiy. but in 1826 
he joined his uncle at the home of Jo- 
hann, another of Beethoven's brothers, 
who had a small estate at Gneixendorf, 
a village near Krems. As the result 


of another quarrel, due the grasping 
nature of Johann, Beethoven deter- 
mined to return with Carl to Vienna, 
but caught cold in making the journey, 
and had to take to his bed on reaching 
Vicuna. The cold resulted in an in- 
llanuuation of the lungs, and to this 
dropsy succeeded. Beethoven was near- 
ing his end. He had completed sketches 
for a Tenth Symphony, a requiem, and 
music for " Faust," and felt that iiis 
best work was yet to come. Tappings 
failed to relieve him, however; he be- 
came emaciated and weak. March 24, 
1827, the sacraments were adminis- 
tered, and on JMonday, March 26, he 
died during a violent thunderstorm. 
There were most elaborate ceremonies 
at the funeral three days later, which 
was attended by a multitude of people 
of every class, and the remains of the 
illustrious composer were interred in 
the Wahringer Cemetery. A complete 
list of Beethoven's works according to 
the Breitkopf and Hiirtel catalogue is 
here annexed. For further study of 
his life see : Beethoven's Letters, 
" Ludwig van Beethovens Leben," A. W. 
Thayer, Berlin, 1866-72-79; " Neue 
Beethoveniana," Theodor Frimmel, Vi- 
enna, 1888-90; " Biographie," Schind- 
ler, Munster, 1840; " Biographische 
Notizen," Wegeler and Ries, Coblenz, 
1838; " Beethoven et ses Trois Styles," 
W. von Lenz, St. Petersburg, 1852; 
" Beethoven," Richard Wagner, Leip- 
sic, 1870; "Beethoven and his Nine 
Symphonies," Sir George Grove, 1898; 
" Ludwig van Beethoven," W. J. Wa- 
sielewski. Leipsic, 1895. Orchestral 
Works. First Symphony, Op. 21 in C ; 
Second Symphony, Op. 36 in D ; Third 
Symphonv, Op. 55 in E flat; Fourth 
Symphony, Op. 60 in B flat; Fifth Sym- 
phony, Op. 67 in C minor; Sixth 
Symphony, Op. 68 in F; Seventh S,>Tn- 
phony. Op. 92 in A ; Eighth Sjon- 
phony, Op. 93 in F; Ninth Symphony, 
Op. 125 in D minor. Miscellaneous 
orchestral works: Wellington's Vic- 
tory or the Battle of Vittoria. Op. 91 ; 
The Creatures of Prometheus, Ballet, 
Op. 43; Music to Goethe's Tragedy 
" Egmont," Op. 84; Allegretto in E 
flat ; March from " Tarpe ja," in C ; 
Military jNIarch, in D; Twelve Min- 




uets, Twelve German Dances, Twelve 
Contra-Dances. Overtures: to Corio- 
lan. Op. 62 in C minor; to Leonore 
(Fidelio). No. 1. Op. 138 in C; to 
Leonore ( Fidelio ) . No. 2. Op. 72 in C ; 
to Leonore (Fidelio). No. 3. Op. 72 
in C; Op. 115 in C; to King Stephen, 
Op. 117 in E flat; Op. 124 in C; to 
Prometheus. Op. 43 in C; to Fidelio 
(Leonore). Op. 72 in E ; to Egmont. 
Op. 84 in F minor; to the Ruins of 
Athens. Op. 113 in G. For Violin and 
Orchestra: Concerto, Op. 61 in D; 
Romance, Op. 40 in G; Romance, Op. 
50 in F. Chamber Music. Septet for 
Violin, Viola, Horn, Clarinet, Bas- 
soon, 'Cello, and Double Bass. Op. 40 
in E flat; Sextet for 2 Violins, Viola, 
'Cello, and 2 Horns obligato. Op. 81b 
in E flat; Quintet for 2 Violins, 2 
Violas, and 'Cello. Op. 29 in C; 
Fugue for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and 
'Cello. Op. 137 in D; Quintet for 
2 Violins, 2 Violas, and 'Cello. Op. 4 
in E flat. From the Octet Op. 103; 
Quintet for 2 Violins, 2 Violas, and 
'Cello. Op. 104 in C minor. From 
the Trio Op. 1, No. 3. String quartets : 
Op. 18, No. 1 in F; Op. 18, No. 2 in 
G; Op. 18, No. 3 in D; Op. 18, No. 4 
in C minor; Op. 18, No. 5 in A; Op. 
18, No. 6 in B flat; Op. 59, No. 1 in F; 
Op. 59, No. 2 in E minor; Op. 59, 
No. 3 in C ; Op. 74 in E flat ; Op. 95 
in F minor; Op. 127 in E flat; Op. 
130 in B flat; Op. 131 in C sharp 
minor; Op. 132 in A minor; Op. 135 
in F; Grand Fugue. Op. 133 in B flat. 
Trios for Violin, Viola, and 'Cello: 
Op. 1 in E flat; Op. 9, No. 1 in G; 
Op. 9, No. 2 in D; Op. 9, No. 3 in C 
minor; Serenade. Op. 8 in D. Wind 
Instruments: Octet for 2 Hautboys, 2 
Clarinets, 2 Horns, and 2 Bassoons. 
Op. 103 in E flat; Rondino for 2 
Hautboys, 2 Clarinets, 2 Horns, and 
2 Bassoons in E flat; Sextet for Clar- 
inet, 2 Horns, and 2 Bassoons. Op. 1 
in E flat; Serenade for Flute, Violin, 
and Viola. Op. 25 in D; Trio for 2 
Hautboys and English Horn. Op. 87 
in C; 3 Duots for Clarinet and Bas- 
soon in C, F, B. Piano and Orchestra : 
First Concerto. Op. 15 in C; Second 
Concerto. Op. 19 in B flat ; Third Con- 
certo. Op. 37 in C minor; Fourth 

Concerto. Op. 58 in G; Fifth Con- 
certo. Op. 73 in E flat; Concerto for 
Piano, Violin, and 'Cello. Op. 56 in C. 
Cadences to the Piano Concertos; 
Fantasia with Chorus. Op. 80 in C 
minor ; Rondo in B flat. Principal 
Part of the Piano Concerto arranged 
from the Violin Concerto Op. 61. 
Piano quintet and quartet: Quintet 
for Piano, Hautboy, Clarinet, Horn, 
and Bassoon. Op. 16 in E flat; 3 
Quartets for Piano, Violin, Viola, and 
'Cello. No. 1 in E flat; No. 2 in D; 
No. 3 in C ; Quartet for Piano, Violin, 
Viola, and 'Cello, from the Quintet 
Op. 16 in E flat. Trios for Piano, 
Violin, and 'Cello: Trio. Op. 1, No. 1 
in E flat; Trio. Op. 1, No. 2 in G; 
Trio. Op. 1, No. 3 in C minor; Trio. 
Op. 70, No. 1 in D; Trio. Op. 70, No. 
2 in E flat; Trio. Op. 97 in B flat; 
Trio in B flat in 1 part; Trio in E 
flat; Variations. Op. 121a in G; 
14 Variations. Op. 44 in E flat; Trio 
for Piano, Clarinet or Violin, and 
'Cello. Op. 11 in B flat; Trio for 
Piano, Violin, and 'Cello from the 
Symphony Op. 36 in D; Trio for 
Piano, Clarinet or Violin, and 'Cello. 
Op. 38 in E flat from the Septet Op. 20. 
For Piano and Violin: Sonata. Op. 
12, No. 1 in D; Sonata. Op. 12, No. 2 
in A; Sonata. Op. 12, No. 3 in E flat; 
Sonata. Op. 23 in A minor; Sonata. 
Op. 24 in F; Sonata. Op. 30, No. 1 
in A; Sonata. Op. 30, No. 2 in C 
minor; Sonata. Op. 30, No. 3 in G; 
Sonata. Op. 47 in A; Sonata. Op. 96 
inG; Rondo in G; 12 Variations (Se 
vuol ballare) in F. For Piano and 
'Cello: Sonata. Op. 5, No. 1 in F; 
Sonata. Op. 5, No. 2 in G minor; 
Sonata. Op. 69 in A; Sonata. Op. 
102, No. 1 in C; Sonata. Op. 102, No. 

2 in D; 12 Variations (.Judas Macca- 
baeus) in G; 12 Variations (A girl or 
a beloved wife). Op. 66 in F; 7 Vari- 
ations (Men who feel the power of 
Love) in E flat. For Piano and Wind 
Instruments: Sonata. Op. 17 with 
Horn, in F; 6 varied Themes. Op. 
105, for Piano solo or with Flute or 
Violin; 10 varied Themes. Op. 107, 
for Piano solo or with Flute or Violin. 
Piano Duets: Sonata. Op. 6 in D; 

3 Marches. Op. 45 in C, E flat, D; 




Variations (W'aldstein) in C; 6 Vari- 
ations (Song with variations) in D. 
The Piano tSonatas: Op. 2, No. 1 in 
F minor; Op. 2, No. 2 in A; Op. 2, 
No. 3 in V; Op. 7 in K (hit; Op. 10, 
No. 1 in C minor; Op. 10, No. 2 in F; 
Op. 10, No. 3 in D; Op. 13 in C minor 
(pathetic) ; Op. 14, No. 1 in E; Op. 
14, No. 2 in G; Op. 22 in B Hat; 
Op. 26 in A flat; Op. 27, No. 1 in E 
flat (quasi fantasia) ; Op. 27, No. 2 in 
C sharp minor (quasi fantasia) ; Op. 
28 in D; Op. 31, No. 1 in G; Op. 31, 
No. 2 in D minor; Op. 31, No. 3 in E 
flat; Op. 49, No. 1 in G minor; Op. 
49, No. 2 in G; Op. 53 in C; Op. 54 
in F; Op. 57 in F minor; Op. 78 in 
F sharp; Op. 79 in G; Op. 81a in E 
flat; Op. 90 in E minor; Op. 101 in A; 
Op. 106 in B flat (Hammer-Piano); 
Op. 109 in E; Op. 110 in A flat; Op. 
1 1 1 in C minor ; in E flat ; in F minor ; 
Sonata in D; Sonata in C (easy) ; 
2 easy Sonatas. No. 1 in G, No. 2 in F. 
Piano Variations (Original Theme) : 
Op. 34 in F; (with Fugue) Op. 35 in 
E flat; Op. 76 in D; Op. 120 in C; 
(March of Dressier) in C minor; 
(Quanto e hello) in A; (Nel cor piil 
non mi sento) in G; (Menuet a la 
Vigano) in C ; (Russian Dance) in A; 
( Une fifevre brillante ) in C ; (La stessa, 
la stessissima) in B flat; (Kind, willst 
du ruhig schlafen)in F; (Tiindeln und 
Scherzen) in F; (Es war eimnal) in 
A; (easy) in G; (Swiss Song) in F; 
(Vieni amore) in D; (God save the 
King) in C; (Rule Britannia) in D; 
in C minor; (Ich hab' ein kleines 
Hiittchen nur) in B flat. Minor Pieces 
for Piano: 7 Bagatelles. Op. 33; 2 
Preludes. Op. 39; Rondo. Op. 51, 
No. 1 in C; Rondo. Op. 51, No. 2 in 
G; Fantasia. Op. 77 in G minor; 
Polonaise. Op. 89 in C ; 11 New Baga- 
telles. Op. 119; 6 Bagatelles. Op. 
126; Rondo a Capriccio. Op. 129 in 
G; Andante in F; Minuet in E flat; 
6 Minuets; Prelude in F minor; 
Rondo in A; 6 Rustic Dances; 7 Rus- 
tic Dances. Vocal Music. Church 
Music: Missa solemnis. Op. 123 in D; 
Missa. Op. 86 in C; Christ at the 
Mount of Olives; Oratorio. Op. 85. 
Dramatic Works: Fidelio (Leonora), 
Opera. Op. 72; The Ruins of Athens. 

Piece for a festival. Op. 113; March 
and Chorus from the Ruins of Athens, 
etc. Op. 114; King Stephen. Op. 117; 
Final Song from the patriotic opera 
" The Triumphal Arches ": Es ist voll- 
bracht; Final Song from the opera 
" The Good News." Germania, wie 
stehst du, etc. Cantatas: The Glori- 
ous JMoment. Cantata. Op. 136; A 
calm Sea and a happy Voyage. Op. 112. 
Songs with Orchestra : Scene and Aria : 
Ah ! Perfido, for Soprano. Op. 65 ; 
Terzetto. Tremate, empj, tremate, for 
Soprano, Tenor, and Bass. Op. 116; 
Ofl'ertory for 1 Voice with Chorus. 
Op. 121b; Federal Song for 2 Soli and 
three- part Chorus with accompaniment 
of 2 Clarinets, 2 Horns, and 2 Bas- 
soons. Op. 122 ; Elegiac Song for 4 
Voices Avith accompaniment of 2 Vio- 
lins, Viola, and 'Cello. Op. 118. Songs 
with Piano: To Hope. Op. 32; Ade- 
laide. Op. 46 ; Six Songs by Gellert. 
Op. 48 : Praying, Charity, On Death, 
Worship of God in Nature, Almighti- 
ness and Providence of God, Peniten- 
tial HjTnn ; Eight Songs and Airs. 
Op. 52 : Urian's Voyage round the 
Globe, Fire coloured, The little Song 
about tranquillity, May Song, Molly's 
Farewell, the songs " Ohne Liebe lebe, 
wer da kann," Marmot, The little 
flower of " Wunderhold " ; Six Songs. 
Op. 75: Mignon, Fresh Love, Fresh 
Life, From Goethe's Faust, Gretel's 
Admonition, To the Love far away, 
The Contented Man ; Four Ariettas and 
one Duet. Op. 82 : Hope, Love's Com- 
plaint, L'amante impaziente (Silent 
question ) , L'amante impaziente ( Love's 
impatience ) , Duet, Enjoyment of Life ; 
Three Songs by Goethe.' Op. 83: De- 
light of Melancholy, Love-Longing, 
With a painted Riband ; The Happi- 
ness of Friendship ( Happiness of Life ) . 
Op. 88; To Hope. Op. 94; To the 
Love far away (Liederkreis) . Op. 98; 
The Trustworthv Man. Op. 99 ; Mer- 
kenstein. Op. "lOO; The Kiss. Op. 
128; Description of a Girl; To a 
Baby; Farewell Song to Vienna's Citi- 
zens ; War Song of the Avistrians : The 
Independent Man: OflPertory; Quail 
Call ; Als die Geliebte sich trennen 
wollte (Feelings at Lydia's infidelity) ; 
Song from a distant Friend; The 


Young Man Abroad ; The Lover ; Love- 
Longing; The Silent Night; The War- 
rior's Farewell; Der Bardengeist (the 
minstrel's ghost) ; Call from Moun- 
tain; To the Sweetheart; The same 
(former tune) ; So or So; The Secret; 
Resignation; Evening Song under the 
Starry Sky; Remembrance; 1 Love 
You ; Love's Longing by Goethe ( in 4 
different tunes) ; La partenza (Fare- 
well ) ; In questa tomba oscura ; Sighs 
of Refnsed Lover who is Enamoured; 
The Loud Complaint; Song of the 
Monks: Rasch tritt der Tod, etc., for 
3 male Voices without accompani- 
ment ; Canons. Songs with Piano, 
Violin, and 'Cello: 25 Scotch Songs. 
Op. 108; Irish Songs; English, Scotch, 
Irish, and Italian Songs; 12 Scotch 
Songs; 25 Irish Songs; 20 Irish Songs; 
26 Welsh Songs. Supplementary Vo- 
cal Music : Cantata on the Death of 
the Emperor Joseph II. For Solo, 
Chorus, and Orchestra; Cantata on 
the Accession of the Emperor Leo- 
pold II. For Solo, Chorus, and Or- 
chestra ; Chorus to the Festival Piece : 
Die Weihe des Hauses. For Solo, 
Chorus, and Orchestra ; Chorus on the 
Allied Princes. For four Voices and 
Orchestra ; Offertory. For three Solo 
Voices, Chorus, and small Orchestra; 
Two Arias for a Bass Voice with Or- 
chestral Accompaniment; Two Arias 
to Ignaz Umlauf's Opera " Die schone 
Schusterin " ; Aria, " Primo amore pl- 
acer del ciel," for Soprano with Or- 
chestral Accompaniment; Music to 
Friedrich Duncker's Drama: Leonora 
Prohaska, No. 1, Warriors' Chorus; 
No. 2, Romance; No. 3, Melodrame; 
No. 4, Funeral March ; Farewell Song. 
For three male Voices ; Lobkowitz-Can- 
tata for three Voices with Piano Ac- 
companiment; I, who did flit to and 
fro. Song for one Voice witJi Piano 
Accompaniment; Merkenstein. For one 
Voice with Piano Accompaniment; 
The Song of the Nightingale. For one 
Voice with Piano Accompaniment; 
Song ( for Frau von Weissenthurn ) . 
For one Voice with Piano Accompani- 
ment; Song from Metastasio's " Olim- 
piade." For one Voice with Piano Ac- 
companiment; To Minna. Song for 
one Voice with Piano Accompaniment; 


O, think of me! Song for one Voice 
with Piano Accompaniment; Drinking- 
Song (to sing at parting). For one 
Voice with Piano Accompaniment; 
'^ ament for one Voice with Piano Ac- 
companiment; Elegy on the Death of 
a Poodle. For one Voice with Piano 
Accompaniment; Five Canons: I 
praise Thee only, Friendship, Trust 
and Hope! To-day be mindful of 
Baden, Life is for Gladness. Supple- 
mentary Instrumental Music : Music 
to a Knight-Ballet: No. 1, March; No. 
2, German Song; No. 3, Hunting Song; 
No. 4, Romance; No. 5, Military Song; 
No. G, Dnnking Song; No. 7, German 
Dance; No. 8, Coda; Two Marciies 
for Military Bands. Composed for the 
Carousal on the Glorious Birthday of 
Her I. & R. Majesty Maria Ludovica in 
the I. & R. Castle-Garden at Laxen- 
burg; March (Tattoo) for Military 
Bands; Polonaise for Military Bands; 
Ecossaise for Military Bands; Six 
Rustic Dances for 2 Violins and Bass; 
ilarch for 2 Clarinets, 2 Horns, and 
2 Bassoons; Three Equale for 4 Trom- 
bones; Trio for Piano, Flute, and 
Bassoon; Sonatina for Mandolin; 
Adagio for Mandolin; Two Bagatelles 
for Piano; Piano. Piece in A minor; 
Allegretto in C minor for Piano; 
Cheerful. Melancholic. Two small 
Piano. Pieces; Piano. Piece in B flat 
major; Six Ecossaises for Piano; 
Waltz in E flat major for Piano; 
Waltz in D major for Piano; Ecos- 
saise in E flat major for Piano; Ecos- 
saise in G major for Piano; Allemande 
in A major for Piano; Six German 
Dances for Piano and Violin; Two- 
part Fugue for Organ; Concerto in 
E flat for Piano. ; Concerto in D 
major (first Movement) for Piano. 
with Orchestra. The music here classed 
as " Supplemental," and which is lack- 
ing in opus numbers, together with 
eleven " Wiener Tanze " discovered at 
the Thomasschule, Leipsic, 1907, com- 
pletes the list of the master's authen- 
tic woFks. Dr. Hugo Riemann is 
authority for the statement that these 
" Wiener Tanze " were composed in 
1819 for a society of seven musicians 
(they are 7-part waltzes), and are 
the works referred to by Schindler, 




which that biographer was unable to 

Beffara (Louis Frangois) collected 
valuable data rehiting to Paris opera, 
destroyed in the Commune, Paris, 
1871; Commissaire of Police. B. No- 
nancourt, Aug. 23, 1751; d. Feb. 2, 

Beggar's Opera. Contained 69 
ballad tunes scored by Dr. Pcpusch, 
who composed the overture. The witty 
text was written by John Gay, and the 
first performance took place at Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields Theatre, London, 
Jan. 29, 1727, followed by what was 
the phenomenal run in those days of 
fi2 repetitions for the first season. 
The profits were nearly $20,000 for 
John Rich, the manager, and nearly 
$3,500 for the author, who according 
to custom had the receipts for four 
" author's nights." Gay is said to 
have received the idea of " A Newgate 
Pastoral " from Swift. He satirized 
the court, the opera, and the poli- 
ticians of the time, and the wonderful 
popularity of the work resulted in the 
production of other BALLAD 
OPERAS. The ballad tunes were of 
English, Scotch, or Irish origin. 

Begleiten. Ger. To accompany. 

Begleitete Fuge. Ger. Free part 

Begleitung. Ger. Accompaniment. 

Begnis, de (Giuseppe) sang buffo 
rules in opera, 1813-24. B. Lugo, 
Italy, 1793; m. Signora Ronzi; d. 
Aug. 1849. Signora Ronzi sang 
buffo roles with much success until 
eclipsed by Pasta; debut, Paris, 1819; 
m. GIUSEPPE; d. Florence, 1853. 

Begrez (Pierre Ignace) sang ten. 
in opera, 1815-22, and taught singing. 
B. Nainnr, Belgium, Dec. 23, 1783; d. 
Dec, 1863. 

Beklemmt or Beklommen. Ger. 
" Heavy at heart." 

Belaiev (Mitrophane Petrovich) 
founded Leipsic publishing house, 
which has brouglit out 2,000 works by 
composers of " New Russian " school ; 
established " Russian Symphony Con- 
certs " for native composers in St. 
Petersburg. B. St. Petersburg, Feb. 
10, 1836 ; d. Jan. 10, 1904. 

Belcke (Friedrich August) com- 

posed for and phiyed trombone in the 
Gewandliaud and Royal Berlin orclies- 
tras. I}. Liicka, Saxony, May 27, 1795; 
d. Dec. 10, 1874. 

Belebt. Ger. Animated. 

Beliczay, von (Julius) composed 
an " Ave Maria," two symphonies, 
songs, and chamber music. B. Aug. 
10, 1835, Komorn, Hungary. 

Belisario. Gaetauo Donizetti's 
three-act opera, for which he also 
wrote the book, was first performed 
at Venice, Feb. 17, 1836, and later in 
Paris and London. 

Bell. The mouth of a tubular in- 
striunent, gives increased power be- 
cause it permits of setting a larger 
volume of air in vibration, and modi- 
fies the tone produced. The curved 
mouth of brass instruments gives 
the even overtones which W'ould 
otherwise be wanting in a closed 

Bell. In the modem orchestra bells 
have been superseded by metal tubes 
which are more easily tuned, may be 
placed in a frame like a xylophone, 
and are much more convenient than 
the old glockenspiel, which was plaj^ed 
with keys. The effect of a chime of 
bells is thus obtained in " Parsifal," 
" Tosca," as well as in " Magic Flute," 
where bells were first employed in 
opera. Bells were used in the worship 
of Osiris ; formed ornaments to the 
vestments of the Jewish high priests, 
and seem to have been common to all 
nations for purposes of signalling and 
of worship. In many instances the 
precious metals entered into the com- 
position of bells, but experiment has 
proved that the best alloy, neither too 
brittle nor too dull in tone, is 76.5 
parts of copper to 23.5 parts of tin. 
Bells may be sharpened by shaving the 
inside of the rim, or flattened by par- 
ing the rim itself. A chime in perfect 
tune is, however, the very rare ex- 
ception. Change ringing is practised 
where there are more than three bells. 
Six changes may be rung on three 
bells, 24 changes on four bells, and so 
the number increases until with 12 
bells 479,001,600 changes are possible. 
The largest known bell, that cast in 
Moscow, 1U.j3, now broken, measures 




21 feet, 6 inches in diameter at the 
mouth and weighs 193 tons. 

Bell Gamba. Eight-foot organ stop 
with bell mouth. 

Bellaigue (Camille) wrote ^ " Un 
siecle de musique francaise," " Etudes 
musicales et nouvelle silhouettes de 
musiciens," etc.; won first prize for 
piano, Paris Conservatoire, 1878; con- 
tributed reviews to many period- 
icals. B. Paris, May 24, 1858; add. 

Bellamy (Ricliard) composed " Te 
Deum " for full orchestra and an- 
thems; sang bass in Eng. Chapel 
Royal. D. Sept. 11, 1813. 

Bellamy (Thomas Ludford) sang 
bass at Covent Garden and Drury 
Lane, and at concerts of " Ancient 
Music," London; managed theatres; 
published collection of glees and other 
songs. B. Westminster, 1770; son of 
RICHARD; d. London, Jan. 3, 1843. 

Belle Helene. Jacques Offenbach's 
three-act opera bouffe, to words by 
Meilhac and Halevy, was first per- 
formed Dec. 17, 1864, at the Paris 
Theatre des Varigtes. The English 
version is called " Helen, or Taken 
from the Greek." 

Bellermann (Constantin) com- 
posed operas and oratorios; wrote on 
music and played lute. B. Erfurt, 
Thuringia, 1696; d. 1758. 

Bellermann (Johann Eriedrich) 
wrote authoritatively on Greek music 
and theory. B. Erfurt, Mar. 8, 1795; 
d. Feb. 4, 1874. 

Bellermann (J. Gottfried Hein- 
ricli) composed music for three Greek 
plays and much vocal music ; wrote 
on theory; taught. University of Ber- 
lin. B. "^Mar. 10, 1832; son of JO- 
HANN FRIEDRICH; d. Potsdam, 
April 10, 1903. 

Belletti (Giovanni) sang bar. with 
Jenny Lind ; debut, Stockholm, 1837; 
toured United States with Jenny Lind 
under Barnum management. B. 1813, 
Sarzana, Italy; retired, 1862. 

Bell'haver (Vincenzo) composed 
toccata for organ and madrigals; or- 
ganist St. Mark's Cathedral, Venice, 
16ih century. 

Belli (Domenico) composed ; taught 
church music, 1610-13, in Florence. 

Belli (Girolamo) composed sacred 
music and madrigals. B. Argenta, 
near Ferrara; first publication, 1583; 
last, 16 10. 

Belli (Giulio) composed madrigals 
and church music; directed music in 
Imola Cathedral, 1582; entered Fran- 
ciscan Order, 1590. B. about 1560, 

Bellini (Vincenzo) composed " La 
Puritani," operas remarkable for the 
beauty of their melody, and which still 
hold their place in repertoire. Son of 
an organist in Catania, Sicily, who 
gave him his first instruction in music. 
Bellini's talent was manifest at an 
early age, and a Sicilian nobleman 
volunteered to defray the expense of 
educating him at the Naples Conserva- 
tory, then directed by Zingarelli. His 
first work, " Adelson e Salvina," was 
produced in 1825, and gained him a 
commission from Barbaja, impresario 
of the San Carlos, La Scala, and other 
opera houses. " Bianca e Fernando " 
was the result, and it was so well re- 
ceived in Naples that Barbaja commis- 
sioned him to write a new opera for the 
celebrated tenor, Rubini, for perform- 
ance in Milan. The ornate music of 
Rossini then ruled in opera, and the 
simplicity of the airs in " II Pirata " 
were admirably sung by Rubini, and, 
after the performance at Milan, 1827, 
spread the young composer's fame 
through other European music centres. 
" La Straniera." his next work, given 
at Milan in 1828, likewise met with a 
cordial reception, but did not prove 
popular elsewhere. " Zaire," produced 
1829, in Parma, was unsuccessful. " I 
Capuletti ed i Montecchi," produced at 
La Fenice in Venice, 1830, was cor- 
dially received. Mme. Pasta was the 
Romeo, a role later selected by Jo- 
hanna Wagner for her debut in Lon- 
don. "La Sonnambula," Bellini's 
greatest work, was produced at La 
Scala in 1831, and speedily became 
as popular in England as in Italy. 
" Norma," second only to " Sonnam- 
bula," followed in less than a year. 
Bellini visited London in 1833, and 
then went to Paris, where he was en- 
gaged, on the advice of Rossini, to 




write an opera for tlic Theatre Italian. 
In 1835 " 1 Puritani " was performed. 
After its production Bellini aji^ain 
visited England, but was attacked by 
dysentery, and died at the early age 
of 34, Sept. 24, 1835. Rossini, whose 
interest in the young composer was 
most fatherly, had advised him to give 
especial attention to orchestration and 
dramatic efl'ect, recognizing weaknesses 
which are now generally apparent. 
His flow of melody was rich enough, 
however, to atone for many deficien- 
cies, and the arias sung by Tamburini, 
Alboni, Patti, Grisi, Lilli Lehmann, 
Rubini, Mario, and other great singers 
are still the delight of the few who are 
capable of interpreting them. B. 1802. 
Bellman (Carl Michael) wrote the 
words and often the music for " Fred- 
mans Epistolar " and " Sanger," which 
include humorous descriptions of 
Stockholm people. B. Feb. 4, 1740; 
d. Stockholm, Feb. 11, 1795. 

Belloc (Teresa Giorgi) sang sop. 
roles in opera ; debut at La Scala, 
Milan, 1804, retiring 1828. B. St. 
Benigno, Cavanese, 1784; d. May 13, 

Bellows, by which currents of air 
are supplied the stops of an organ, 
were originally of the primitive type 
still to be seen in an old-fashioned 
kitchen. Organs in the 4th century 
were so equipped. As additional pipes 
were added the bellows was enlarged, 
and two were employed to provide con- 
tinuous pressure. In 1762 Gumming 
invented a bellows combining the 
feeder with a reservoir which main- 
tained a fairly even pressure. In 
large modern organs the bellows is 
usually replaced by a rotary fan or 
metal air pump, operated by hydraulic 
or electric power, or by gas engine. 

Belleville, de (Anna Caroline) 
composed 180 pieces of "drawing 
room music " ; played piano, pupil of 
Czerny; m. A. J. OURY. B. Landshut, 
Bavaria, Jan. 24, 1808; d. Munich, 
July 22, 1880. 

Belly. Sound board over which an 
instrument's strings are stretched. 

Belshazzar. George Frederick 
Handel's oratorio to text by .Jennens 
was first produced at the King's 

Theatre, London, Mar. 27, 1745, under 
tlie title " Bcltesliazzar." Dates on 
the autograph copy show it was begun 
Aug. 23, 1744, and completed Sept. 
10 of that year. 

Bemberg (Herman) composed the 
opera " Elaine," produced at Covent 
Garden, 1892, and New York, 1894; 
" La Mort de Jeanne d'Arc," cantata 
for solo, soprano chorus, and orches- 
tra; " Le Baiser de Suzon," comic 
opi^ra in one act, Paris Op6ra Comique, 
188S. B. Buenos Ayrea, Mar. 29, 18(Jl ; 
pupil of Dubois and Massenet at Paris 
Conservatoire; add. Paris. 

Bemetzrieder wrote useful " Lemons 
de clavecin," Paris, 1771, and other 
musical works. B. Alsace, 1743; d. 
London, 1817. 

Bemol. Fr. Flat. 
Ben. It. " Well," as sostenuto, 
well sustained. 

Benda (Hans Georg) founded a 
well known family of musicians; was 
an itinerant musician and weaver, 
finally settled in Alt-Benatky, Bo- 
hemia. Franz published music for vio- 
lin and became concertmeister to Fred- 
erick the Great; founded a violin 
school. B. Alt-Benatky, Nov. 25, 1709 ; 
son of HANS GEORG. Johann played 
in Berlin roval band, became court mu- 
sician. B. 1713; son of HANS GEORG; 
d. Berlin, 1752. Georg wrote " Ari- 
adne auf Naxos," considered to be the 
first melodrama, " Medea," a second 
melodrama, composed " Romeo tiiul 
Julie," 1778, and other operettas, 
masses, cantatas, symphonies; played 
clavier and oboe; chapelmaster to the 
Duke of Gotha. B. June 30, 1722; son 
of HANS GEORG; d. Kostritz, Thu- 
ringia, Nov. 6, 1795. Joseph became 
concertmeister to Friedrich Wilhelm 
II of Prussia. B. Mar. 7, 1724; son 
of HANS GEORG; d. 1804. Anna 
Franziska was prominent as a singer ; 
ni. Hattasch, a Gotha musician. B. 
1726; daughter of HANS GEORG ; d. 
Gotha, 1780. The most distinguished 
of the third generation was Friedrich 
Wilhelm Heinrich who composed 
the operas " Das Blnmenmiidchen," 
" Orpheus," " L'Isola disabitata," can- 
tatas, oratorios, and chamber music; 
played violin in Berlin court band. B. 




July 15, 1745; son of FRANZ; d. Pots- 
dam, July 19, 1814. Carl Herman 
Heinrich wrote for, pla^'ed violin, and 
taught that instrument to Willielm 
III. He is said to have nearly equalled 
his father FRANZ as a performer. B. 
1748. Maria Caroline, second daugh- 
ter of Franz, m, Chapelmaster Wolf. 
Juliane, fourth daughter of Franz, m. 
Chapelmaster Reichardt. Friedrich 
Ludwig composed " Der Barbier von 
Sevilla," 1779, and other comic operas, 
cantatas, an oratorio and violin mu- 
sic; became director of concerts at 
Konigsburg; m. Felicita Agnesia Rietz, 
the singer. B. Gotha, 1746; son of 
GEORG; d. Mar. 27, 1792. Ernst 
Fi-iedrich helped found Berlin ama- 
teur concerts. B. Berlin, 1747; son of 
JOSEPH; d. 1785. 

Bendeler (Johann Philipp) wrote 
on theory; cantor at (^)uedlinburg. 
B. about 1600, Riethnordhausen, near 
Erfurt; d. 1708. 

Bendl (Karel) composed the operas 
" Lejla," " Bretislav a Jitka," " Stary 
zenich," " Indicka Princezna," " Cer- 
nohorci," " Caroray Kvet," " Gina," 
"Karel Skreta," " Dite Tabora," 
" Matki Mila," choruses, a Mass in D 
minor for male voices, chamber music, 
conducted concerts of the Prague 
choral society Hlahol. B. Prague, 
April 16, 1838; d. Sept. 20, 1897. 

Bendler or Bendeler (Salomon) 
sang bass in opera; noted for power 
of his voice. B. Quedlingburg, 1683; 
LER; d. 1724. 

Benedetti sang in the Italian opera, 
London, 1720. 

Benedicite. Canticle which may 
be chanted instead of the Te Deum in 
the morning service of the Anglican 

Benedict (Sir Julius) composed the 
operas " The Brides of Venice," " The 
Crusaders," the oratorio " St. Cecilia," 
the cantata " Richard Cceur de Lion "; 
conducted English music festivals of 
the first importance; toured the 
United States with Jenny Lind. di- 
recting the concerts ; exercised as great 
an influence on English musical de- 
velopment as any foreigner settled 
there since Handel's time. A native 

of Stuttgart, he studied with J. C. L. 
Abeille, then with Hummel and von 
Weber, and through Weber's influence 
was appointed conductor at the Vienna 
Kiirnthnerthor Theatre, 1S23-25. Then 
Barbaja appointed him leader of the 
San Carlo orchestra, Naples, where 
his first opera, " Giacinta ed Ernesto," 
was produced in 1829. The following 
year he wrote " I Portoghesi in Goa " 
for the Stuttgart opera. 1834 found 
him in Paris, whence, at the sugges- 
tion of Malibran, he went to England, 
and there directed the Opera Buffa at 
the Lyceum Theatre, London. " Un 
Anno ed un Giorno," first produced at 
Naples, proved a success in London, 
and the English operas already noted 
followed, and were prbduced at Drury 
Lane, where Benedict then conducted. 
Returning to England from the Amer- 
ican tour he conducted at the princi- 
pal theatres, the Norwich Festival, 
1845-78, the Liverpool Philharmonic 
concerts, 1876-80, the Monday Popu- 
lar concerts, and gave an annual con- 
cert of his own during forty years. 
Other compositions include the can- 
tata "Undine," "The Lily of Kil- 
larney " (on the subject of "Colleen 
Ba\\Ti"), "The Bride of Song," an 
operetta, " St Peter," an oratorio, a 
symphony, and songs. In 1871 he was 
knighted, and received many foreign 
orders on his 70th birthday. B. Nov. 
27, 1804; d. London, June 5, 1885. 

Benedictus. A portion of the 
MASS following the Sanctus; a can- 
ticle in the morning service of the 
Anglican Church which may be sung 
instead of the Jubilate. 

Benelli (Antonio Pelegrino) sang 
ten. in opera 32 years, retiring 1822, 
wrote a voca^ " Method " and solfeggi, 
and composed church music. B. Forli, 
Sept. 5, 1771; d. Bornichen, Hartz, 
Aug. 16, 1830. 

Bene Placito. It. At pleasure. 

B Quadro. It. " Square B " ; 

Benevoli (Orazio) composed church 
music, including a mass for 12 choirs 
of 48 voices; chapelmaster at the Vat- 
ican, Rome. B. Rome, 1602; reputed 
son of Albert, Duke of Lorraine; d. 
June 17, 1072. 




Benincori (Angelo Maria) com- 
posed tlie successful opera "Nitteti"; 
completed Isouard's xiiiliiiislied opera 
".\ladin"; composed slriii<,' (piartets 
modcdled on those of Haydn, wliom lie 
knew and greatly admired. B. Brescia, 
Mar. 28, 1779; d. Paris, 1822. 

Benin! (Signora) sanjjj leading 
rules in comic opera with her husband 
in Na]»les, 1784, Londtm, 1787. 

Bennet (John) composed many cf 
the best madrigals in English, hymns, 
and an anthem for the coronation of 
James 1, for five voices and instru- 
ments. His first book of madrigals 
" to Foure Voyces " was printed by 
William Barley, 1599. 

Bennet (Saunders) composed 
songs, glees; organist at Woodstock, 
Eng. ; d. May 25, 1809. 

Bennett (Alfred William) com- 
posed a service and anthems ; collabo- 
rated with William Marshall in collec- 
tion of chants; organist to University 
of Oxford. B. 1805; son of THOMAS; 
d. Sept. 12, 1830. 

Bennett (George John) composed 
Serenade for orchestra, " Jugend- 
triUmie"; Easter hymn for soli 
chorus and orchestra ; C,>Tnbeline 
overture; Orchestral suite in D minor; 
Festival Te Deum for soli chorus and 
orchestra; Mass in B flat minor for 
soli chorus and orchestra ; conducted 
Lincoln Music Festivals; founded 
Lincoln Musical Society and Lincoln 
Orchestral Society; organist Lincoln 
Cathedral. B. May 5, 1863, Andover, 
Eng.; won Balfe scholarship, Royal 
Academy of Music; studied in Berlin 
and Munich ; add. Lincoln, Eng. 

Bennett (Joseph) wrote music crit- 
icisms London " Daily Telegraph " ; li- 
bretto for Sullivan's " Golden Legend " 
and other standard English works; 
analyses of the London Philharmonic 
and Monday and Saturday Popular 
concerts; in early life was precentor 
at Weigh House Chapel and organist 
Westminster Chapel. B. Berkeley, 
Gloucestershire, Eng., Nov. 29, 1831; 
add. l>ondon. 

Bennett (Thomas) published " An 
Introduction to the Art of Singing," 
" Saered Melodies," " Cathedral Se- 
lections"; organist Chichester Ca- 

thedral. B. Fonthili, 17S4; d. Mar. 
21, 1848. 

Bennett (William) composed organ 
and piano music, anthems and songs; 
organist St. Andrew's Church, Ply- 
mouth, Eng. B. 17G7, near Teign- 
mouth ; pupil of Johann Christian 
Bach, d. 18.30. 

Bennett (Sir William Sterndale) 
composed the oratorio " Woman of Sa- 
maria"; music to the " Ajax " of 
Sophocles; a symphony in G minor; 
the fantasie-overture " Paradise and 
the Peri " ; many anthems, songs, and 
piano music; founded the Bach So- 
ciety, London, 1849; conducted Lon- 
don Philharmonic concerts, 1856-66 ; 
became principal Royal Academy of 
Music and professor of music Univer- 
sity of Cambridge. A son of Robert 
Bennett, organist at ShelTield, and 
grandson of .John Bennett, who was his 
first teacher, he later received instruc- 
tion at the Royal Academy of Music, 
and played his piano concerto in D 
minor at an Academy concert, Mar. 30, 
1833, when 17. His " Naiades " over- 
ture three years later caused him to 
be sent to Leipsic by the Broadwoods. 
There he was under the influence of 
Mendelssohn and Schumann and played 
at the Gewandhaus. By 1841 he was 
established in London as a pianist. 
In 1844 he married Mary Anne Wood, 
daughter of an English naval captain. 
In 1871 Bennett was knighted, and two 
years later a public testimonial was 
given him, and a scholarship was 
founded in his honour at the Royal 
Academy. B. Sheffield, April 13, 1816; 
d. London, Feb. 1, 1875. 

Benoist (Francois) composed the 
operas " Leonore et F^lix," " L'Appa- 
rition," ballets, organ pieces; won 
prix de Rome with " Oenone." 1815: 
taught organ in Paris Conservatoire. 
B. Sept. 10. 1794; d. April, 1878. 

Benoit (Camille) composed " Cl^- 
patre"; the symbolic poem "Merlin"; 
suite for the " Noces Corinthiennes " ; 
wrote '' Musiciens, poetes et philo- 
sophes "; " Souvenirs "; studied with 
Cesar Franck ; appointed conserva- 
teur du Louvre, 1895; add. Paris. 

Benoit (Pierre Leopold Leonard) 
founded the Flemish School of Music, 




18G7, under auspices of the city of 
Antwerp and of the Belgian national 
government; composed the oratorio 
" Lucifer," and " Le Roi des Aulnes," 
an opera accepted by the Paris Theatre 
Lyrique, but not performed ; " Chil- 
dren's Cantata," etc. He studied at 
the Brussels Conservatory; won first 
prize with "• Le Meurtre d'Abel," 1857 ; 
composed the successful opera " Le Vil- 
lage dans les IMontagnes " ; conducted 
for a time at tlie Bouffes Pariaiens; 
returned to Antwerp and, after pro- 
ducing four religious works, " Cantata 
de Noel," " Messe Solennelle," " Te 
l)eum," and " Requiem," began the 
propaganda for a new Flemish school 
in music which eventually exerted a 
most favourable influence, but pre- 
vented his own larger compositions 
from becoming known, as he consist- 
ently scored Flemish texts. His com- 
positions include, besides those already 
mentioned : " Het dorp in't gebergte," 
" Ita," and " Pompeja," operas; " De 
Schelde," oratorio ; " Drama Christi," 
" La Lys," cantatas ; " De Maaiers," 
choral symphony; "Charlotte Corday" 
and " Willem de Zwijger," music 
for Flemish plays ; " Rubens-cantata," 
" Antwerpen," " Joncfrou Kathelijne," 
alto scena ; " Hucbald," cantata ; " Tri- 
omfmarsch," for opening of the Brus- 
sels Exposition; " De Rhyn," grand 
cantata. His essays in support of the 
Flemish movement were numerous. B. 
Harlebeke, West Flanders, Aug. 17, 
1834; d. Mar. 8, 1901, Antwerp. 

Benucci sang bass buffo, 1783-88. 

Benvenuto Cellini. Hector Ber- 
lioz's opera in three acts, to book by 
Wailly and Barbier, was first per- 
formed at the Academie, Paris, Sept. 
3, 1838, where it failed, but has since 
assumed an important place in modern 
repertoire. The action is laid in Rome, 
1532, when Clement VII was Pope. 
Benvenuto Cellini loves Teresa, daugh- 
ter of the papal treasurer Balducci, 
but has a rival in Fieramosca, the 
papal sculptor, who is favoured by 
Balducci. Cellini and Teresa plan an 
elopement, at which the Capuchin 
Ascanio, Cellini's pupil, is to assist; 
but their plans are overheard by Fie- 
ramosca. Just then Balducci returns, 

and Teresa tells him there is a thief 
hidden in the house, in order to ex- 
plain why she is up so late. Balducci 
iinds P''ieramosca's hiding place. Cel- 
lini escapes while Balducci, the ser- 
vants, and the neighbours are beating, 
the supposed thief, who finally jmnps 
through the window. The second act 
discloses Cellini with his pupils and 
friends in a tavern, where he is unable 
to pay the score until Ascanio brings 
him a purse from the Pope, to be given 
him on condition that he immediately 
finish his statue of Perseus. Dis- 
])leased at the size of tlie purse, C!el- 
lini and his friends resolve to imper- 
sonate the treasurer Balducci at the 
theatre and bring him into ridicule. 
Fieramosca, who has again managed to 
overhear the conversation, plans with 
Pompeo to adopt costumes similar to 
those Cellini and Ascanio are to wear 
at the rendezvous with Teresa, hoping 
to forestall Cellini. The scene which 
follows shows the theatre. King Midas 
is being enacted. Balducci, who is in 
tlie audience with Teresa, is enraged at 
the likeness King Midas bears him, 
and raises a disturbance, in the course 
of which both Cellini and Fieramosca, 
disguised alike as monks, approach 
Teresa. A fight ensues, Cellini stabs 
Pompeo, Teresa and Ascanio manage to 
break through the crowd and escape to 
Cellini's studio, but Cellini himself is 
in danger of being maltreated by a 
mob. Just then cannon are fired, an- 
nouncing the carnival is over; the 
lights are suddenly extinguished, and 
Cellini rushes out under cover of the 
darkness. In the third act, Teresa and 
Ascanio are in Cellini's studio, greatly 
distressed. Cellini enters, explains his 
escape, but as he and Teresa are about 
to leave for Florence, Balducci and 
Fieramosca appear to claim Teresa as 
the latter's promised bride. Cardinal 
Salviati comes in to see the statue of 
Perseus, and when he hears of Cellini's 
escapade, threatens to have him pun- 
ished, and to have some one else com- 
plete the statue. Cellini, surrounded 
by his workmen, and armed with a 
hammer, is ready to demolish the Per- 
seus, which he declares he can complete 
in an hour. Unwilling to lose the 

C. Camille Saint-Saens Ambkoise Thomas 

Hector Berlioz Charles F Gounod Achille c. Debussy 

Jules Massenet Georges Bizet 




masterpiece, tlie Cardinal promises if 
he will do so lie shall be pardoned and 
receive Teresa as his bride. Work in- 
stantly begins. Running short of 
metal, Cellini saeriliees his creations 
in gold and silver. At last the mould 
is broken, the statue of Perseus is 
revealed in all its glory, and in the 
enthusiasm it creates Fieramosca is 
the first to embrace his erstwhile rival, 
whose genius he appreciates better 
than the rest. 

Berbiguier (Benoit Tranquille) 
composed many works for llut<!, on 
which he was a performer of great 
skill; studied at Paris Conserv^atoire. 
B. Caderousse, Vaucluse, Dec. 21, 
17S2: d. -Tan. 20, 1838, Pont le Voye. 

Berceuse. Fr. Cradle song. 

Berchem (Jachet) composed three 
books of capriccios and madrigals, a 
mass, etc. ; organist to Duke of ]\Ian- 
tua in 15.55: probably b. in Flanders. 

Berenstadt (Gaetan) sang bass in 
opera, 1717 to 1723. 

Berg (Adam) published music in 
Munich under patronage of Dulces of 
Bavaria from 1540 to 1599. 

Berg (George) composed prize glee 
"On softest beds at leisure laid"; 
many works for voice and instrument; 
organist St. Mary-at-Hill, London, 
1771; pupil of Dr. Pepusch. B. 

Berg (Johann) founded music 
printing house in Nuremberg about 
1531; was succeeded by Ulrich Neu- 
ber and Gerlach. B. Ghent; d. 1563, 

Bergamasca or Bergomask. A 
lively country dance of Bergamo in 
triple time. 

Berger (Ludwig) composed 27 
etudes for piano, on which he was a 
distinguished performer; taught Men- 
delssohn, Henselt, Fanny Hensel. Tau- 
bert; pupil of Clementi. B. Berlin, 
April 18, 1777; d. Berlin, Feb. 16, 

Beiger (Wilhelin) composed sym- 
phony in B flat; "Eviphorion," a choral 
piece; " Meine Gottin " for male choir 
and orchestra, and chamber music; 
taught piano; pupil of Kiel at Berlin 
Hochschule. B. Boston, Mass., Aug. 9, 
1861; add. Berlin. 

Berggreen (Andreas Peter) com- 
posed tlie opera " Billidet og Busten," 
national songs, played organ Trinity 
Churcli, Copenhagen; did much to 
popularize music in Denmark; wrote 
on musical topics. B. Copenhagen, 
Mar. 2, 1801; d. Nov. 9, 1880. 

Bergmann (Carl) conducted Bos 
ton Handel and Haydn Society, 1852- 
54; New York Arion, and from 1855 
to 1876, New York Philliarmonic So- 
ciety; was among the first to per- 
form music of Liszt and Wagner in 
America; joined Germania Orchestra 
as 'cellist, 1850, and became its 
leader. B. Ebersbach, Saxony, 1821; 
d. Aug. 16, 1876. 

Bergonzi (Carlo) made violins in 
imitation of Antonio Stradivari, whose 
pupil he was. His instruments are 
dated 1716 to 1755. Work of his son 
Michael Angelo is not highly valued. 

Beringer (Oscar) founded a piano 
school in London. 1873-97 ; taught 
in Royal Academy of Music; com- 
posed Andante and Allegro for piano 
and orchestra, etc. ; plaj'ed piano in 
concerts and recitals. B. Furt- 
wangen, Baden, July 14, 1844; add. 

Beriot, de (Charles August) 
founded the Franco-Belgian school of 
violin playing; composed seven con- 
certos and other music for his instru- 
ment; wrote " Ecole transcendentale 
de Violon" and "Grand M^thode"; 
taught Vieuxtemps ; first appeared in 
concert at nine. B. Louvain, Belgium, 
Feb. 20, 1802; studied with Viotti 
and Baillot at Paris; m. MARIA 
MALIBRAN, 1836; declined violin 
professorship at Paris Consei'vatoire, 
but accepted similar post at Brussels, 
1843; retired because of failing eye- 
sight, 1852; d. Louvain, April 8, 

Berlin owed its importance in music 
as in everything to the genius of 
Frederick the Great. Besides the two 
principal schools discussed in the arti- 
cles following this, it was the seat of 
the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, a 
section of which was devoted to music, 
and possessed splendid opera houses 
liberally subsidized by the German 
Emperor and King of Prussia, who 




was conspicuously active in their man- 
agement. There were numerous other 
institutions of which the SING— 
AKADEMIE was the most notable, 
and there were a number of choral 
and orchestral concerts throuj»hout the 
season. Koniglichen Akademis- 
chen Hoclischiile fiir Musik was 
founded in connection with the Konig- 
lichen Akademie der Kunste, and as 
its name implies, is an academical 
high school for music, teacliing the 
art and its practice in all branches. 
For many years the late Dr. Joseph 
Joachim presided over its violin and 
orchestral departments, and was the 
director and president of the board. 
Dr. ]\Iax Bruch was closely associated 
with Dr. Joachim as the head of the 
faculty in composition and theory. 
Prof. Ernest Rudorff was head of the 
piano and organ departments, and 
Prof. Adolph tSchulze of the vocal de- 
partment. Other members of the fac- 
ulty in 1908 were: Prof. Benno Hiirtel, 
theory and composition ; Prof. Franz 
Schulz, organ; Paul Juon and Prof. 
Leopold C. Wolf, theory, composition 
and partitur playing; Prof. Robert 
Kahn, theory and ensemble playing; 
Heinrich van Eyken, theory ; Richard 
Rossler, theory; Leo Schrattenholz, 
theory and composition; Dr. Karl 
Krebs, history of music; Prof. Gustav 
Rossberg, 'military music; Musik- 
direktor Theodor Grawert, military 
music; Prof. Felix Sclunidt, Prof. 
Max Stange, Paul Knupfer, Prof. 
Elise Breiderholf, Emilie Herzog, 
Helene Jordan, Meta Lippold, vocal; 
Prof. Elise Bartels, declamation ; Marie 
Gagliardi, Italian; Richard Rossler, 
chorus singing; Ernest Braunsweig, 
dramatic action; Jacob Katzenstein, 
M.D., physiology of the voice and 
hyqiene of song; Prof. Emmanuel 
Wirth, Prof. Carl Halir, Prof. An- 
dreas Moser, Prof. Karl Markees, 
Gabriele Wietrowetz, Karl Klingler 
and Gustav Exner, violin; Prof. 
Robert JTauamann, Leo Schrattenholz, 
'cello; Wilhelm Posse, harp; Maxi- 
milian Skibicki, douhlrhass ; Emil 
Prill, flute; Georg Eberhardt, oboe, 
oboe d'amore, English horn; Prof. 
Oscar Schubert, clarinet; Arnold 

Friihauf, bassoon; Hugo Rudel, horn; 
Carl Holme, trumpet; Paul Weschke, 
trombone; Prof. Heinrich Barth, 
piano; Prof. Johannes Scliulze, piano 
and ensemble playing; Ernest von 
Dolinanyi, Prof. Karl Heymann, Prof. 
Ludwig Hirschberg, Curt Borner, 
Charles Bunte, Walter Holdenliauer, 
Adelgunde Hanne, Marie Bender, 
piano. Singakademie was founded 
by Carl Friedrich Cliristian FASCH, 
cembalist to Frederick the Great, and 
after his death, a teacher in Berlin. 
At first an organization of Fascli's 
pujiils devoted to the study of his 
own sacred music, regular meetings 
were held on Thursday evenings of 
each week in the season from May 
24, 1791. Rooms were set apart for 
the singers in the Royal Academy of 
Fine Arts, and in 1801 the public was 
first admitted on the occasion of an 
Easter concert. For a time the pro- 
ceeds were devoted to charity, but in 
1827 the organization built its own 
home, and the funds received there- 
after were devoted to the propaganda 
of oratorio and other sacred music. 
Mendelssohn directed the Matthew 
Passion of Bach in 1829. Fasch had 
been succeeded by his pupil Carl Fried- 
rich Zelter. Carl Friedrich Rungen- 
hagen was director from 1832 to 1851, 
then August Grell, who held office 
until 1879, and was followed by Mar- 
tin BLUMNER. Stern'sches Konser- 
vatorium der Musik was founded in 
1850, having quarters in the "Philhar- 
monic." In 1907-08 there were 1177 
pupils and a teaching staff of 108, 
headed by Prof. Gustav Hollaender. 
The teachers of finishing classes were: 
Binging, Eugen Brieger, Marg. Brieger- 
Palm, Dr. Paul Bruns-Molar, Blanche 
Corelli, Lydia Hollm, Sergei Kliban- 
sky, Karl Meyer, Prof. Selma Nicklass- 
Kempner, Henry B. Pasmore, Nicolaus 
Rothmiihl, Adolf Schulze, Wladislaw 
Seidemann ; Piano, Georg Bertram, 
Theodor Bohlmann, Severin Eisen- 
berger, Giinther Freudenberg, Bnmo 
Gortatowski, Bruno Hinze-Reinhold, 
Ernst Hoflfzimmer, Emma Koch, Prof. 
Martin Krause, Prof. James Kwast, 
Frieda Kwast Hodapp, Dr. Paul Lut- 
zenko. Prof. G. A. Papendick, Gustav 




Polil, Prof. Philipp Ruefer, Tlieodor 
Schiiiiberger, Prof. Alfred Soniiaiin, 
August Spamitli, Prof. K. K. Taulicrt, 
T. VV. Otto Voss, JMicliael von Zadora ; 
Violin, Prof. Gustav HoUaender, 
Theodore Spiering, Alfred Wittenberg, 
Willy Nicking, Walter Rampelmann, 
Max Griinberg, William Kritch, Friiu- 
lein Clara Schwartz; Viola, Walter 
Rampelmann; 'Cello, Joseph Malkin, 
Eugen Sandow, Erich HoUaender; 
Doublcbass, Herr Kiimmling; Organ, 
Pernhard Irgang; Harmonium, Carl 
Kaemjjf ; Harp, Franz Poenitz; Harp 
chromatic, Cantelon; Flute, Otto 
Roessler; Oboe, F. Bundfuss; Clari- 
net, Carl Rausch; Bassoon, Herr 
Koehler; Horn, Adolf Littmann; 
Trumpet, Herr Koenigsberg; Con- 
ducting, Prof. Arno Kleffel; Composi- 
tion, Score playing, Instrumentation, 
Wilhelm Klatte, Prof. Arno Klef- 
fel, Prof. Philipp Ruefer, Prof. E. E. 
Taubert, Leo Portnoflf, Arthur Will- 
ner; Harmony, Counterpoint, Canon 
and Fugue, Wilhelm Klatte, Arthur 
Willner; Theory, Harmony in Eng- 
lish, William Kritch ; Theory, Har- 
mony in Russian, Leo Portnoff ; Nico- 
laus Rothmiihl, Leader of the opera- 
school; Dramatic School, Prof. Leo 
Friedrich; Arthur Willmer, Director 
of administration. 

Berlioz (Hector) developed the re- 
sources of the orchestra so largely as 
to deserve the title " Father of modern 
orchestration " ; was first to employ 
large masses of musicians and singers 
in the production of big tonal effects; 
prepared the way for the so-called 
" Music of the Future " by elaborating 
and exemplifying in his own operas 
the theories of his favourite master, 
Gluck, regarding the relation of music 
and the drama ; composed the operas 
phony " Harold en Italic," which have 
finally ranked him witli the greatest 
of French composers, but failed to 
secure recognition in France during his 
life, save as a writer of music criti- 
cism and " feuilletons." The son of a 
country physician of La Cote St. 
Andre, Grenoble, Berlioz was sent to 
the Paris medical school to qualify 

himself for his fatlior's profession. As 
a boy lie had studied Catel's " Har- 
mony," had learned to play the flageo- 
let somewhat badly, the guitar toler- 
ably well, and had found delight in 
(Muck's " Orfeo," but was unable to 
obtain a systematic musical training. 
He detested medicine, loved music, and 
neglected his work for the library of 
the Paris Consers^atoire. Determined 
to devote his life to music, his parents 
were equally determined he should 
commit no such folly, and they cut ofT 
his allowance. But in 1823 he was a 
student at the Conservatoire, and there 
he worked during seven years, always 
in poverty, rarely on good terms with 
his teachers, except Lesueur, support- 
ing himself by such expedients as sing- 
ing in a theatre chorus, and acquiring 
a large and larger contempt of the 
prevailing style in music, of which the 
director of the Conservatoire, Chem- 
bini, was the leader. Before entering 
the Conservatoire he had received les- 
sons of Lesueur which enabled him to 
compose a mass for St. Roch's Church, 
and in his years of study he composed 
a " Fantasia on Shakespeare's Tem- 
pest," " Les Francs-juges," and " Wav- 
erly " overtures, and " Eight Scenes 
from Faust." In 1830, to his great 
surprise, he secured the prix de Rome 
with the cantata " La Mort de Sar- 
danapale." In Ittily he sighed for 
Paris, and after an 18 months' sojourn, 
the ministry permitted him to return 
home. " La Captive," a song, a re- 
vision of his " Symphony Fantastique " 
and sketches of the " Corsair " and 
" King Lear " overtures were w^orked 
out in Italy, but brought neither fame 
nor money on his return. In 1833 he 
married the Irish actress Henrietta 
Smithson, who had been playing Shake- 
spearian roles at the Odeon, and, fail- 
ing to earn a livelihood in music, took 
to journalism. " Harold in Italic," 
" Symphonic Funebre et Triomphale," 
"Romeo et Juliette," his requiem on 
the death of Napoleon, and " Benve- 
nuto Cellini," his opera, w^ere all pro- 
duced during this period of hack work, 
from which he was released by the 
princely benevolence of Paganini, who 
gave him 20,000 francs. Then the gov- 


ernment paid him 4,000 francs for his 
'• Requiem," and 10,000 francs for his 
" SjTnphonie Fun6bre et Triomphale," 
in 1840. He was thus able to tour 
Germany, a project which his wife 
bitterly opposed, and which brought 
about their separation, but proved a 
complete artistic success, for Schu- 
mann and Liszt had already made 
some of his works known, and his 
genius was acknowledged from St. 
Petersburg to London while still un- 
known to Parisians. Home again in 
1843, Paris had nothing better to 
offer him than a conductor's post. 
Visits to Vienna, to St. Petersburg, 
to London increased his reputation 
abroad, and at the Paris Exposition 
of 1855 he was commissioned to write 
an opening " Te Deum " and " L'lmpe- 
riale " cantata for its close. These 
brought him the Legion of Honor. 
Membership in the Academic and the 
librarianship at the Conservatoire 
soon followed. On the death of his 
first wife Berlioz had married a singer, 
Mile. Martin Recio. Her death oc- 
curred in 1862, leaving him quite alone 
in the world, for his son, who had 
occasioned him much anxiety, was then 
in the na^y. The following year " Les 
Troyens," an opera which he regarded 
as his masterpiece, proved a flat fail- 
ure. Berlioz composed no more. He 
made a tour of Russia in 1867, but 
his health had failed, and he died in 
Paris, Mar. 9, 1860. Those who wish 
to understand Berlioz more fully Avill 
do well to read his deliglitful " Soirees 
de I'orchestra," his letters, and his 
" Memoires," which have been trans- 
lated into English. His treatise on 
Instrumentation is a standard one. 
Important compositions besides those 
named are: " Le Carnaval Romain," 
overture; " L'Enfance du Christ," 
oratorio ; " Rob Roy," overture. 
See biography, Adolphe Jullien, 

Bermudo (Juan) wrote " Libro dc 
la doelaracion de instrumentos," ])ub- 
lishod at Ossuna, 1555; Spanish monk; 
}). near Asiorgn, 1510. 

Bernabei (Giosefifo Antonio) com- 
posed 16 operas, masses, etc.; chapel- 
master at Munich in succession to his 


1650, Rome; d. Mar. 9, 1732. 

Bernabei (Giuseppe Ercole) com- 
posed two operas and church music; 
chapelmaster to Elector of Bavaria. 
B. Caprarola, about 1620; d. Munich 
about 16S8. 

Bernacchi (Antonio) sang soprano 
in opera " Clearte," London, 1717, and 
with continued success until 1730, 
when he founded a school in Italy, 
becoming the teacher of Raff, Guar- 
ducci, Mancini, Amadori, and others; 
composed vocal music. B. Bologna, 
1690; d. ]\Iar. 1756. 

Bernard (fimile) composed the can- 
tata " Guilhiume le Conquerant," vio- 
lin concerto for Sarasate, suites, etc., 
and other works for organ, piano, and 
orchestra. B. Jlarseilles, Aug. 6, 
1845; d. Sept. 11, 1902, Paris. 

Bernasconi (Andrea) composed 21 
operas and much church music ; taught 
in Munich where he became chapel- 
master. B. Verona, 1712; d. Munich, 

Bernasconi (Antonia) sang sop. 
roles in opera; debut, Vienna, 1764, in 
" Alceste," written for her by Gluck; 
created role of Aspasia in Mozart's 
" Mithridate "; stepdaughter of AN- 
DREA; retired 1783. 

Berner (Friedricli "Wilhelm) wrote 
on music; composed, taught; played 
piano and clarinet at Breslau while 
von Weber was chapelmaster. B. Bres- 
lau, May 16, 1780; son of organist 
of the Elizabeth Church; d. May 6, 

Bernhard (Christopli) composed 
church music, sang ten. ; chapelmaster 
at Dresden. B. Dantsic, 1627; d. 
Nov. 14, 1692. 

Bernsdorf (Ediiard) edited " Uni- 
versal Lexicon der Toiikunst"; w'rote 
music criticism ; composed. B. Des- 
sau, Mar. 25, 1825; d. June 27, 1901. 

Berselli (Matteo) sang ten. in 
opera, London, 1 720-21. 

Bertin (Louise Angelique) com- 
posed " La Esmeralda," to book by 
Victor Hugo, " Le Loup Garou," and 
"Faust"; sang con.; played piano. 
B. Roche, near Bierre, Feb." 15, 1805; 
d. April 20, 1877. 

Bertini (Benoit Auguste) played 




piano, studied with Clementi and 
trained his young l)rotlier IIEXIll ; 
b. London, 178U. Their father, like- 
wise a musician, was a native of Tours, 
France. B. 1750. 

Bertlni (Giuseppe) wrote "Storico- 
critieo dt'gli scrilturi di niusica"; 
directed music at the Capella Pala- 
tina, Palermo; b. 1756. 

Bertlni (Henri) played piano on 
concert tour of Holland and Germany 
at 12 ; composed etudes, 50 of wiiich 
were rcpublislied a few years ago. B. 
London, Oct. 28, 1798; d. Meylan, Oct. 
1, 1870. 

Bertinotti (Teresa) sang with suc- 
cess in opera ; debut at Naples when 
12 years of age; m. Felice Radicati, 
violinist, who composed " Zaira " for 
her; retired 1823, and taught at Bo- 
logna. B. Savigliano, Piedmont, 1776; 
d. Bologna, Feb. 12, 1S54. 

Bertolli (Francesca) sang con. 
roles in London with Handel, 1729-37. 

Barton (Pierre Montan) became 
leader of the Opera orchestra, Paris, 
during the quarrels of the (4Iuckists 
and Piccinnists, whom he is said to liave 
finally reconciled. B. 1727; d. 1780. 
Henri Montan composed " Montano 
et Stephanie," romantic opera pro- 
duced with great success in Paris, 
1798; " Ponce de Leon," " Le Delire," 
" Aline," " Ninon chez Mme. de Se- 
vigne," and other operas; taught 
harmony at the Conservatoire, 1795; 
conducted Paris Italian opera, 1807. 
B. Paris, Sept. 17, 1767; son of 
PIERRE MONTAN; d. April 22, 
1844. Frangois composed operas and 
taught in Conservatoire. B. 1784; 
son of HENRI IMONTAN and the 
singer, Mile. Maillara; d. Paris, 

Bertoni (Ferdinando Giuseppe) 
composed 33 operas and oratorios; 
conducted mvisic at St. Mark's, Venice. 
B. Salo, near Venice, Aug. 15, 1725; 
d. near Brescia. Dec. 1. 1813. 

Bertram (Theodore) sang bass 
Wagnerian roles with distinguished 
success, his " Wotan " winning high 
praise from Cosima Wagner; sang in 
many American cities during early 
manhood; pupil of his fnthor. B. Feb. 
12, 1SG9, Stuttgart; killed himself, 

1907, tecause of grief at the death of 
his wife Fanny Moran Olden in the 
Hook of Holland disaster. 

Bertrand (Jean Gustave) wrote 
critical and arclneological works on 
"music. B. Vaugirard, Dec. 24, 1834 ; 
add. Paris. 

Berwald (Franz) composed the 
opera "Estrella de Soria"; sj'm- 
phonies, chamber music; directed t)ic 
conservatory at Stockholm. B. July 
23, 1796; nepliew of JOHANN 
FKIEDRICH; d. April 3, 1868. 

Berwald (Johann Friedrich) com- 
posed symphonies; famous as chihl 
musician throughout northern Europe ; 
became chapelmaster to the king of 
Sweden. B. Stockholm, Dec. 4, 1787; 
d. June 28, 1861. 

Bes. Ger. B double flat. 

Besaiten. Ger. To string an 

Besekirsky (Vasil Vasilievich) 
plaj'ed violin and taught. B. Moscow, 
1836; pupil of Leonard. 

Besler (Samuel) composed church 
music, became rector of gymnasium of 
Breslau. B. Brieg, Silesia, Dec, 1574; 
d. July 19, 1625. 

Besozzi (Alessandro) published 
sonatas for violin and flute; played 
oboe; eldest of a remarkable family 
of musicians. B. Parma, 1700; d. 
Turin, 1775. Antonio, succeeded his 
brother ALESSANDRO at Parma, 
and later removed to Dresden; was a 
famous oboe player. Carlo became 
celebrated as oboe player in Dresden 
royal band. Son of ANTONIO. Hier- 
onimo was associated with his brother 
ALESSANDRO as bassoon player. 
Gaetano played oboe in London and 
at tlie Neapolitan and Fiench courts. 
B. Parma, youngest brother of AL- 
LESSANDRO. Hieronimo played 
oboe at the Paris Concerts Spirituel, 
ha\nng been a pupil of his father, 
GAETANO; d. 1785. Henri became 
flautist at the Opera Comique, son of 
HIERONBIO. liouis Desiree won the 
prix de Rome at the Paris Conserva- 
toire, 1837; b. Versailles, April 3, 
1S14; son of HENRI; d. Nov. 11, 

Bessel (Vassily Vassilievich) 
founded the music publishing house 




of Bessel & Co., St. Petersburg, 1869 ; 
b. St. Petersburs,^ 1843. 

Bessenis (Antoine) composed for 
voice and violin, and taught. B. Ant- 
werp, April G, 18()»; d. Oct. 19, 1868. 

Besson (Gustave Auguste) 
greatly improved the construction of 
the cornet, and improved and manu- 
factured other instruments as well. 
B. Paris, 1820; d. 1875. 

Best (William Thomas) wrote 
" The Modern School for Organ," " Tlie 
Art of Organ Playing"; composed 
clnirch music and played organ in 
Liverpool churclies. B. Carlisle, l^ng., 
Aug. 13, 1826; d. Liverpool, May 10, 
1897. Ger. With decision. 

Betz (Franz) sang Wagnerian bar. 
roles. B. Mar. 19, 1835, Mayence; d. 
Berlin, Aug. 11, 1900. 

Bevin (Elway) composed church 
music. Probably born in Wales, and 
believed to have been organist at 
Bristol Cathedral, 1589. 

Bevington (Henry) founded the 
London organ building firm now known 
as Bevington & Sons, about 1800, hav- 
ing learned the trade with Olirmann 
& Nutt. Henry and Martin, his sons, 
were the heads of the firm in 1908. 

Bexfield (William Ricliard) com- 
posed tlie oratorio " Israel Restored"; 
organist of St. Helen's, London; de- 
gree of Dr. Cambridge, 1849. B. Nor- 
wich, April 27, 1824; d. London, Oct. 
28, 1853. 

Beyer (Ferdinand) made a great 
number of easy arrangements and 
transcriptions for Schott & Co., of 
Mayence. B. Querfort, 1803; d. May 
14, 1863. 

Bianca. Michael William Balfe's 
opera in four acts, to words by Pal- 
grave Simpson, was first performed Dec. 
6, 1860, at Covent Garden, London. 

Bianchi (Francesco) composed 20 
operas and oratorios, including " Cas- 
tore e Polluce," " Inez de Castro," 
" Antigone." " Merope," " Alzira " ; 
m. Miss Jackson, well known as singer 
under the name Bianchi-Lacy; cem- 
balist at Paris Italian Opera; 2d 
organist at St. Mark's, Venice. B. 
Cremona, 1752; killed himself, Lon- 
don, Nov. 27, 1810. 

Biber, von (Heinrich Johann 
Franz) composed for violin, which he 
played so well that in 1681 Emperor 
Leopold ennobled him. B. Warten- 
bergen, Bohemia, Aug. 12, 1644; d. 
May 3, 1704. 

Bibl (Andreas) composed organ 
preludes and fugues; became organist 
at St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna. 
B. Vienna, April 8, 1797; d. 1378. 

Bibl (Rudolph) composed and 
played organ St. Stephen's Cathedral, 
Vienna; chapeliuaster to the Em- 
peror. B. Jan. 6, 1832; add. Vienna. 

Bichord. Double strings to a note. 

Bicinium. Lat. Obsolete term for 
two-part song. 

Bickham (George, Jr.) engraved 
and published music in " The Musical 
Entertainer," London, 1736-39. 

Bierey (Gottlob Benedict) com- 
posed 40 operas of which those in 
comic vein were most successful, in- 
cluding " Wladimir," " Das Blumen- 
miidehen"; chapelmaster at Breslau 
in succession to von Weber. B. Dres- 
den, July 25, 1772; d. May 5, 1840. 

Bifara. Lat. Tremolo organ stop. 

Bigot (Marie) played piano in con- 
certs ; taught Mendelssohn ; knew 
Haydn, Salieri, Beethoven, Cherubini, 
Lamarre, and Baillot. B. Kiene at 
Colmar, Alsace, Mar. 3, 1786; m. Mr. 
Bigot, Count Rasoumowsky's libra- 
rian; d. Paris, Sept. 16, 1820. 

Bilhon, de (Jean) composed church 
music, which was published between 
1534 and 1544 in Ley den and Paris. 

Billington (Mrs. Elizabeth) com- 
posed two sets of piano sonatas before 
she was 1 1 ; became the greatest 
singer of her day to the neglect of 
further creative work. Daughter of 
Carl Weichsel, an oboist at the King's 
Theatre, London, her mother being a 
popular singer. Miss Weichsel and her 
brother appeared at their mother's 
benefit at the Haymarket, in 1774, 
when she was probably six years 
old. Her debut as a singer took 
place at Oxford, at 14, and in 1783 
she m. James Billington, a doublebass 
player. Operas were composed for 
her by Bianchi, Paisiello, Paor, and 
Himmel, and slie was received enthu- 
siastically in Naples and Venice aa 




as in London. Billington d. 1704, 
and 1790 slic ni. M. Felissent. Her 
voice ranged from a to a ' ' '. Sir 
Joshua Keynolds painted her portrait 
as St. Cecilia, and Cosway painted her 
miniature. D. Venice, 1818. 

Billington (Thomas) composed, 
phived harp and piano. B. ]<]xeter, 
1754; brother-in law of ELIZABP]TH; 
d. Tunis. 18:52. 

Bimmolle. //. B flat; tlie nat- 
ural sign. 

Bina. An East Indian stringed in- 
strument of the guitar family, the 
scale consisting of a series of small 
Intervals between a note and its octave 
in the bass staff. 

Binary Form. A movement 
founded on two themes or principal 

Binary Measure. Common time. 

Binchois (Egidius) composed 
church music an<l secular songs of 
which 27 have been preserved; chap- 
Iain to Duke Philip of Burgundy. B. 
Binche near Mons; hence " Gilles de 
Binch"; d. Lille, 1460. 

Bind. The curved line or tie which 
unites two notes of the same degree 
denoting that they are to be sounded 
as one note. The same sign connecting 
notes of different degrees becomes the 
slur or legato sign. 

Binde. Oer. Bind. 

Bindung. Ger. Syncopation or 
suspension, which may be effected by 
using the bind. 

Bini (Pasqualino) played violin 
even better than Tartini, whose pupil 
he was ; composed for that instru- 
ment. B. Pesaro, 1720; became leader 
of the court band at Stuttgart, 

Bioni (Antonio) composed " Cli- 
mene," " Undine," " Endimione," and 
in all 26 operas; composer to the Elec- 
tor of :\Iayence. B. Venice, 1698. 

Birch (Charlotte Ann) sang sop. 
in concert and opera, pupil of Sir 
George Smart. B. 1815; d. London, 
Jan. 26, 1001. 

Birch (Eliza Ann) sang sop.; pupil 
of Sir George Smart; sister of CTTAR- 
LOTTE ANN. B. 18.30; d. Mar. 26, 

Birchall (Robert) established mu- 

sic publishing house in London; man- 
aged the " Ancient Concerts " ; d. 
1810. Business was continued by 
Birchall, Lonsdale & Mills. 

Bird (Arthur) composed symphony 
in A, three orchestral suites, comic 
o])era "Daphne"; ballet, " Riibe- 
zalil "; serenade for wind instruments 
wliich won the Padei'ewski prize in 
New York, 1901. B. Cambridge, Mass., 
July 23, 1856; settled in Berlin, 

Bird (Henry Richard) jjlayed or- 
gan, gave concerts, tauglit, became ac- 
companist at London Popular Concerts, 
1891. B. Nov. 14, 1842; son of George 
Bird, organist at Walthamstow 
church, ]*]ng. ; became organist at St. 
John's, Walthamstow, at the age of 
eight; later of many London churches; 
add. London. 

Birmingham Festival, at which 
many important works have had tlieir 
first English performance, was founded 
in 1768 in aid of the General Hospital 
of Birmingham; has since grown into 
a triennial festival with a total profit 
to that institution of more than 
$500,000; with profit to England in 
the stimulation of musical art too 
great for monetary calculation. Capel 
Bond, of Coventry, conducted the first 
festival, which was exclusively de- 
voted to Handel. Others to hold this 
post have been Dr. Crotch, Samuel 
Wesley, T. Greatorex, W. Knyvett, 
Mendelssohn, Moscheles, Costa, and 
Dr. Richter. Since 1855 the local 
chorus has been supplied by the 
Birmingham Amateur Harmonic 

Bis. L. " Twice," written over a 
group of notes indicates that they are 
to be repeated, being thus equivalent 
to dots of repetition; also used in 
France for " encore." 

Bischero. It. Peg or pin to fasten 
an instrument's strings. 

Bischoff (Dr. Ludwig Friedrich 
Christian) wrote for " Kolnische Zei- 
tung " and edited musical reviews; 
founded and promoted musical soci- 
eties; aided in maintaining the festi- 
vals at Cologne and other musical 
centres. B. Dessau, Nov. 27, 1794; d. 




Biscroiiia. It. Semiquaver. 
Biscronie. Fr. Semiquaver. 
Bisdiapason. Double octave. 
Bishop (Ann) sang sop. in concerts 
in all parts of the world; daughter of 
Riviere, a London singing master; m. 
Sir Henry Bishop, 1831; eloped with 
Bochsa, the harpist, 1839, who d. 1855 
in Australia while on concert tour; 
m. Schulz; finally settled in New 
York. B. London, 1814; d. New York, 
Mar. 18, 1884. 

Bishop (Sir Henry Rowley) com- 
posed the opera " Clari," 1823, which 
contains " Home, Sweet Home " ; " The 
Fortunate Isles " in celebration of 
Queen Victoria's wedding; "Maid 
Marian " and many other operas ; pop- 
ular songs; wrote musical number for 
" A Midsummer Night's Dream " ; con- 
ducted at Covent Garden and London 
Philharmonic concerts. B. London, 
Nov. 18, 1786; pupil of Bianchi; m. 
first Miss Lyon, the singer; then 
ANN BISHOP (Riviere); knighted 
1842; professor at Oxford, 1848; con- 
ductor " Ancient Concerts," 1842 ; d. 
April 30, 1855. 

Bishop (James C.) founded the 
English organ building house now 
known as Bishop &. Son, about 1800. 

Bishop (John) composed, played 
organ Winchester Cathedral. B. Eng., 
1665; d. Winchester, Dec. 19, 1737. 

Bishop (John) edited, wrote, and 
translated many works on theory and 
history of music; organist of St. 
Paul's, Cheltenham, Eng., at 14. B. 
Cheltenham, Julv 31, 1817; d. Feb. 3, 

Bispham (David Scull) sang bar. 
roles in opera and concert with dis- 
tinguished success, debut in "Basoche" 
Royal English Opera House, Nov. 3. 
1891; he sang such roles as " Kur- 
wenal," "Wolfram." " Telramund," 
"Wotan," "Alberich." " Beckmesser," 
" Pizarro," "Escamillo," " FalstafT," 
etc., at Covent Garden, London, and 
the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York; was an accomplished actor, 
equally admirable in serious or comic 
roles. B. Philadelphia, Jan. 5, 1857; 
sang in oratorio and church choirs; 
became pupil of Vannuncini and Lam- 
perti, Milan, 1886-89; and of Herman 

Vezin, London, in elocution. Add. 
New York. 

Bissex. 12-stringed guitar invented 
by Vanliccke, 1770. 

Bis Unca. L. Semiquaver. 
Bit. Tube supplementing the crook 
of some brass instruments for tuning 

Bitter (Karl Hermann) wrote im- 
portant biographies of the Bachs, other 
books ; contributed to magazines ; 
founded the Schleswig-Holstein Fes- 
tival, 1875. B. Feb. 27, 1813; d. Ber- 
lin, Sept. 12, 1885. 

Bizzarre or Bizzarramente. It. 
Fantastically, drolly. 

Bizet (Georges Alexandre Cesar 
Leopold) composed " CARMEN," pro- 
duced Mar. 3, 1875, at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, which has grown 
steadily in popularity and suffices to 
rank him with the greatest of French 
composers; a suite to Daudet's "L'Ar- 
lesienne," and several books of songs. 
B. Paris, Oct. 28, 1838; from 1848 to 
1857 Bizet studied at the Paris Con- 
servatoire, harmony with Zimmer- 
mann, and composition with Halevy, 
in his last year dividing the operetta 
prize Avith Lecocq with " Docteur 
Miracle," gaining the prix de Rome 
in 1857. The opera " Don Procopio," 
an overture, two symphonic move- 
ments and the comic opera " La guzla 
de I'Emir " were composed in Rome. 
Returning to Paris he composed 
"Vasco di Gama," 1863; " Les Pe- 
cheurs de Perles," 1863; "La jolie 
fille de Perth," 1867; " D.JAMILEH," 
1872 ; and collaborated in the operetta 
" Malbrough s'en va-t-en guerre," 1867, 
none of which attained success during 
the composer's life. In 1809 he mar- 
ried Genevieve HaleAy, daughter of his 
old master in composition, and he com- 
pleted his father-in-law's opera " No^." 
An overture to Sardou's "Pa trie" first 
won recognition, but the real worth of 
the man failed of appreciation until 
after his death, for he only sur- 
Anved the production of " Carmen " by 
three months. The orchestral suites 
" Roma," " Jeux d'enfants," and some 
of the works already named have come 
into A^ogue since Bizet's death, June 3, 
1875, Bougival, near Paris. Bizet was 




especially hapjw in lii^i troatment of 
oriental themes, and there has been 
a long line of Carnieiis, bef^inning witli 
INInie. Calli-Maric, who oroatod tiie 
role, including Minnie llauck, ^larie 
Roze, Trebolli, Patti, Lucca, and ])e 
Lussan, and culminating in C'alv6, 
whose sensuous interpretation of the 
gypsy role is not likely to be 

Black (Andrew) sang bar. in con- 
cert; taught singing, 1S93, at Royal 
College of Music, Manchester, Eng. B. 
Glasgow, Jan. 15, 18.59; pupil of 
Randegger, Welch, and Scarlatti ; 
debut duly 30, 1887, Crystal Palace, 
London ; add. Manchester, Eng. 

Blaes (Arnold Joseph) played 
clarinet and taught in the Brussels 
Conservatory. B. Brussels, Dec. 1, 
1814; d. Brussels, Jan. 11, 1892. 

Blaes (Mme. Elisa) sang in con- 
cert. B.Antwerp (Meerti) , 1820; m. 
ARNOLD JOSEPH, taught in 

Blagrove (Henry Gamble) played 
^^olin and led London orchestras ; gave 
chamber concerts; tavight Duke of 
Cambridge. B. Nottingham, Eng., 
1811; d. London, Dec. 15, 1872. 

Blainville (Charles H.) composed, 
wrote on music, played 'cello. B. 1711, 
near Tours; d. Paris, 17(59. 

Blake (Rev. Dr. Edward) com- 
posed the anthem " 1 have sot Cod 
always before me," and for viola and 
violin. B. Salisbury, Eng., 1708; d. 
June 11, 17G5. 

Blahetka (Marie Leopoldine) com- 
posed '■ Die Rauebcr iind die Saenger,'' 
favourably received at the Kilrnthner- 
thor Theatre, Vienna, 1830; a concerto 
for piano and orchestra ; piano pupil 
of Czerny, Kalkbrenner, INIoscheles, 
and Sechter. B. Nov. 15. 1811, Baden, 
Austria; d. Boulogne, Jan. 12, 1887. 

Blamont, de (EranQois Collin) 
composed a " Te Deum," motets; many 
operas; the cantata " Circe " ; chapel- 
master to the king of France, who en- 
nobled him. B. Versailles, 1G90, son 
of a member of the royal band. 

Blanc (Adolphe) composed operas; 
pupil of Hale^'y. B. June 24, 1828, 
Manosque, France. 

Blanchard (Henri Louis) played 

violin, directed music at the Vari^t^s, 
Paris, 1818-20; wrote music criti- 
cism, biographies. B. Bordeaux, Feb. 
7, 1778; d. Paris, Dec. 18, 1858, 

Blanche. Fr. Minim. 

Blanche de Nevers. ]\Iichael 
Williatn P>alfe's five-act opera to words 
by John Brougham, founded on " The 
Duke's Motto," was first performed 
Nov. 21, 1863, at Covent Garden, 

Blanche Pointee. Fr. Dotted 

Blancks (Edward) composed, with 
nine other musicians, " The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes," etc., published in 
London, 1592, by Thomas Este. 

Bland (John) ])id)lished and sold 
music in London, 1779-90; succeeded 
by Lewis Houston and Hyde. 

Bland & Weller. Published music 
in London, 1790-1819; succeeded by 
Weller & Co. 

Bland (Maria Theresa) sang with 
Drury Lane company, London, 40 
years, from 178G. B. 1769 (Romanzini), 
of Italian Jewish parents; d. Jan. 15, 
1838. Charles sang ten. in opera. 
Son of MARIA THERESA. James 
sang bass at Drury Lane and Olympic 
theatres, London. B. 1798; son of 
MARIA THERESA; d. July 17, 1861. 

Blangini (Giuseppe Marco Maria 
Eelice) collaborated in " La Marquise 
de Brinvilliers " and composed many 
operas ; sang ten. ; numbered among 
his pupils "three queens, 12 princesses, 
25 countesses, etc."; chapelinaster to 
the king of Bavaria. B. Turin, Nov. 
18. 1781; d. Dec. 18, 1841. 

Blankenburg or Blanckenburgh, 
van (Gerbrandt or Gideon) wrote 
" Elementa Musica " and historical 
books; composed " De verdubbelde har- 
mony," which might be played forward 
or backward. B. Gouda, 1654; played 
organ there and at The Hague; d. 
about 1739. 

Blaramberg' (Paul Ivanovich) 
composed the opera " ]\Iarv of Bur- 
gundv." " The Mummers," 1881 ; " The 
Roussalka Maiden," 1887; " Tushino," 
1891 ; a symphonic poem, choral pieces, 
music to the play " Voyevoda." B. 
Orenburg, Sept. 26, 1841; add. St. 

Reed or vibrating 


Blasbalg. Orr. Or^^an bellows. 

Blasinstrument. (Jer. Wind 

Blasmusik. Ger. Music for wind 

Blatt, Ger. 

Blauvelt (Lillian Evans) sang sop. 
in opera and concert ; operatic debut 
in Brussels in " Mireille," Sept. 12, 
1891 ; Covent Garden in "Faust," June 
2, 1903. B. Brooklyn, New York, Mar. 
16, 1873, played violin in Steinway 
Hall, New York, at eight, pupil N. Y. 
Conservatory of Music, 1885-89; m. 
Royal Smith, the organist; studied in 
Paris, made Russian tour, subse- 
quently toured America ; divorced, 
went to Italy, 1898, for study, sang 
in Verdi's "Requiem" in Rome and for 
Queen Margherita ; sang in Munich 
and London ; m. William F. Pendle- 
ton; sang before Queen Victoria, 1899; 
at the Handel festival, 1900, toured 
America, 1901 ; add. New York. 

Blauwaert (Emil) created the role 
of " Gurnemanz " at Bayreuth ; sang 
bass, cantate with distinction from 1805 
to 1 890. B. St. Nikolaas, Belgium, June 
13, 1845; d. Brussels, Feb. 2, 1891. 

Blaze (FranQois Henri Joseph.) 
wrote two voluiues '" De I'opera en 
France," 1820; translated libretti; 
composed and collected " Chants de 
Provence," etc. ; signed himself "Castil- 
Blaze." B. Cavaillon, France, Dec. 1, 
1784; son of an excellent amateur 
musician; d. Dec. 11, 1857. 

Blaze de Bury (Baron Henri) 
wrote a life of Rossini, " Meyerbeer 
and his times," libretto of " La jeu- 
nesse de Goethe " for wliich Meyerbeer 
composed the music. Son of CASTIL- 
BLAZE whom he excelled as a writer, 
though not in knowledge of music; en- 
nobled while in the French diplomatic 
service. B. Avignon, May, 1813; d. 
Mar. 15. 1888. 

Blecliinstruniente. Ger. Brass 

Bleuer (Ludwig) conducted De- 
troit Philliarmonic Club, 1894; played 
violin, led Berlin Philharmonic Orches- 
tra. B. Budapest. 18()3; d. Berlin. 1897. 

Blewitt (Jonathan), son of JONAS 
BLI^WITT (a London organist, who 


wrote "A Complete 1'reatise on the 
Organ,'" and died 1805), composed tlie 
operas "Corsair," "The Magician," 
"Tlie Island of Saints," "Rory O'More" 
ballads; plaved organ; conducted in 
London and Duldin. D. Sept. 4, 1853. 

Blind Tom was the stage name of 

Blitheman (William) composed 
for organ, virginal, and voice, sang in 
Eng. Chapel Royal, lOth century. 

Blockx (Jan) composed numerous 
Flemish songs; cantatas; the ballet 
" Milenka," operas including " Tliiel 
Uylenspiegel," 1900; " La Fiancee de 
la Mer," 1902; " Kapel," 1903, PKiN- 
CESSE D'AUBERGE; the cantata 
" Die Scheldezang," Antwerp, August, 
1903; the comic opera " Maitre Mar- 
tin"; succeeded Benoit, 1902, as di- 
rector of the Antwerp Conservatory. 
B. Antwerp, Jan. 25, 1851; add. 

Bloomfield-Zeisler (Fannie) 
played piano with marked success at 
the leading orchestral concerts in 
Europe and America, and in recital ; 
debut at ten; pupil of Ziehn, of Carl 
Wolfsohn of Chicago, and of Lesche- 
tizky in Vienna. B. Bielitz, Austria; 
m. Sigismund Zeisler, Chicago, 1885; 
add. Chicago. 

Blow (John) composed " Masque 
for tlie Entertainment of the King " 
(Charles II), anthems for the corona- 
tion of James II ; taught Henry Pur- 
cell ; Master of the Children (of whom 
he had been one ) , Eng. Chapel Royal ; 
and succeeded Purcell in 1695 as or- 
ganist at Westminster Abbey. B. 1648, 
North Collingliam, Eng.; d. London, 

Bluethner (Julius Ferdinand) 
founded tlie piano house bearing his 
name in Leipsic, Nov. 7, 1853. B. Mar. 
11, 1824, Falkenhain, near Merseburg, 

Blumenberg (Marc A.) edited the 
" New Y'ork Musical Courier " from 
its establishment, 1880; was presi- 
dent the Bhnnenberg Press Corpora- 
tion ; recognized as an authority on 
acoustics and musical instruments. 
Educated at Loyola College, Balti- 
inore, he became music critic on the 
Baltimore "American," but later joined 




the staH" of tlie New York " Run." 
B. May 21, 1851, Baltimore, Md.; 
add. New York City. 

Blumenthal (Jacob) composed 
"The Message" and other songs; 
pianist to Queen Victoria, 1848; pupil 
of Horz at tlie Paris t'on.servatoire. 
B. llaiiihurg, Oct. 4. 1829: d. li)()8. 

Blumner (Dr. Martin) conipo.scd 
the oratorios '" Abraliani," 1800; " Der 
Fall -Icrusalems," 1881; the cantata 
"Columbus," 1853, a Te Deum, etc.; 
directed Berlin Sinijakademic; pupil 
of S. W. IJehn. B. Nov. 21, 1827, 
Mecklenburg; d. Nov. G, 1901, Berlin. 

B Moll. (!cr. B flat or B flat minor. 

Bob. Term employed in bell ring- 
ing to indicate certain peals. 

Bocal. Fr. INIouthpiece. 

Bocca. It. Mouth. 

Boccabadati (Luigia) sang opera 
bulla, debut Venice, 1823 to 1845. B. 
Parma; d. Turin, Oct. 12, 1850. 

Boccherini (Luigi) composed 407 
works for instruments, his chamber 
music being somewhat in the style of 
Ilaydn, with whom he is assumed to 
have been acquainted; a Stabat Mater, 
a Mass, the opera " Clementina," two 
oratorios; played 'cello; enjoyed the 
patronage of Charles IV of Spain 
while Prince of Asturias ; became 
composer to Friedrich Wilhelm II of 
Prussia ; was aided by Lucien Bona- 
parte during his service as ambassador 
to Madrid, but, despite great talent 
and a wonderful facility in composi- 
tion, died in want. B. Lucca. Feb. 19, 
1743; d. Madrid, May 28, 1805. See 
biography by D. A. Ceril, 1804; by 
Schletternd, Leipsic, and " Notice sur 
la vie et ouvrages," etc., L. Picquot, 
Paris, 1S51. 

Bocchino. If. Mouthpiece. 

Bochsa (Robert Nicholas 
Charles) composed the opera " Tra- 
jan " before he was 16. and eight other 
operas; became harpist to Napoleon 
and later to Louis XVIII; filed to Lon- 
don to escape imprisonment for forgery 
in France; gave concerts with Sir 
George Smart; taught with great suc- 
cess; eloped with wife of Sir Henrv 
Bishop. B. Montmedy. Aug. 0, 1789"; 
d. Sydney, Australia, Jan. 6, 1856. ■ 

Booklet, von (Carl Maria) played 

violin and piano, and lirst brought the 
piano pieces of his friend Schubert to 
])ublic notice. B. Prague, 1801; d. 
July 15, 18S1. 

Bockpfeife. Ger. Bagpipe. 

Bockshorn (Samuel) composed 
church music once widely sung; chapel- 
master to the Duke of Wiirtem- 
berg. B. 1G29, Pressburg; d. Nov. 
12, 1665. 

Bockstriller. Gcr. " Goat-bleat," 
faulty vocalization. 

Bode (Johann Joachim Chris- 
toph) composed; played oboe and 
bassoon; editor, printer, and trans- 
lator. B. Jan. 16, 1730, Brunswick; 
d. Dec. 13, 1793, Weimar. 

Boden. Ger. BODY. 

Bodenschatz (Erhard) made valu- 
able collections of church music; com- 
posed a Magnificat; wrote on theory. 
B. Lichtenberg, Germany, 1570; pastor 
at Gross-Osterhausen, 1008; d. 1038. 

Body. The sound box of a stringed 
instrument; the main part of a wind 
instrument, minus mouthpiece, crooks, 

Boehm (Elizabeth) created role of 
Donna Elvira in Berlin, 1790. B. 
Riga, 1756; m. the tenor Cartellieri, 
then Boehm the actor; d. Berlin, 1797. 

Boehm (Heinrich) composed 35 
operas and operettas in Bohemian. B. 
Blasria. Bohemia, 1830. 

Boehm (Joseph) taught violin in 
Vienna 50 years, numbering among his 
pupils Joachim, Ernst, L. Straus; 
pupil of his father and of Rode. B. 
Pesth, Mar. 4, 1795; d. Vienna, Mar. 
28, lff76. 

Boehm (Theobald) improved the 
flute, on which he was a famous 
player; devised new system of finger- 
ing; composed many works for flute. 
B. Munich, April 9, 1794; d. Nov. 25, 

Boehner (Johann Ludwig) com- 
posed and became famous as organist 
and improvisator; by his eccentricities 
afiTorded material for HoflTmann's " Ca- 
pellmeister Kreisler." B. TfUtelstedt, 
Gotha. Jan. 8, 1787; d. Mar. 28, 1860. 

Boekelman (Bernardus) com- 
posed; founded New Y'ork Trio Club; 
taught and played piano. B. Utrecht, 
Holland, 1838; add. New York City. 




Boellinann (Leon) composed sym- 
phony in F; "Suite Gotliiqiie " for 
organ; played organ at St. Vincent de 
Paul's, Paris. B. Ensisheim, Alsace, 
Sept. 25, 18G2; d. Paris, Oct. 11, 

Boely (Alexandre Pierre Fran- 
gois) composed chamber music; pupil 
of the Paris Conservatoire. B. Ver- 
sailles, April 9, 1785; d. Paris, Dec. 
27. 1S5S. 

Boesendorfer (Ludwig) succeeded 
to the piano factory established in 
Vienna by his father, Ignaz, 1828, and 
enlarged the compass of his instru- 
ments and greatly improved them. B. 
Vienna, April, 1835. 

Boesset (Pierre Guedron Antoine) 
composed 2-t court ballets ; chapel- 
master to Louis XIII. B. Dec, 1585, 
Sieur de Villedieu; d. 1643. Jean 
Baptiste succeeded to his father's 
office. B. 1612; son of PIERRE 
GI^DROISr ANTOINE; d. 1685. 
Claude Jean Baptiste composed court 
ballets and the duets " Fruits d'Au- 
tomne"; succeeded his father, 1G67; 

Boheme. Giacomo Puccini's four- 
act opera to libretto by Giuseppe 
Giacosa and Luigi Illica. founded on 
Henri Murger's " La Vie Boheme," was 
first produced in Turin, Feb. 1, 1896, 
and has since been played throughout 
Europe and America. The action is 
laid in Paris about 1830. The curtain 
rises on the garret where Marcel and 
Rudolphe are painting and writing. 
It is cold, and Rudolphe burns the 
manuscript of a tragedy that they may 
warm themselves, a task in which the 
philosopher Colline soon joins them. 
The musician Schaunard comes with 
food and wine, and while they are 
making merry, Bernard the landlord 
enters, demanding his rent. They 
fuddle him with wine, chaflf him about 
his amours, and then push him out of 
doors. Rudolphe must complete a 
manuscript, but the other young men 
are bound for a lark. Tliey leave him, 
promising to return for him later. 
Mimi, a pretty young neighbour, comes 
to ask for a liglit, and as she is leaving 
a gust of wind blows out the candle, 
and slie drops her key. They grope 

for the lost key in the dark. Rudolphe 
finds it, but places it in his pocket, 
then takes Mimi's hand, tells her of 
his work, and she replies by narrating 
her own little history. Rudolphe's 
companions call to him from the 
street, he opens a window to answer, 
and the moonlight reveals to his 
friends below Mimi standing beside 
him. In the second act students and 
their friends are making merry in 
front of the Cafe INIomus in honour of 
Christmas eve. Rudolphe introduces 
Mimi to his friends Colline, Marcel, 
and Schaunard and they order re- 
freshments. Parpignol the toy dealer 
enters with his wares, and is sur- 
rounded by the children, whose 
mothers finally lead them away. Mu- 
sette, formerly the sweetheart of Mar- 
cel, but who has cast him off, comes 
in, richly clad, and accompanied by 
her new lover, Alcindor, to whom she 
talks at the top of her voice to attract 
Marcel's attention. Sending Alcindor 
away on an errand, she joins Marcel 
and his friends, and as the waiter 
comes up demanding his money, tells 
him to add the amount to Alcindor's 
account. Just as Alcindor receives 
this unexpected bill the group of 
friends march away, following a pro- 
cession of soldiers. In the third act 
Rudolphe confesses to Marcel that he 
means to leave Mimi, though he still 
loves her, because she is dying of con- 
sumption, and he lacks the means to 
provide for her comfort. Mimi, who 
has been seeking counsel of ]\Iarcel, 
overhears this; a fit of coughing re- 
veals her presence, and as Marcel 
rushes into the inn, where he hears 
^lusette flirting with some one, Ru- 
dolphe and Mimi say farewell. In the 
fourth act we return to the garret. 
Marcel and Rudolphe are unable to 
work for thinking of Musette and 
Mimi. Colline and Schaunard again 
join their friends. They are soon fol- 
lowed by ]\Iimi, who realizes that she 
is dying, but cannot resist the tempta- 
tion to see Rudolphe again. She is 
cold. Rudolphe tries to warm her 
hands by chafing them. Musette, over- 
come with grief, gives Marcel her 
jewels to pawn in order to buy food 


and wiiK'. and Col line, Uikinjf Schau- 
nard with him, goes forth to pawn his 
coat in order to provide further com- 
forts. Mimi, who has pretended to be 
asleep, now talks to lludolphe about 
their happiness in the past. Tiie 
others return bringing food, wine, and 
fuel, but it is too late. Mimi falls 
asleep, then dies, and the curtain falls. 
The princi])al musical numbers are: 
Act 1 : " iMi chianiano Mimi," Ru- 
dolphe, ten., and Mimi, sop.; " O soave 
fanciulla," Rudolphe; Act II: waltz 
song, Musette, sop. ; Act. Ill: "Addio, 
senza rancore," Mimi and Rudolphe; 
Act. TV: " Sono aiidatiV Fingero di 
(h)rniire." ^linii and Rudolplie. 

Bohemian Girl. j\Iichael William 
Balfe's three-act opera to book by 
Bunn, adapted from Fanny EUsler's 
ballet " The Gipsy," was produced at 
Drury Lane Theatre, London, Nov. 27, 
1843, and speedily became one of the 
most popular operas in English. As 
" La Bohemienne," with alterations 
and additions, the work was favour- 
ably received at the Theatre LjTique, 
Paris, and there are likewise Italian 
and German versions. Thaddeus, a 
noble Polish exile, joins a band of 
gipsies and saves the life of Arline, 
the little daughter of Count Arnheim, 
Governor of Presburg. Refusing to 
drink the Emperor's health, Thaddeus 
is in danger of arrest. Devilshoof, the 
gipsy captain, interferes, saves Thad- 
deus, but is himself arrested. Later 
he escapes, taking Arline with him, 
and the gipsy band disappears. The 
band returns 12 years later. Arnheim 
still mourns his daughter, whom he 
has given vip as dead, but consoles 
himself in the society of his nephew, 
Florestein, who falls into the hands of 
the gipsies. Arline and Thaddeus love 
each otiier, but Arline has a rival in 
the queen of the gipsies, who resolves 
to rid herself of the girl. She gives 
Arline a medallion stolen from P'lore- 
stein, which that young rake recog- 
nizes when he meets her at a fair, and 
vainly tries to make love to her. He 
causes Arline's arrest, but when she 
is brought before Arnheim, the Count 
notes a scar upon her arm, and soon 
learns that she is his daughter. De- 


spite the alteration of her fortunes, 
Arline loves Thaddeus, wiio manages 
to enter the house with Devilshoof's 
aid, but his presence is revealed by 
the vengeful gipsy queen, and Thad- 
deus is ordered to leave the house. 
Arline tells her father how siie loves 
him, and when Thaddeus pnjclaims his 
noble birth and deeds in battle, Arn- 
heim yields. At the instigation of the 
gipsy queen, one of the band fires at 
Tiiaddeus, but Devilshoof deflects his 
aim, and the bullet kills the gipsy 
queen. The musical numbers are: 
Act I: "A Soldier's Life," Arnheim, 
bar. ; " 'T is sad to leave your Father- 
land," Thaddeus, ten.; "In the (Gip- 
sies' Life you may Read," Devilshoof, 
butfo and chorus; and the finale, 
" Thou Who in Might supreme " ; 
Act II: "Silence, Silence, the Lady 
IMoon," chorus; " I dreamt I dwelt in 
Marble Halls," Arline, sop.; "The 
Secret of her Birth," Arline and Thad- 
deus ; Act III : " From the Hills and 
Valleys," quartet; "The Heart bowed 
down," Arnheim ; " Praised be the Will 
of Heaven," chorus; Act IV: "When 
other Lips and other Hearts," and 
"When the Fair Land of Poland," 

Bohemian String Quartet 
founded in 1891 by Karel Hoffmann, 
first violin ; Josef Suk, second violin ; 
Oskar Nedbal, viola; Otto Berger, 
'cellist; took its name from the fact 
that all the players had been edu- 
cated in the excellent conservatory at 
Prague, Bohemia; and in aims and 
possibly in virtuosity corresponded 
with tlie American Kneisel Qiiartet. 
Hoffmann, who studied seven years 
at the Prague conservatory, was born 
Dec. 12, 1872. Suk composed an over- 
ture to " The Winter's Tale," a string 
quartet in A minor, etc., studied com- 
position under Dvorak at Prague as 
well as violin. B. .Tan. 4, 1874; m. 
daughter of Dvof:\k. Nedbal com- 
posed a sonata for violin and piano; 
conducted Czech orchestras in Prague 
and T>ondon; studied composition with 
T:)vofAk. B. Tavor, Mar. 25, 1874. 
Berger was compelled to retire by ill 
health. 1897 (b. 1873). and his place 
was taken by Hanus Wihan, a 'cellist 




who had been a member of Ludwig II's 
quartet at Munich, and had supervised 
tiie studies of the members of the 
quartet in cliamber music while di- 
rector at the Prague conservatory. 
B. Politz, June, 1855. 

Bohlmann (Theodore H. F.) com- 
posed; taught piano, 1890, Cincinnati 
Conservatory of Music; became pro- 
fessor of piano, Stern Conservatory, 
Berlin; returned to Cincinnati, 1908; 
pupil of Stade, Barth, Klindworth, 
Tiersch, d'Albert, and Moszkowski; 
debut, Berlin, 1885. B. Osterwieck am 
Harz. June 23, 1865. 

Boh. Ill (Carl) composed songs; 
played piano; pupil of Loschhorn, 
Eeissman, and Geyer. B. Berlin, Sept. 
11, 1844. 

Bohin (Georg) composed church 
music, played organ at Hamburg and 
Liineberg. B. Goldbach near Gotha, 

Bohrer (Caspar) played trumpet 
and doublebass. B. Mannlieim, 1744; 
d. Munich, Nov. 14, 1809. His sons, 
Anton and Max, played violin and 
'cello, joined royal orchestra in Berlin, 
1823. Anton went to Paris, became 
concertmeister at Hanover, 1834. B. 
1783; d. 1852. Max became concert- 
meister at Stuttgart. B. 1785; d. Feb. 
28, 1867. The brothers married two 
sisters of Ferdinand David and Mme. 
Duleken. Sophie was talented pian- 
ist. B. 1829; daughter of Anton ; d. 
St. Petersburg, 1849. 

Boieldieu (Adrien Louis Victor) 
composed a mass and comic opera, per- 
formed at the Boieldieu centennary, 
Rouen, 1875, and some comic operas 
successfully presented at tlie Opera 
Comique. B. Nov. 3, 1815: son of 

Boieldieu (Frangois Adrien) com- 
jiosed " La DAME BLANCHE," which 
ranks witli tlie most popular if not as 
the most popular of French comic 
oyjeras, the " Calif e de Bagdad," and 
other works which have been crowded 
out of modern repertoire. His father 
was secretary to tlie Archbishop of 
Rouen and liis mother a milliner, but 
during the Revolution tlie elder Boiel- 
dieu obtained a divorce, remarried, and 
the boy took up his residence with his 

music master, Broche, oi-ganist of the 
cathedral, who was a drunkard, and 
abused him so that the lad ran away 
to Paris. His family brought him 
l)a(k, and Broche continued to give 
liiin tlie only instruction lie received 
until he had won his first operatic 
success. " La fiUe coupable," an opera 
for which his father wrote the libretto, 
made some reputation for the young 
man when performed at Rouen, 1793, 
and encouraged him to go to Paris 
again. Two years later " Rosalie et 
Myrza " was performed at Rouen with 
indifi'erent success, and at this time he 
gladly sold songs to Cochet, tlie Paris 
])ublislier, at 12 francs each. " Deux 
lettres," his first opera, performed in 
Paris, 1796, was followed by the " Fa- 
mille Suisse," which ran for a month 
at the Theatre Feydeau. " Zoraime et 
Zulnare," " La dot de Suzette," " Beni- 
owski," and a number of instrumental 
pieces brought the composer sufficient 
reputation to win him a professorship 
of piano at the Conservatoire in 1800, 
and in that year his first great success, 
the " Calife de Bagdad," was per- 
formed. A period of study under 
C!herubini followed, and then came the 
once popular " Ma tante Aurore." 
Boieldieu had married the dancer Clo- 
tilde Mafleuroy in 1802, and, according 
to the gossip of the time, was most 
unhappy in his domestic relations. 
This may account for his acceptance 
of the post of conductor at the St. 
Petersburg Opera when his career in 
Paris seemed most promising. During 
eight years spent in the service of the 
Russian Emperor he composed only a 
few unimportant comic operas and 
vaudevilles. In 1811 he returned to 
Paris, produced " Jean de Paris " in 
1812, which is rated with his best work, 
collaborated with other composers and 
taught composition at the Conserva- 
toii'e, he produced nothing of note. "La 
Dame Blanche " was the culminating 
point in his career. His next work, 
" Les deux nuits," was a failure, and 
the remainder of his life, brightened 
it is true by his marriage with the 
singer Phillis, 1827, was saddened by 
financial difficulties, although a pen- 
sion which he had lost by the expulsion 




of Cliailcs X was eventually restored 
by Louis IMiilippe. B. Doc. 10, 1775, 
Kouen; d. Jarcy, near Paris, Oct. 8, 

Boisdeffre, de (Rene) composed 
symphony in A; " Messe Solennelle "; 
piano music, won the Char tier prize 
for chaml)er music, 18S3. B. Vesoul, 
France, April 3, 1838; add. Paris. 

Boito (Arrigo) composed the operas 
" MEFISTOKELE," " i\eron -, " " Ero 
e Leandro," and wrote the libretti for 
Ponchielli's "Gioconda," Verdi's 
" Otello " and " Falstaff " ; aided in the 
musical reforms which made possible the 
works of the "modern Italian school"; 
distinguished himself as poet, essaj'ist, 
novelist. Son of an Italian painter 
and the Polish countess, Josephine 
Eadolinski, his studies were directed 
first by Camillo Boito, his elder 
brother, and he became a pupil at the 
Milan Conservatory at the age of 14. 
He learned to write in Italian and 
French, and displayed so thorough an 
acquaintance with the classics as to 
attract the attention of Victor Hugo, 
who wrote him a complimentary note. 
" II 4 di Giugno," a cantata, was com- 
posed for the closing competition of 
the Milan Conservatory, and the can- 
tata " Le Sorelle d'ltalia," composed 
in collaboration with Franco Faccio 
to Boito's poem, was rewarded by an 
allowance from the Government to en- 
able the two composers to study two 
years in Paris. " Faust " had been 
suggested to him as a suitable theme 
for opera, by his brother Camillo, and 
during his sojourn in Paris and an 
incidental visit to Germany, Boito was 
at work on his " Mefistofele." This 
opera was produced at Milan, ]\Iar. 5, 
I8G8. Gounod's " Faust " had already 
been heard, and the controversy over 
the respective merits of these operas 
developed into a riot, several duels fol- 
lowed, and the police were obliged to 
order the withdrawal of " Mefistofele." 
A revision of " Mefistofele," presented 
at Bologna in 1875, has since been per- 
formed in many parts of the Avorld. 
" Ero e Leandro " was not to Boito's 
satisfaction, and he authorized the 
two musical settings by Bottesini 
and by Mancinelli, of which the latter 

has been the more successful. " Ne- 
rone " and " Orestiade " are still un- 
known, but are assumed to embody 
the composer's best work. Besides his 
poems, novels, libretti, and essays, 
Boito translated the text of works by 
Beethoven, Wagner, and Schumann. 
He became inspector general of tech- 
nical instruction at the Conservatory, 
1892; Commander of the Crown of 
Italy; and Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor; add. Milan. 

Bolero. 8p. Lively dance in triple 
time, accompanied by singing and 

Bella (Signorina) sang opera bulTa, 
1794-1802, in London and Paris. 

Bologna was the seat of the first 
Italian school of music, founded by 
Pope Nicholas V, 1482 ; later, of many 
academies for the promotion of the 
arts and sciences, including music; 
and of an important Philharmonic So- 
ciety, and of recent j^ears has become 
a musical centre second only to Milan 

Bolt (John) played the virginals at 
Elizabeth's court; was persecuted be- 
cause of his religion; became organist 
at St. Monica's, Louvain, 1594, and en- 
tered the Church. B. 1564; d. Lou- 
vain, Aug. 3, 1640. 

Bombarde. Fr. Reed organ stop 
generally in the pedal register. 

Bombardon. The bass tuba or Sax- 
horn; lowest of brass valved instru- 
ments, usually set in F or E flat and 
ranging from F ' or E ' flat to e ' or d ' 
flat. Bombardons set a fifth lower, in 
C or B flat, are properly styled contra- 
bass. The name Bombardon, Bom- 
bard, Bass-Pommer or Brummer was 
originally given deep-pitched instru- 
ments of the clarinet, oboe, or bassoon 
types, then transferred to a bass reed 
organ slop. 

Bombyx. Gr. Flute or reed 

Bomtempo (Joao Domingos) com- 
posed cluirch music, an opera, and 
wrote " IMethode de Piano," London, 
1816; taught Portuguese royal fam- 
ily; Knight of the Order oif Christ. 
B. Lisbon, 1775; d. Aug. 13, 1842. 

Bonawitz (John H.) conducted 
New York " Popular Symphony Con- 


certs," 1872-73 ; comjjosed two operas, 
produced in Philadelphia. B. Dec. 4, 
1839, Uurkheim on the Rhine; has 
resided since 1870 in London and 

Bonci (Alessandro) sang ten. in 
opera with great success in Italy, and 
in 1900 was engaged by Hammerstein 
as leading ten. at the Manhattan 
Opera House, New York, to offset the 
drawing powers of Caruso. There was, 
in fact, no occasion for rivalry be- 
tween the two artists, Bonci being 
gifted with a voice of less powerful 
quality but of even greater sweetness. 
He continued to be the chief support 
of the Manhattan Opera Hoiise for 
two years, but had signed with the 
Metropolitan for the season of 1908-9. 
He was made knight of the Crown of 
Italy, 1902. 

Bond (Hugh) composed church 
music, taught; lay vicar Exeter Ca- 
thedral. D. 1792. 

Bones- commonly heard at so-called 
" minstrel " shows, referred to as rus- 
tic instruments of music in " A Mid- 
summer Night's Dream," were used 
by English comitry folk in the middle 
ages, and sometimes called " knicky- 

Bonnet (Jean Baptists) composed 
and played organ. B. Montauban, 

Bonno or Bono (Giuseppe) com- 
posed oratorios, cantatas, hynms, 
masses; chapelmaster at Vienna. B. 
Vienna, 1710; d. April 15, 1788. 

Bonn's Bridge differed from other 
violin bridges in having one foot under 
eac-li string supported. 

Bononcini or Buononcini (Gio- 
vanni Maria) wrote " Musieo Prat- 
tico"; composed five operas; masses, 
sonatas, cantatas; church and court 
musician at Modena. B. about 1040; 
d. Nov. 19, 1678. Giovanni Battista 
led the London opposititm to Handel 
on behalf of the Marlboroughs and 
others opposed to the Hanoverians, 
who supported Handel. He was ac- 
cused in 1731 of plagiarizing a madri- 
gal by Lotti ; retired to Paris, where 
he played 'cello before Louis XV in 
one of his own motets, and then to 
Venice, as composer to the opera. 


Educated by his father GIOVANNI 
MARIA and by Colonna, Bononcini 
li\ed in Vienna and in Rome, where 
his operas " TuUo Ostilio " and 
" Serse " were performed; in Berlin, 
and in 1720 was called to London with 
Ariosti by Handel, wheie he produced 
the operas " Astarto," " Crispo," " Er- 
minia," "Farnace," " Calfurnia," 
" Astyanax," and " Griselda," all of 
which have been forgotten. His down- 
fall began with the joint composition 
of " Muzio Scevola," the part composed 
by Handel being deemed the best. B. 
Modena, 1072, his last important com- 
mission was to compose music for the 
Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, Oct. 7, 1748, 
Vienna. Marc Antonio composed the 
popular opera "Camilla"; chapel- 
master to the Duke of Modena. B. 
1075; brother of GIOVANNI BAT- 
TISTA; d. July 8, 1726. 

Bonporti (Francesco Antonio) 
composed '" Le triomphe de la grande 
Alliance"; Imperial counsellor; b. at 
Trient about KJOO. 

Bontempi (Giovanni Andrea An- 
gelini) composed the operas " Dafne," 
"• Paride," "Jupiter and lo"; wrote 
three books on theory; sang soprano, 
St. Mark's, Venice; chapelmaster co- 
adjutor to Schiitz, Dresden. B. Peru- 
gia, about 1630; d. June 1, 1705. 

Bon temps de la mesure. Fr. 
Accented part of a measure. 

Boom, van (Jan) composed sym- 
phonies; played piano; taught in 
Academy and Music School of Stock- 
holm. B. LTtrecht, Oct. 15, 1807; son 
of a flute player of the same name; 
d. April, 1872. Hermann, brother of 
Jan. pupil of his father, became noted 
flutist. B. Feb. 9, 1809; d. Amster- 
dam, Jan. 6, 1883. 

Boom, van den (Eduard) played 
piano; wrote criticism. B. Liege, 
1S31 ; d. 1898. 

Boosey & Co. manufacture brass 
and wood wind instruments and pub- 
lish music in London. The house was 
founded liy Thomas Boosey, 1810. 

Boott (Francis) composed imder the 
pen name "Telford"; pupil of Pic- 
cliianti, Florence. B. Boston, June 21, 
ISl:!; lived in Cambridge, ^lass. 

Bord (Antoine) manufactured 




pianos; invented the capotasto bar. 
B. Toulouse, 1814; d. Paris, 1SS8. 

Bordes (Charles) founded the " As- 
sociation des C'hanteurs de Saint- 
Gervais," having for its object the 
study of antique church music, while 
organist of the Paris cliurch of tliat 
name; composed; founded the "Schola 
Cantorum" in Paris, 189-4. B.Vouvray- 
Bur- Loire, May 12, 18G3 ; pupil of C6sar 
Franck ; add. Paris. 

Bordogni (Giulio Marco) sang ten. 
in opera; tiiught at Paris Conserva- 
toire. B. near Bergamo, 1788; d. 
Paris, July 31, 1856. 

Bordone. It. BOURDON. 

Borghi (Adelaide) sang mez. sop. 
under the name Borghi-Mamo; debut 
at Bologna, 1846 to 1860. B. Bologna, 
1829; add. Florence. Erminia sang 
sop. in the Bologna revival of 
Boito's Mefistofele, 1875; daughter of 

Borghi (Luigi) composed and 
played violin in London, 1774—84. 

Borjon (0. E. de Scellery) wrote 
for and played musette. B. 1633; d. 
Paris, May 4, 1691. 

Borodin (Alexander Porphyrie- 
vich) composed both words and music 
of 12 songs, the opera " Prince Igor," 
" In the Steppes of Central Asia," 
symphonic poem, two symphonies, and 
two movements of a third symphony. 
Son of a Prince of Imeretia, Borodin 
first graduated in medicine and taught 
chemistry in the St. Petersburg Acad- 
emy of Medicine. He joined Balakirev 
in the " New Russian movement " in 
1862, began his first symphony in 
that year, and thenceforth devoted 
himself to music as eagerly as to 
science. His opera, left unfinished, 
was completed bv Rimsky-Korsakov. 
B. St. Petersburg, Nov. 12, 1834; d. 
Feb. 28, 1887. See biography by A. 
Habets, London. 1895. 

Borosini (Francesco) sang ten. at 
the Prague opera and in I^ondon iinder 
Handel, when he was accompanied by 
his wife, Leonora, born d'Ambreville, 
who sang con. B. Bologna, about 

Bortniansky (Dimitri Stepano- 
vich) composed the operas " Cre- 
onte " and " Quinto Fabio " ; chapel- 

master to Empress Catherine of Rus- 
sia; composed 35 sacred concertos for 
her. B. Gloukoff, Ukraine, 1752; d. 
Oct. 18, 1S2S. 

Borwick (Leonard) played piano 
with Joachim quartet and gave joint 
recitals with Plunket Greene; pupil 
of Clara Schiunann. B. Walthamstow, 
Essex, Eng., Feb. 2G, 1868; add. 

Boschi (Giuseppe) became the most 
famous of 18th century bassos; ap- 
peared in London with Handel. B. 
Viterbo; m. the contralto Francesca 

Bosio (Angiolina) sang mez. sop. 
in opera with great success in the 
principal cities of Europe and 
America, debut, Milan, 1846. B. Turin, 
Aug. 22, 1830; toured America, 1848; 
d. St. Petersburg, April 15, 1859. 

Bossi (Marco Enrico) composed 
" 11 Paradiso Perduto," based on Mil- 
ton's poem, performed Dec. 6, 1903, at 
Augsburg; cantatas, masses, instru- 
mental works of all forms ; the s"san- 
phonic poem " II Cieco " ; " Cantico 
dei Cantici," etc. ; played organ Como 
Cathedral ; taught Naples Conserva- 
tory; became director Liceo Musicale, 
Bologna, 1902. B. Salo, near Brescia, 
April 25, 1861; studied at Milan; 
add. Bologna. 

Boston Symphony Orchestra, 
while not the first of sjTnphonic pro- 
portions in America in point of age, 
was long first as regards excellence, 
and really the first in America which 
could be called permanent, since its 
history from 1881 had been continuous, 
and the changes in personnel so grad- 
ual as to be unfelt in the concert room. 
The munificence of Col. Henry L. Hig- 
ginson, a wealthy gentleman of Boston, 
made this splendid organization pos- 
sible; for during the long period of 
years imtil it became self-supporting, 
he paid the difTerence between its dis- 
bursements and receipts, often amoimt- 
ing to many thousands of dollars, out 
of his own fortune. Concerts were 
given at first in the old !Music Hall 
which had been erected mainlv for the 
ASSOCIATION, but of late years the 
orchestra has enjoyed a home of its 




own called " Symphony Hall," which 
contains a large auditorium with ad- 
mirable acoustic qualities, the library, 
dressing rooms, offices, and all that 
is needful for the complete conven- 
ience of audience and performers. Very 
early in its history the orchestra gave 
concerts in other cities than Boston, 
and in 1908 from four to 16 concerts 
annually were given in New York, 
Brooklyn, Philadelphia, Baltimore, 
Washington, in addition to the regu- 
lar home series, and a supplementary 
Boston course of " popular " concerts. 
The first conductor was Georg HEN- 
SCHEL. From 1884 to 1889 the con- 
ductor was Wilhelm GERICKE. 
Arthur NIKISCH held the baton for 
the next four years, until 1893, during 
which the ensemble of the orchestra 
reached its highest point of perfection. 
Mr. Nikisch established the reputation 
of the strings as the finest in the world, 
and managed to obtain perfect attack 
without wholly obliterating the indi- 
viduality of the musicians. On the ex- 
piration of his contract, Mr. Nikisch 
returned to Europe, and the next con- 
ductor was Emil PAUR, who served 
until 1898. Mr. Gericke again became 
conductor, retiring in 1905. His suc- 
cessor was Dr. Karl MUCK, who was 
temporarily released from his duties at 
the Berlin Opera House in order that 
he might go to America. The first 
concertmeister was Bernard LISTER- 
MANN. Franz KNEISEL, who had 
been concertmeister for 14 years, with- 
drew from the orchestra in the last 
year of Mr. Gericke's second adminis- 
tration in order to devote himself ex- 
clusively to chamber music, the mem- 
bers of his quartet following his ex- 
ample. His successors were Arbos, and 
then Willy HESS. IMembers of the or- 
chestra were retained under contract 
by the year at salaries which enabled 
them to devote their whole time to the 
rehearsals and concerts of the orches- 
tra. The annual series of Boston Sjtu- 
phony orchestra concerts are a feature 
in the musical life, not only of Boston, 
but of the chief cilies of the Atlantic 
seaboard. Dr. Muck was compelled to 
resume his duties in Berlin at the 
close of the season of 1907-8, and 

August 'Max Fiedler, of Hamburg, 
was engaged as his successor. Han- 
del and Haydn Society, organized 
Mar. 30, 1815, was the oldest musi- 
cal society in America with the ex- 
ception of that at Stoughton, Mass., 
which dated back to Nov. 7, 1786. 
Gottlieb Graupner, Thomas Smitli 
Webb, and Asa Peabody issued the 
call which resulted in the formation 
of the Handel and Haydn Society, 
and the original officers were Thomas 
Smith Webb, president; Amasa Win- 
chester, vice-president; Matthew S. 
Parker, secretary; Nathaniel S. 
Tucker, treasurer. The only musical 
society in Boston at the time was 
the Philharmonic Society, devoted 
wholly to orchestral music; the Mas- 
sachusetts jNIusical Society, formed in 
1807, having disbanded. Hymn tunes 
were sung at first, but " The Crea- 
tion " and " Messiah " were put in re- 
hearsal, and excerpts from these ora- 
torios were the chief attraction at the 
first concert given Christmas night in 
Stone Chapel. The audience numbered 
1,000. There were less than a dozen 
pieces in the orchestra, the chorus 
nimiber about 100, but an organ helped 
swell the sound, and the good people of 
Boston Avere delighted. The following 
year the society was chartered, and in 
1818 was strong enough to present the 
" Messiah " in full. The number of 
concerts varied with the years from 
one to 23. The enterprise of the man- 
agement made kno^vn many important 
works for the first time at these con- 
certs, and the best singers Avere habitu- 
ally engaged for solo parts. The So- 
ciety took part in the Peace Jubilees 
in Boston and New York, 1869 and 
1872, and for a time triennial festi- 
vals were given. Charles E. Plorn was 
the first director. Carl ZERRAHN 
served in that capacitv, 1854—98, suc- 
ceeding Carl BERGMANN. After 
Mr. Zerrahn, the directors in order 
of appointment were: L. Roinhold 
Herman, Dr. Lang, Emil MOLLEN- 
HAUER. Apollo Club gave private 
subscription concerts devoted to works 
for male chorus. Organized July, 1871, 
incorporated two years later, the di- 
rector from 1871 to 1902 was B. J, 




Lang, who waa then succeeded by Emil 
MoUenhauer. Choral Ai't Society 
consisted of 45 professional singers 
directed by Wallace Goodrich, and de- 
voted to early church,music, madrigals 
and glees. The organization was 
formed in 1901 and was supported by 
subscriptions. Cecilia was intended to 
present mixed choral works at the con- 
certs of the HARVARD MUSICAL 
ASSOCIATION. Organized 1874, its 
separate existence under direction of 
B. J. Lang dated from 1876. Boston 
is also the seat of the NEW ENG- 
Tlie Opera House was opened in 1909. 

Bote Und Bock etitablislied music 
publisliiiig house in Berlin, 1838. 

Botel (Heinrich) sang ten., Ham- 
burg. B. Hamburg, 1858. 

Bott (Jean Joseph) composed two 
operas, played violin ; chapelmaster at 
Cassel. B. Cassel, Mar. 9, 1828; d. 
New York, April 30, 1895. 

Bottesini (Giovanni) composed 
operas, " Christophe Colombe," pro- 
duced at Havana, 1847; " Ero e 
Leandro," Turin, 1879; " Ali Baba," 
London, 1871; the oratorio "Garden 
of Olivet " for the Norwich Festival of 
1887 ; known as the greatest of all 
double-bass soloists; conducted Italian 
opera at Paris, Palermo, Barcelona, 
and Cairo. B. Crema, Lombardy, Dec. 
24, 1822; d. Parma, July 7, 1889. 

Bottomley (Joseph) played violin 
concerto in public at seven, became 
churcli organist; wrote on music and 
composed. B. Halifax, Eng., 1786. 

Bouche Fermee. Fr. " With 
closed mouth." Humming. 

Boucher (Alexandre Jean) played 
violin with remarkable skill, though 
given to trickery; debut before the 
French court at six; m. harpist and 
toured Europe. B. Paris, April 11, 
1778; d. Dec. 29, 1801. 

Bouffe. Fr. BuflFoon. 

Bouhy (Jacques) sang bar. Paris 
and London; director New York Con- 
servatory, 1885-89; composed songs 
and taii'ght in Paris. B. 1848, Pep- 
inster, Belgium : ndd. Paris. 

Boulanger (Henri Alexandre 
Ernst) composed operas; won Prix 
de Rome, 1835; taught Paris Conserv- 

atoire, 1871; Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. B. Paris, 1815; sou of 

Boulanger (Mme. Marie Julie) 
sang soubrette roles Opera Comique, 
Paris; debut 1811; retired 1845. B. 
1780; d. 1850. 

Boulou. African harp. 

Bourdon. Fr. Drone bass like 
that of hurdy-gurdy or bagpipe; a 
10-ft. tone organ atop, found on both 
manual and pedal. 

Bourgault-Ducoudray (Louis Al- 
bert) composed operas; collecLed and 
wrote on Greek and Oriental music; 
won Prix de Rome, 1862, having 
studied under Ambroise Thomas; 
founded choral society in Paris, 1809. 
B. Nantes, Feb. 2, 1840; add. Paris. 

Bourgeois (Louis) taught music 
in Geneva during Calvin's rule, and 
probably edited the Genevan Psalter; 
proposed a solfeggio system in his 
" Le Droict chemin de music," Geneva, 

Bourgeois (Louis Thomas) com- 
posed 10 operas, many cantatas; 
counter-tenor at Paris Grand Opera, 
1708. B. Fontaine I'^veque, Oct. 24, 
1076; d. Paris, 1750. 

Boiirges (Jean Maurice) composed 
the opera " Sultana," Paris Opera 
Comique, 1846 ; -wrote music criticism. 
B. Bordeaux, Dec. 2, 1812; d. 1881. 

Bourges, de (Clementine) com- 
posed vocal music ; died of grief Sept. 
30, 1561, her husband having been 
killed in battle. 

Bourree. Fr. Dance in common 
time popular with peasants of Brit- 
tany, originated either in Auvergne 
or Biscay; gave name to suite 

Bousquet (Georges) composed the 
opera " Tabarin," masses ; conducted ; 
wrote criticism. B. Perpignan, Mar. 
12, 1818; won prix de Rome, 1838; 
d. 1854. 

Bow is the instrument employed to 
sot in vibration the strings of the 
viols, so called from the resemblance it 
bore the weapon of that name. The 
modern bow, devised by Francois 
Tourte, 1745-1835, consists of a wand 
of Brazil lancewood, or snakewood, 
to which a slight outward curve is 




given by the application of heat. It 
is about 29 inches long. At one end 
is the head, to which a strand of about 
120 horse hairs is affixed, and at the 
opposite end is the nut to which the 
other end of the strand is secured in 
sucli a manner that it can be tightened 
or loosened with a screw. When ready 
for use the wand or bow stick now 
curves slightly toward the hair instead 
of arching away from it. Such a bow 
as that described is used in playing 
the violin and viola. Bows for the 
'cello and double-bass are shorter and 
heavier in construction. 

Bow Hand. Usually the right 

Bowing regulates the quality and 
intensity of sound on all viol instru- 
ments except as to pitch, which is 
altered by stopping the strings on the 
finger-board, usually with the left 
hand. The importance of correct bow- 
ing, which can hardly be overestimated, 
is discussed in Tartini's " Art of Bow- 
ing," and in Baillot's " Art du Vio- 
lon." Up bow, down bow, staccato or 
saltato bow, are now usually indicated 
by signs in NOTATION, and the uni- 
form bowing which should be in evi- 
dence at orchestral concerts is designed 
to bring about the best results of which 
the instruments are capable as to 
tone and phrasing. Passages for viols 
where the strings are to be plucked 
guitar fashion instead of bowed are 
marked Pizzicato, and when the bow 
is to be resumed Arco, " bow." It 
sometimes happens that passages are 
to be tapped with the bowstick, and 
these are marked Sul or Col Legno. 

Bowman (Edward Morris) played 
organ and conducted Temple Choir, 
Brooklyn; Calvary Baptist Church, 
New York, 1906-9; helped found 
American College of Musicians ; pupil 
of Bridge, Macfarren, Turpin, Guil- 
mant; taught Vassar College, 1891-9.5 ; 
conducted Newark Harmonic Society 
and Cecilian Choir. B. Barnard, Vt., 
July 18, 1848; add. New York. 

Bowman (Henry) composed vocal 
music published at Oxford, 1678. 

Boyau. Fr. Calput strings. 

Boyce (Dr. ■William) composed 
music for Dry den's " Secular Masque," 

symphonies, vocal and instrumental 
music and collected "Cathedral Music," 
London, 1760-78 ; played organ in Eng- 
lish churches and conducted. B. Lon- 
don, Feb. 7, 1710; d. Feb. 7, 1779. 

B. Quadratum or Quadrum. L. 
" Square B." B natural. 

B. Quarre. Fr. B natural. 

Brabangonne composed by the 
singer Frangois van Campenhout, to a 
poem by the actor Jenneval, and first 
sung during the Belgian Revolution of 
1830, has since become the national 

Brace couples two or more staves 
of music; leather slides for tighten- 
ing or hjosening a drum-head. 

Bradbury (William Batchelder) 
manufactured pianos; taught, con- 
ducted; edited music publication. B. 
York, Me., 1816; d. Montclair, N. J., 

Brade (William) composed dance 
music published in Hamburg, Antwerp, 
Berlin, and Liibeck ; chapelmaster at 
German courts, 1594-1622. B. Eng. 

Braham (John) sang ten. roles in 
Itiily and England, having range of 
three octaves ; often composed music 
for his own roles; built St. James 
Theatre, London ; made unsuccessful 
American tour, 1840. B. London, 1774; 
d. Feb. 17, 18.56. 

Brahms (Johannes) gave new life 
to the symphonic form which had been 
evolved by Haydn, enlarged by Beetho- 
ven, and of which he was the last gieat 
master; composed songs of exquisite 
loveliness, chamber music which is the 
delight of musicians as well as their 
audiences, and for solo piano, on which 
he was a virtuoso in early life, but 
with so little regard for mere display 
as to justify his neglect by the average 
concert pianist. Conscious of his ig- 
norance of dramatic technique, Brahms 
never attempted opera. To him Bach 
and Beethoven were the world's great- 
est tone poets, and while called revo- 
lutionary, he adhered through life to 
classic forms as exemplified in their 
works. His taste was sufficiently cath- 
olic to permit of his knowing and ad- 
miring Wagner's scores. I'ut from the 
controversy first aroused when Schu- 
mann hailed him as Beethoven's sue- 




cesser; when Liszt was ready to rec- 
ognize in him an apostle of the music 
of the future; when Europe was di- 
vided between romanticists and clas- 
sicists, each eager to welcome him to 
their camp; he maintained the even 
tenor of his way, content to work as 
best he might, and with little regard 
for the opinion of his contemporaries. 
Tims his life was singularly unevent- 
ful. Joliann .Jacob Brahms, 1806—72, 
destined by his father to succeed him 
in business as an innkeeper, ran away 
from home to devote himself to music, 
and was finally permitted to have his 
way. Eventually he became double- 
bass player in the Hamburg Theatre, 
married Johanna Henrika Christiane 
Nissen, and became the father of three 
children, of whom the composer Jo- 
hannes was the second. Doubtless 
young Johannes received his first in- 
struction in music from his father; 
then he became a pupil of O. Cossel, 
who recommended him to his own 
master, Marxsen, when he reached the 
age of 10. At 15 he made his first 
public appearance in concert, and at 
16 gave a concert himself, at which he 
played Beethoven's " Waldstein " son- 
ata. In 1853 he toured northern Ger- 
many in company with Remenyi the 
violinist. Introduced to Dr. Joachim 
by Remenyi, and by him to Schumann 
and Liszt, he Avas favourably received 
by both. Schumann not only printed 
an enthusiastic appreciation of Brahms 
in the " Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik," 
but wrote a letter in his behalf to Dr. 
Hartel, the publisher. Ignoring the 
war of words which Schumann aroused, 
Brahms became court director of music 
to the Prince of Lippe-Dctmold, 1854, 
where he remained four years. In 
1859 he played his ovm D minor con- 
certo. Op. 15, at a Gewandhaus concert, 
where it was immediately condemned 
as a departure from classic models and 
for lack of display passages, although 
it was well received afterwards when 
played by Clara Schumann. In 1862 
Brahms settled in Vienna, where he 
accepted the post of conductor at tlie 
Singnkadcmie, but relinquished it at 
the end of a year. His only other 
official appointment was that of con- 

ductor to the Cesellscliaft der Musik- 
freunde, which he held from 1872 to 
1875. Occasional concert tours with 
Dr. Joachim, visits to the German 
watering places in company with Mme. 
Schumann, were the only interruptions 
to an orderly and metliodical life 
wliich ended peacefully, due indirectly 
to a severe chill with whicli he was 
attacked at Mme. Schumann's funeral. 

B. Hamburg, May 7, 18:53; d. Vienna, 
April 3, 1897. In the catalogue of 
Brahms' works will be found: Sym- 
phony No. 1, C minor ; Symphony 
No. 2, in D; Symphony No. 3, in 
F; Symphony No. 4, in E minor; 
Sonatas for Piano in C, Op. 1 ; in 
F minor, Op. 5 ; Concertos for piano 
with orchestra: in D, Op. 15; in 
B minor. Op. 83 ; Sonatas for 'cello 
and piano in E minor, Op. 38; in F, 
Op. 99; Trios for Piano and Strings: 
in B, Op. 8; in E flat, Op. 40 (viola 
or 'cello may be replaced by horn ) ; in 

C, Op. 87; in C minor. Op. 101; in A 
minor (viola may be replaced by clari- 
net), Op. 114; quartets for strings, 
C minor and A minor, Op. 51; in C 
minor, No. 3, Op. 60 (Piano) ; in B 
minor. Op. 67 ; Quintets for Strings in 
F, Op. 88; in G, Op. Ill; in D (for 
clarinet or viola). Op. 115; Sonatas 
for Violin and Piano in A, Op. 100; 
in D minor. Op. 108; For Solo Piano: 
28 Variations on a theme of Paganini, 
Op. 35; Two Rhapsodies, Op. 79; For 
Orchestra: Serenade in D, Op. 11; 
Serenade in A, Op. 16; Academic Fes- 
tival Overture, Op. 80; Variations on 
a theme of Haydn's, Op. 56 a ; For 
chorus, etc. : " Rinaldo," cantata to 
text by Goethe, tenor solo, male chorus 
and orchestra, Op. 50; "Rhapsodic," 
from Goethe's " Harzreise," alto solo, 
male chorus, and orchestra. Op. 53 ; 
"Schichsalslied," chorus and orchestra, 
Op. 54; "Triumphlied," chorus and or- 
chestra. Op. 55; " Gesang der Parzen,'' 
chorus and orchestra. Op. 89 ; " Fest 
und Gedenke spriiche," eight part chorus 
a capella. Op. 109; 11 part Choral- 
Vorspiele for organ, Op. 122 (posth.) ; 
" Ave Maria," female voices, orchestra 
and organ, Op. 12 ; " Funeral Hymn " 
for chorus and wind, Op. 13; Seven 
Marienlieder for mixed choir, Op. 22,' 




Two Motets for five voices a capella, 
Op. 29 ; German Requiem, soli chorus 
and orchestra, Op. 45 (to the memory 
of his mother) ; numerous groups of 
songs, including volkslieder and volks- 
kinderlieder. See biography by Dr. 
Herman Deiters, trans. Rosa New- 
march, 1898; "Recollections of Jo- 
hannes Brahms " by Albert Dietrich 
and J. V. Widmann, trans. Dora E. 
Hecht, 1899, etc. 

Brambilla (Marietta) sang con.; 
debut London, 1827 ; taught and wrote 
on singing; pupil Milan Conservatory. 
B. Milan about 1807; d. Nov. 6, 1875. 
Four sisters were singers, of whom 
Teresa created the role of Gilda in 
" Rigoletto." 

Brandes (Emma) played piano in 
concert, retiring on her marriage with 
Prof. Engelmann of Utrecht. B. Jan. 
20, 1854, Schwerin; debut at Schwerin, 

Brandl (Johann) composed the 
opera "Hermann"; monodrama 
"Hero"; chamber music. B. Rohr, 
near Ratisbon, Nov. 14, 1700; d. Carls- 
ruhe. May 20, 1837. 

Brandt (Marianne) sang both sop. 
and mez. sop. roles; debut at Gratz, 
1867; New York, 1886-90; retired to 
Vienna and taught. B. Vienna, Sept. 
12, 1842, real name Marie Bischof; 
add. Vienna. 

Branle or Bransle. Fr. Ancient 
round dance in common time, known 
in England as the " Brawl." 

Brassart or Brasart (Johannes) 
composed, sang in papal choir; priest 
in Liege, loth century. 

Brass Band. Small military band 
adapted for cavalry. 

Brassin (Louis) played and taught 
piano in Berlin, Brussels, St. Peters- 
burg; composed operettas. B. Aix-la- 
Chapelle, June 24, 1840; d. May 17, 
1884. Leopold played piano in concert 
at five; pupil of his brother LOUIS. 
B. Strasburg, 1S43; d. 1890, Constanti- 
nople. Gerhard plaved violin, taught; 
brother of LOUIS. " B. 1844; add. St. 
Petersburg and Constantinople. 

Bratsche. (rer. Viola. 

Brava or Bravo. It. " Bravely 
done." Cried in applause. " Bravi " 
is the plural. 

Bravura. It. Dash, bravery; 
Aria di, one calculated to test the 
singer's courage by its difficulty. 

Break marks the alteration in 
higher voice registers from cliest tones 
or voce di petto, to head tones or voce 
di testa, but in well cultivated voices 
is not noticeable. 

Breast. In obsolete English, the 

Breit. G'cr. Broadly. 

Breitkopf & Hartel published a 
complete edition of Beethoven, of Bach, 
and other great masters, and so 
much music in all that their catalogue 
fills 1200 pages. The house had its 
beginning in Leipsic, 1719, when Bern- 
hardt Christoph Breitkopf, who came 
of a mining family in the Hartz, set up 
a printing press from which he issued 
a Hebrew Bible, and other works. He 
died Mar. 26, 1777, aged 83, but had 
previously turned the b\isiness over to 
his son, Johann Gottlob Immanuel, 
who, in 1750, introduced movable type 
for printing music, and revolutionized 
the trade. Tlie publication of an opera 
in full score, composed by Princess 
Amalia of Saxony, 1756, established 
the reputation of the house as music 
publishers, and editions of the works 
of C. P. E. Bach, Graun, Hiller, and 
Leopold Mozart confirmed it. B. 1719 ; 
d. 1794. Bernhard Theodor, his eld- 
est son, had established himself in St. 
Petersburg, and his second son and 
successor, Christoph Gottlob, after 
carrying on the business for a year, 
turned it over to G. C. HARTEL, the 
firm becoming Breitkopf & Hartel, 1795. 
B. 1750; d. 1800, last of the Breit- 
kopf family. Gottfried Christoph 
Hartel not only enlarged the music 
publishing business, but added a piano 
factory. Besides tlie usual processes 
in use in his time, Hartel employed 
pewter plates for engraving music, and 
lithography, aided by the inventor 
Sennefelder. B. Schneeburg, 1763; d. 
July 25, 1S27. For tlie next 8 years 
his nephew Elorenz Hartel conducted 
the biisiness, giving way to Hermann 
and Raymund, sons of GOTTFRIED 
CHRISTOPH. Their catalogue num- 
bered more than 14,000 works by 1874. 
HERMANN died 1875, aged 72, and in 




1880, Raymund retired, leavinj^ the 
business in the hands of Wilhelm 
Volkmann, b. 1837, and Dr. Georg 
Oscar Immanuel von Hase, b. Sept. 
15, I84<); grandsons of (JOTTFRIED 
CHRISTOPH. Dr. Ludwig F. Volk- 
mann, who replaced WILHELM, 
1904, and Dr. von Hase were the 
heads of the house in 1908. 

Bi-ema (Marie) sang niez. sop. and 
later higher rfdes in opera; debut in 
London as l^ola in " Cavalleria llusti- 
cana," 1891, the Briinnbiides, 1902. 
B. Liverpool, Eng., Feb. 28, 1850, of 
American mother and C4erman father, 
their name being Fehrman; m. Arthur 
Braun, 1874. 

Bremner (Robert) wrote " The 
Rudiments of Music," 1756; published 
music in Edinburgh and London. D. 
1789, when liis stock and plates were 
purchased by Jolin Preston. 

Brendel (Dr. Karl Franz) became 
proprietor of ydiumann's " Neue Zeit- 
schrift fiir Musik " in 1844, through 
which lie supported the art theories of 
Schumann, Wagner, and Liszt; lec- 
tured, wrote criticism; edited other 
musical publications. B. Nov. 26, 
1811; d. Nov. 25, 1808. 

Brenet (Michel) wrote on musical 
history, biography, and criticism. B. 
Lun^ville, April 12, 1S58; add. Paris. 

Brenner, Ritter von (Ludwig) 
composed sjinplionic poems, masses, 
conducted Berlin Sjnnphony Orchestra, 
1897. B. Leipsic, 1833; pupil con- 
servatory; d. 1902. 

Brent (Charlotte) sang sop. Debut 
at Drury Lane in " Eliza," the opera 
of her teacher, Dr. Arne; m. Thomas 
Pinto, violinist; retired 1784. B.Lon- 
don; d. April 10, 1802. 

Breuning, von (Helene) gave 
Beethoven the only refining home in- 
fluence he ever knew ; was the mother 
of the Stephen Breuning who was 
Beethoven's closest friend through life, 
despite their quarrels ; of Eleonore 
Brigitta, one of Beethoven's earliest 
pupils, and the wife of his biographer 
Wegeler, and of Lorenz and Christoph, 
the former likewise Beethoven's pupil, 
and both his friends. Daughter of the 
Hofrath von Kerich, she married Em- 
manuel Joseph von Breuning, who was 

in tlie service of the Electoral court of 
Bonn, lie was killed in a Are, 1777, 
when his wife was 28. A woman of 
refinement, common sense, and of ir- 
reproachable character, she devoted 
herself to her young family, to which 
Beethoven became music master in his 
ISth year. 

Breval (Lucienne) sang sop. at 
Paris Opera, Covcnt (harden. New 
York, 1900; debut, Paris, 1892; 
created " Briinnhilde " in French. B. 
France about 1870; add. Paris. 

Breve. It. A note twice the length 
of a semibreve, formerly the unit of 
mensuration, but now becoming obso- 
lete, as its duration exceeds that of 
the longest measure now used. In 
mediseval church music it was really 
what its name signifies, " short," for 
it was half the length of the Longa, 
then used as the unit of measure. 
The direction Alia Breve now means 
that a piece must be played twice 
as fast as if simply marked common 

Breville, de (Pierre Onfroy) com- 
posed overtures to "Princesse Maleine" 
and " Les Sept Princesses"; helped 
complete the " Ghiselle " of C^sar 
Franck, whose pupil he was. B. Bar- 
le-Duc, 1861; add. Paris. 

Brewer (Alfred Herbert) com- 
posed " Dedication Ode," Worcester 
Festival, 1902 ; " Emmaus," Gloucester 
Festival, 1901; conducted Gloucester 
Music Festival, 1898-1901; organist 
Gloucester Cathedral. B. Gloucester, 
Eng., June 21, 1865; add. Gloucester. 

Brewer (John Hyatt) composed 
church music, cantatas, and male cho- 
ruses; played organ Lafayette Ave. 
Pros. Church, BrookI,^Ti; conducted 
Brooklyn Apollo Club in succession to 
Dudlev Buck, whose pupil he was. B. 
Brooklyn, 1856; add. BrooklATi. 

Brewer (Thomas) composed rounds 
and glees, and for viol, on which he 
played. B. London, 1611. 

Briard (fitienne) engraved music 
at Avignon, 1530, and probably was 
first to discard ligatures and to use 
round for square notes, although these 
inventions have also been claimed for 

Bride of the Song. Jules Bene- 




diet's one-act operetta to book by 
Henry Faruie was produced Dec. 3, 
1864, at Covent Garden, London. 

Brides of Venice. Jules Benedict's 
two-act grand opera was producer 
April 22, 1844, at Covent Garden, 

Bridge transfers the vibrations of 
the strings to the resonance box, and 
is of the utmost importance in instru- 
ments of the viol family, since its 
material, shape, and location affect the 
tone. The bridge raises the strings 
above tlie belly so they may be acted 
on by the bow, and likewise determines 
the upper end of the vibrating portion 
of the strings. Tlie wooden bridge of 
the viols assumed its present form in 
the time of the Amatis. The bridge 
of instruments of the guitar, lute, and 
piano families merely determines the 
length of the vibrating portion of the 
strings, thus fixing their pitch. 

Bridge (Sir John Frederick) com- 
posed the services and anthems for 
Queen Victoria's Jubilee and the coro- 
nation of King Edward VII, the " Bal- 
lad of Camperdown " and " The Flag 
of England," to words by Kipling; the 
oratorio " Mount Moriah " for the de- 
gree Doctor of Music; the overture 
" Morte d'Arthur " ; organ sonata in 
D, hymns ; wrote " Samuel Pepys, 
Lover of Musique," primers on theory ; 
knighted by Victoria, 1897; organist 
Westminster Abbey, etc. B. Oldbury, 
near Birmingham, Eng., Dec. 5, 1844; 
add. London. Dr. Joseph Cox revived 
the Chester Musical Festivals, 1879; 
founded and conducted Chester Mu- 
sical Society; composed oratorio 
" Daniel," for his doctor's degree, Sym- 
phony in F, "Resurgam," 1897; "Re- 
quiem Mass," 1900; organist Chester 
Cathedral. B. Rochester, Aug. 16, 
1853; younger brother SIR JOHN 
FREDERICK; add. Chester. 

Bridge or Bridges (Richard) 
built organs in England. 18th century. 

Bridgetower (George A. P.) 
played the " Kreutzer " sonata with 
Beethoven at an Augarten concert, vio- 
linist at the Haydn-Saloninn concerts 
in London. B. Biala, Poland, 1779, 
mulatto; d. England, about 18.50. 

Briegel (Wolfgang Karl) com- 

posed church music; chapelmaster to 
Duke of Saxe-Gotha and Landgrave 
of Darmstadt. B. Nuremberg, May 
21, 1626; d. Darmstadt, Nov. 19, 

Brighenti or Brighetti (Mmec 
Maria) created Rosina in Rossini's 
"Barber of Seville," Rome, 1816; de- 
but Bologna, 1814; retired 1836; wrote 
memoirs of Rossini. B. Bologna, 1792. 

Brillante. It. Brilliant. 

Brillenbasse. Ger. " Spectacle 
bass." Drum music. 

Brind (Richard) played organ 
from 1707 to 1717, St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, London. 

Brindisi. It. Drinking song. 

Brinsmead (John) founded Lon- 
don piano house, 1836; Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. B. Oct. 13, 1814; 
d. Feb. 17, 1908. The business passed 
into tlie hands of a company. 1900, in 
which his sons John and Edgar were 
directors. Edgar wrote a " Historv of 
the Pianoforte"; d. Nov. 28, 1908. 

Brio, con. It. Spiritedly, force- 

Brioso. It. Joyfully, forcibly. 

Brise. Fr. " Broken " ; of chords 
or arpeggios. 

Brisk. Lively or vivace. 

Bristol Madrigal Society was 
founded in 1837 in consequence of in- 
terest aroused by Prof. Edward Tay- 
lor's lecture on madrigals, and gave 
excellent subscription concerts under 
the direction of J. D. Corfe, organist of 
Bristol Cathedral to 1864; since then 
imder direction of Daniel Rootham. 

Bristol Music Festivals were 
founded 1873 and were held triennially 
until 1888 and yearly thereafter. Im- 
portant choral w'orks always including 
the Messiah were sung at each festival, 
under the direction of Alfred Stone, 
1873-76; D. W. Rootham, 1879-96; 
and George Riseley, 1902. 

Bristow (G. F.) composed, con- 
ducted Harmonic Society and Mendels- 
sohn Union and played organ in New 
York churches. B. Brooklyn, Dee. 19, 
1825; son of W. R., violinist and con- 
ductor; d. New York, Dee. 13, 1898. 

British Concerts were given in 
1823 on the close of the VOCAL CON- 
CERTS, for the encouragement of Brit- 

BRITISH ORCHESTRAL t'()iiiiK).sers, but fiiilod tlnough lack 
of 8Ujj])()rt. 

British Orchestral Society gave 
concerts in London 1872-75 under 
George Mount. 

Brito, de (Esteban) composed and 
directed music in Baclajos and .Malaga 
C'atlu'dral8; l*ortugal, 17th century. 

Britton (Thomas) became famous 
as the " Musical Small Coal Man," 
because of the concerts given over his 
London shop by a club which included 
Handel, Dr. Pepusch, John Banister, 
and others, 1G78-1714; was an author- 
ity on old books, occult sciences, and 
despite his hi.mible trade, the intimate 
of many noblemen of the time. 

Broadwood & Sons manufacture 
pianos in London. The business was 
founded in 1728 by Burkard Tschudi 
or Shudi, a Swiss harpsichord maker, 
whose daughter m. John Broadwood, 
who became sole proprietor, 1782, 
afterwards taking his sons James 
Shudi and Thomas into the firm. 
His son James, his grandson Henry 
Fowler, and his great grandson 
Henry John Tschudi Broadwood, 
the latter patentee of the " Earless " 
grand, have all been connected with 
the firm. 

Brockway (Howard A.) composed 
symphony in D, ballad and scherzo for 
orchestra; played piano and taught 
in New York. B. Brooklyn, Nov. 22, 
1870; pupil of Barth and Boise; add. 

Bred (Henri) improved and played 
oboe in Paris; studied and taught in 
Conservatoire. B. Paris, Aug. 4, 1801; 
d. April 6, 1839. 

Brode (Max) conducted symphony 
concerts ; played violin and taught in 
Kunigsberg; pupil Leipsic Conserva- 
tory and Berlin Hochschule. B. Ber- 
lin, Feb. 25, 1850. 

Broderies. Fr. Ornaments. 

Broderip (William) composed the 
anthem " Cod is our Hope and 
Strength"; organist Wells Cathedral. 
B. 1683; d. 1726. John composed 
church music; organist Wells Cathe- 
dral. Believed to have been the son 
of WILLIAM. Robert composed for 
voice and harpsichord. Probably son of 
WILLIAM; d. Bristol, May 14, 1808. 


Broderip & Wilkinson published 
music in London, 1708-1811, when 
Thomas Preston purchased the firm's 

Brodsky (Adolph) played violin; 
conducted in Manchester in succession 
to Sir Charles Halle, became principal 
of the lloyal College of Music there, 
1895; pupil of Hellmesberger and 
Vienna Conservatory; conducted at 
Kiev, 1879-81; concertnieister Dam- 
rosch Symphony Orchestra, New York, 
1890-94. B. Taganrog, Russia, Mar. 
21, 1851; add. Manchester, Eng. 

Broekhoven, van (John A.) com- 
posed the overture "Columbia" ; taught 
theory Cincinnati College of Music. 
B. Holland, 1852; add. New York. 

Broken Cadence. Interrupted 

Broken Chords. ARPEGGIOS. 

Broken Music. Obsolete English 
for music of stringed instruments in- 
capable of sustained tone. 

Bronsart von Schellendorf (Hans) 
composed " Friihlings-Fantasie " for 
orchestra ; the opera " Corsair " from 
Byron's poem ; General-Intendant at 
Weimar, 1887; Privy Councillor, 
1895; pupil of Kullak and Liszt; 
m. Ingeborg STARCK, 1862; B. Ber- 
lin, Feb. 11, 1830; add. Weimar. 

Brontium. L. Thunder machine 
used in the classic theatre. 

Brooklyn was in former years the 
scene of many of the triumphs of Theo- 
dore Thomas, who gave an important 
series of symphony concerts at the 
ACADEMY OF MUSIC. In 1908 the 
Philharmonic Society which Mr. 
Thomas had founded was content to 
aid in the support of the Boston Sym- 
phony concerts. The majority of 
musical events were controlled by the 
department of music of the Brooklyn 
Institute. The principal musical or- 
ganization, made up of German sing- 
ing societies, notably the Brooklyn 
Arion and the Brooklyn Sanger- 
bund, was the United Singers of 
Brooklyn. The chief musical institu- 
tion and tlie only one in tliis borough 
of Greater New York not conducted for 
profit was tlie Master School of Mu- 
sic, founded by Mrs. William IT. Packer 
and directed by Mme. Aurelia Jaeger. 




The Allied Arts Association, organ- 
ized by Eugene V. Brewster, possessed a 
musical section, which gave under Mr. 
Brewster's management and the musi- 
cal direction of Carl Fique ci'editable 
performances of " The Magic Flute " 
in 1906, "Martha" in 1907, and 
" Faust " in 1908. The singers were 
chosen from the membership of the 
association, amateur and professional, 
and tlie performances which were in 
English possessed considerable educa- 
tional value. The Musical Art So- 
ciety, James H. Downs, conductor, de- 
voted its attention to a capella music. 
The Apollo Club, founded, and for 
25 years conducted by Dudley BUCK, 
was a male chorus devoted to part 
songs in English. The conductor in 
1908 was John Hyatt BREWER. 

Bros (Juan) composed masses; 
conducted. B. Tortosa, Spain, 1776; 
d. 0\iedo, Mar. 12, 1852. 

Broschi (Carlo) became the most 
celebrated of sopranists as FARI- 

Brossard, de (Sebastien) wrote 
the first French dictionary of music, 
Paris, 1703; composed; directed music 
at Meaux Cathedral, where he was a 

B Rotundum. L. " Round B " or 
B flat. 

BrounofE (Platon) composed " In 
the RussianVillage"( Suite for Piano) ; 
" In the Flower Garden " ( Suite for 
Piano) ; " Love Songs "; " The Dew of 
Morn" (18 songs) ; "Nocturne" (for 
Piano ) ; " Romance " ( for Violin and 
Piano); "Songs of Freedom" (21 
Songs); "Zion" (Oriental Suite for 
Piano in four parts) ; gave lecture 
recitals on " Russia and her Music " 
and for the Board of Education; con- 
ducted Russian choral and musical 
societies. People's Chorus, Socialist 
Choral Union; pupil of Anton Rubin- 
stein and Rimsky-Korsakoff , St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory. In 1891 his can- 
tata " The Angel " was performed at 
the Russian Court under Rubinstein. 
B. Elizabethgrad, Russia, 1869; add. 
New York. 

Brown (James Duff) wrote " Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of Musicians," 
1886; "British Musical Biography" 

with S. S. Stratton, 1897; librarian 
to Clerkenwell, Eng., Public Library. 

Browne (Dr. Lennox) wrote on 
voice; throat specialist. B. London, 
1841; add. London. 

Brownsmith (John Leman) played 
organ in English churches and at con- 
certs. B. London, 1809; d. Sept. 14, 

Bruch, de (Arnold) composed vocal 
music; chapelmaster to Emperor Fer- 
dinand I while King of Rome. B. 
Bruges, 1840. 

Bruch (Max) composed the opera 
" Loreley," the " Frithjof-Scenen " for 
male choir and orchestra, symphonies. 
Bruch's first work to be performed 
was his operetta, " Scherz, List und 
Rache," Cologne, 1858. He directed 
the Coblenz Concert-Institution in 
1805-67, then becoming chapelmaster 
to Prince Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. 
From 1870 to 1878 he gave himself 
exclusively to composition, residing in 
Berlin and Bonn. For two years he 
directed the Stern Singing Society, 
Berlin; from 1880 to 1883 the Liver- 
pool Philharmonic Society, during 
which period he married Emma 
Tuczek, the singer. From 1883 to 
1890 he directed the Orchesterverein 
at Breslau, and in 1892 joined the 
staff of the Berlin Hochschule. Of a 
long list of compositions embracing 
more than 80 opus nvimbers the fol- 
lowing are among the best known : 
" Kol Nidrei," 'cello and orchestra, 
Op. 47 ; violin concerto in G, " Odys- 
seus " for soli choir and orchestra. 
Op. 41 ; " Das Feuerkreuz," contain- 
ing a beautiful " Ave Maria," soli 
chorus and orchestra. Op. 52 ; " Her- 
mione," four-act opera, Op. 40; 
" Moses," an oratorio. Op. 67. B. 
Cologne, Jan. 0, ]S:i8; add. Berlin. 

Briickler (Hugo) composed songs 
and taught. B. Dresden, Feb. 18, 
1845; d. Oct. 4, 1871. 

Bruckner (Anton) composed eight 
symphonies and three movements of 
a ninth, masses, strongly influenced in 
style by his admiration for Wagner ; 
played organ, in recital and at the 
Vienna Hofkapelle; taught in the 
Vienna Conservatory and lectured in 
the University. B. Ansfclden, Upper 




Austria, Sept. 24, 1824; d. Vienna, 
Oct. 11, LS'JO. 

Brulins (Nikolaus) composed organ 
pieces, 13 cantatas; ranked as organ- 
ist second only to his teacher Buxte- 
hude. B. Schwabstiidt, Schleswig, 
1UG5; d. 1697. 

Briill (Ignaz) composed "Das 
goldene Kreuz," " Die Bettler von 
Samarkand," " Bianca," " Gringoire," 
and other operas, the ballet " Ciiam- 
pagnermiirehen," the overture " Jlac- 
i)eth"; plaved piano and taught. B. 
Prossnitz, Nov. 7. 1 S46 ; d. Sept. 1 7, 1!)07. 

Brumel (Antoine) composed 15 
masses, etc., published 1503-39; prob- 
ably native of Flanders. 

Brummeisen. Ger. JEW'S HARP. 

Bruneau (Alfred) composed the 
operas " K^rim," 1887; "La Reve," 
1891; "L'Attaque du Moulin," 1893; 
"Messidor," 1897; "L'Ouragan," 1901; 
"L'Enfant Roi," 1903; those dat- 
ing from 1893 to libretti by Zola; 
a " Requiem " and many songs, an 
overture heroique, the syiniihoiiios 
" Leda," "La Belle au Bois dor- 
mant," and " Penthesilee "; wrote 
criticism ; became conductor at the 
Paris Opera Comique, 1903. 'Cello 
pupil of Franchomme, he won first 
prize at the Conser^^atoire at 15; 
studied composition with Massenet; 
played in the Pasdeloup orchestra; 
received Legion of Honor, 1895. B. 
Mar. 2, 1S57, Paris; add. Paris. 

Brunelli (Andrea) composed and 
wrote on music; Florence, 17th cen- 

Brunette. Fr. Simple French 

Bruni (Antoine Barthelemy) com- 
posed operas and for violin ; wrote 
methods for violin and viola; con- 
ducted I'aris Opera Comique. B. 
Corni, Piedmont, Feb. 2, 1759; d. 
Paris, 182.'i. 

Brunetti (Gaetano) composed 
chamber music in the style of his 
friend Boccherini ; pupil of his father 
Antonio Brunnetti, who directed music 
at Pisa Cathedral. B. Pisa, 1753; d. 
Madrid, 1808. 

Bruscamente. It. Strongly ac- 
cented; coarsely. 

Brussels Conservatory teaches 

music and declamation, gives concerts, 
and possesses an excellent museum; 
founded Feb. 13, 1832, directed by 
F. J. FETIS until his death, 1871, 
afterwards by Francois Atigiiste GE- 
VAEUT. The insiiiuUDn is endowed, 
has an excellent teaching staff and a 
large library. 

Bryceson (Henry) founded in 179G 
the London organ building house now 
known as Bryceson Bros. & Morten. 

Bryne (Albertus) composed a 
morning ami evening service for the 
Anglican church; played organ at 
Westminster Abbey. B. Eng. about 
1U21; d. London about 1609. 

Buca. It. Sound-hole. 

Buccinator. Muscle in the cheeks 
development of which is important to 
players on wind instruments. 

Buccolica. It. Rustic. 

Bucina or Buccina. L. Cur\'ed 
horn employed by ancient Romans for 
civil and military purposes. 

Bucolique. Fr. Rustic. 

Buck (Dudley) composed " The 
Golden Legend," prize oratorio of the 
Cincinnati Music Festival, 1880; 
" The Centennial Meditation of Co- 
lumbia" for the Philadelphia Expo- 
sition of 1876; the opera " Serapis " 
to his own libretto ; the Mormon comic 
opera " Deseret " ; church music and 
for male chorus; played organ and 
taught; wrote " A Dictionary of ]\Iusi- 
cal Terms," "The Influence of the 
Organ in History." B. Hartford, 
Conn., Mar. 10, 1839; piano pupil 
of W. J. Babcock, Hartford; substi- 
tute organist at St. John's Church, 
Hartford; studied at Leipsic under 
Hauptmann, Richter, Plaidy, and 
Moscheles; at Dresden with Rietz; 
organist North Congregational Church, 
Hartford, 1862; at St. James Church, 
Chicago, 1867-71; lost manuscripts 
and library in Chicago fire; organist 
St. Paul's Church and Music Hall, 
Boston; assistant conductor to Theo- 
dore Thomas, 1875; founded Brooklyn 
Apollo Club and became organist Holy 
Trinity. Brooklyn. 1877; retired 1903; 
resided in Dresden, Miinicli, Brooklyn ; 
d. Oct. 6, 1909. WelJ-kiiowii works in 
addition to those mentioned are: " The 
Liffht of Asia " to Sir Edwin Arnold's 


poem; "The Legend of Don Munio," Latin; played organ at the Chapel 
"The 46th Psalm," "The Nun of Royal; became organist at Antwerp 
Nidaros," "King Olaf's Christmas," Cathedral, 1617; composed for voice, 
" Chorus of Spirits and Hours," " Paul organ, and virginal; one of the many 
Revere's Ride," " The Triumph of to whom the authorship of " God Save 
David," " A Midnight Service for New the King " or " Heil dir im Sieger- 
Year's Eve," "The Coming of the kranz " has been ascribed; was equally 
King," " The Story of the Cross," celebrated for his skill as organist and 
" Good Friday Service " ; " Christ the as contrapuntist. B. Somersetshire, 
Victor" for Easter and Ascension Eng., about 1562; d. Antwerp, Mar. 
Day; a symphony in E flat, the sym- 12, 1628. 

phonic overture "Marmion," two string Bull (Ole Bornenian) rivalled the 

quartets, and other chamber mu.sic and celebrity of Paganini as violinist; 

many songs. Dudley Buck, Jr., his toured Europe and America with im- 

son, taught music in New York. niense success, but like the earlier 

Buck (Dr. Zechariah) composed master was not above resorting to 

church music, played and taught trickery to obtain effects. Spohr said 

organ. B. Sept. 10, 1798, Norwich, his tone was bad because he used thin 

Eng.; d. Aug. 5, 1879. strings, and that his performance of 

Buenos Ayres, one of the most four-part passages was made possible 

cosmopolitan of South American by an almost flat bridge. However 

cities, possessed in 1908 a splendid that may have been he possessed great 

opera house at which regular per- magnetism as well as extraordinary 

formances of serious opera were given techniqvie. He was generous with the 

by artists gathered from the chief vast sums lie earned, as shown in his 

music centres of Europe, and other attempts to found a Norwegian colony 

theatres, at which opera comique and in America, and to establish an acad- 

lighter forms of music might be en- emy of music in Christiania, and he 

joyed. With the exception of Rio was deeply loved by his countrymen. 

Janeiro no other South American city B. Bergen, Norway, Feb. 5, 1810, 

has been so lavish in its expenditures largely self-taught; a Paganini con- 

for the support of music. cert which he attended in Paris, 1831, 

Buffa and Buffo. It. Feminine proved, as he used to declare, the turn- 
and masculine forms of " comic," as ing point of his life. After many hard- 
basso buffo, opera buffa. ships he made his debut in Paris, April 

Buffare. It. To play the clown. 18, 1832, and then began his series of 

Buffet. Fr. An organ case. world tours which continued to within 

Buffone. It. Comic singer. the year of his death, which occurred 

Buffonescamente. It. Humorously at his country home in Norway, Aug. 

or in comic style. 17, 1880. Bull's published composi- 

Bugle. Hunting or military horn tions include " Variations di bravura," 
of copper or brass, smaller than the " La Preghiera d'una madre," and 
trumpet, set in C, B flat and E flat, "Notturno." See biography by his sec- 
improved by the addition of keys and ond wife, Sara C. Bull, Boston, 18S6. 
valves, was foi'merly an important Bullard (Frederick F.) composed, 
solo instrument in military bands, but taught, wrote criticism ; pupil of 
is generally replaced now by cornets. Rheinberger, Munich. B. Boston, 

Buhl (Joseph David) became fa- Mass., Sept. 21, 1864; add. Boston, 
mous in Paris as trumpeter and Billow, von (Hans Guide) com- 

teacher; Chevalier of the Legion of posed music to "Julius Caesar" and 

Honor, 1814. B. Amboise, 1781. " Nirwana," "Ballade for Orchestra"; 

Bull (Dr. John) became professor "Vier Charakterstiicke fiir Orchester"; 

of music at Gresham College, 1596, became one of the foremost pianists 

on recommendation of Queen Eliza- and conductors of his generation; 

beth, whore he was permitted to lee- wrote vigorously in support of the 

ture in English, as he did not speak theories of Liszt and Wagner. Pupil 




of Friedricli Wieck, Hesse, Ilaupt- 
iiiann, Plaidy, and Ebeiwein, and 
finally of Liszt at Weimar; he had 
studied law at Leipsic, but Liszt's per- 
formance of " Lolu'ngrin " in 1850 at 
Weimar decided his career. After a 
time spent with Wagner at Ziirich, 
he conducted, then made a concert 
tour as pianist; taught in Berlin, 
in 1857 he married C'osima, daughter 
of Liszt, and in 18ti4 became conduc- 
tor of the Munich opera, and three 
years later, director of the Conserva- 
tory. From 18G9 to 1878 he gave con- 
certs in various European and Ameri- 
can cities; chapelmaster at Hanover, 
1878, and at Meiningen, 1880-85. 
Frau Cosima having become the wife 
of Richard Wagner, in 1882 von Biilow 
m. Marie Schlanzer, who edited his 
letters (Eng. trans., Constance Bache, 
1896). B. Dresden, Jan. 8, 1830; d. 
Cairo, Feb. 12, 1894. 

Bungert (August) composed the 
operatic tetralogy " Die Homerische 
Welt," based on the Wagnerian theo- 
ries of music-drama; the orchestral 
works " Tasso," " Hohes Lied der 
Liebe," " Auf der Wartburg," and the 
comic opera " Die Studenten von Sala- 
nianka," etc. B. Miilheim, Mar. 14, 
1846; pupil of Cologne Conservatory. 

Bunn (Alfred) adapted libretti; 
managed Drury Lane theatre, London; 
brought out Balfe and Wallace operas 
in English. B. April 8, 1790; d. Dec. 
20, 1860, Boulogne. 

Bunning (Herbert) composed 
" Princess Osra," Covent Garden, July 
14, 1902; overtures, scena ; directed 
music London Lvric Theatre, 1892. B. 
May 2, 1863; add. London. 

Bunting (Edward) made valuable 
collections of Irish music; wrote on 
Irish musical historv. B. 1773, Ar- 
magh; d. Dublin, Dec. 21, 1843. 

Buonaccordo. It. Toy spinet. 

Buonaniente. It. Truly, justly. 

Buonamici (Giuseppe) composed, 
played piano, edited piano music; 
taught and directed Cherubini Society, 
Florence. B. Florence, Feb. 12, 1846; 
add. Florence. 

Buona Nota. It. Accented note. 

Buononcini. Less favored spelling 

Burden. Refrain of a song; drone of 
bagpipe; dance tunes which were sung. 

Biirde-Ney (Jenny) sang sop. in 
opera and concert, debut Oliniitz, 1847 ; 
daughter tif a i^inger who claimed rela- 
tionsiiip with Maroclial Xey. B. (jratz, 
Dec. 21, 1826; d. May 17, 1886. 

Burgmiiller (Norbert) composed 
two symphonies, an overture, etc. B. 
Feb., 1810, Diisseldorf, son of one of 
the founders of the Lower Rhine fes- 
tivals; d. May 7, 1836, Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Johann Friedrich,, com- 
posed for piano. B. Regensburg, 1806; 
brotlier of XORBERT; d. Beaulieu, 
France, Feb. 13, 1874. 

Burgstaller (Alois) sang Wag- 
nerian ten. roles at Bayreuth and 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York. 
B. Sept. 27, 1871, Holzkirchen, Ger- 
many ; pupil of Bellurth and Kniese ; 
add. New York. 

Burla. It. Joke. 

Burlando. It. Jokingly. 

Burlesca. It. Jocularly. 

Burletta. It. Farce with songs; 

Burnieister (Richard) composed 
symphonic fantasy, piano concerto; 
taught piano, Peabody Institute, Bal- 
timore; directed Scharwenka Conser- 
vatory, New York; pupil of Liszt. 
B. Hamburg, Dec. 7, 1860; add. New 

Burmester (Willy) played violin; 
pupil of Joachim. B. Hamburg, Mar. 
16. 1869. 

Burney (Dr. Charles) wrote a 
" General History of Music," " A Plan 
for a Music School," "The Life and Let- 
ters of Metastasio," "Musical Tour"; 
composed chamber music, played or- 
gan. B. Shrewsburv, Eng., April 12, 
1726; d. London, April 12, 1814. 

Burrowes (John Freckelton) wrote 
" Thorough Bass Primer " and " Piano 
Primer"; composed and arranged 
piano music. B. April 23, 1787, Lon- 
don; d. Mar. 31. 1852. 

Burton (Avery) composed masses, 
etc., in England. 16th century. 

Burton (John) became famous 
harpsichord plaver. B. England, 1730; 
d. 1785. 

Burton (Robert, Sr.) directed 
chorus for the Leeds and Bradford 



festivals. B. Dewsbury, Eng., Sept. 1, 
1820; d. Herrogate, Aug. 2, 1892. 

Busby (Thomas) composed music 
for a version of Ko(zol)iies "Joanna," 
secular oratorio " iJiitannia " ; wrote 
" A History of Music." B. London, 
1755; d. May 28, 1838. 

Busnois (Anthoine) composed 
church music and songs, eminent con- 
trapuntist in the service of Charles 
the Bold of Burgundy. B. Picardy, 
15 th century. 

Busoni (Ferruccio Benvenuto) 

composed an oicliestial suite, .string 
quartets, violin concerto in D, Oj). 35; 
" Concertstiick " for piano and or- 
chestra, Op. 31 ; a " ballet scene," 
" Symphonisches Tongedicht " ; played 
piano, ranking with the best inter- 
preters of Bach ; taught in Helsing- 
fors, Moscow Conservatoire, Boston, 
Mass. ; pupil of his mother Anna 
Weiss, pianist, and his father Ferdi- 
nand©, a clarinetist; later of Schmidt 
and Mayer. B. near Florence, April 
1, 1866; add. Berlin. 

Bussone. It. Obsolete instrument 
of bassoon type. 

Busaun. 16 ft. reed organ stop. 

Butler (Thomas composed 
music for " The Widow of Delphi " ; 
taught in Edinburgh. B. London, 
1762; d. 1823. 

Butt (Clara) sang eon. with great 
success in concert; debut 1892 with 
the Bach Choir, at the Norwich Fes- 
tivals in Elgar's " Sea Pictures," 
Cliffe's "Triiimph of Aleestis," and 
liedford'.s " Romeo and Juliet," all of 
wiiicli were written for her; studied 
with Daniel Rootham of Bristol ; won 
scholarship at Royal College of Music, 
1889; later, pupil of Bouhy and Mme. 
Gerster in Paris; toured America, 
1899. B. South wick, Eng., Feb. 1, 
1873; m. the bar. R. Kennerley Rum- 
ford, June 26, 1900; add London. 

Button. Leather disk on wire of 
organ tracker; knob on base of viol; 

Button & Whittaker succeeded to 
music publishing business of the 
Thompsons, 1804, retiring 1830. 

Buttstedt (Johann Heinrich) 
wrote a defence of solmiaation ; com- 
posed masses, harpsichord music. B. 

April 25, 1666, Bindersleben Erfurt; 
d. Dec. 1, 1727. 

Buxtehude (Dietrich) composed 
free organ music, made Liibeck famous 
for its music, and ranked as the great- 
est organist of his age; established 
the " Abendmusiken " in the Marien- 
kirche of Lubeck which Johann Se- 
bastian Bach walked 50 miles to hear; 
taught with great success, numbering 
among his pupils Nicholas Bruhns. 
B. Helsingor, Denmark, 1637; Bon of 
an organist; d. May 9, 1707. 

Buxus. Boxwood flute. 

Byfield (John) built organs in Eng- 
land with his son John, founded the 
organ building houses of Byfield, Jor- 
dan & Bri<li,'e, and HARRIS & BY- 
FIELD. The son died 1774. 

Byrd (William) composed masses, 
collection of motets, music for the vir- 
ginals, and madrigals; was so highly 
esteemed that he obtained from Queen 
Elizabeth a patent granting him with 
Thomas Tallis a monopoly of music 
printing. He remained in the service 
of the court, known to be a Roman 
Catholic at a time when persons of 
that faith were being prosecuted, and 
he, his wife and servant were indicted 
from absenting themselves from Prot- 
estant worship, but not tried. B. 
about 1542, probably at Lincoln; d. 
about July 4, 1623, at his estate of 
Stondon, Essex. 

Byssynge Songes. Cradle songs 
or lullabies. 

Byzantine Scales were fotir in 
number with an equal number of PLA- 
GALS; used in the ancient Greek 

C is the keynote of the natural 
scale, so called because it is the only 
one which can be written without 
sharps or flats. Middle C, so named 
because of its position in NOTATION, 
as well as on the keyboard of the 
piano, is the result of 261 vibrations 
in French or International pitch, and 
occupies the first line below the G or 
trelile staff. In tlie staveless designa- 
tion of notes adopted in this book and 
by most modern authorities. Middle C 
is indicated by c', that is lower case c 

6om/4,'i 1. 




with an accent. Tlie upper octaves are 
marked by an additional accent lor 
each octave, thus treble C becomes c", 
its octave c'", etc. In descending from 
Middle C we find first the 4 foot, sec- 
ond or small octave, indicated by c, 
then the 8 foot, first or great octave, 
indicated by C; then the IG foot or 
contra-octave indicateil by 'C, etc. 
The modern scale of C corresponds to 
the ancient Ionian Mode and is iden- 
tical wiili tiie XI til of the Ecclesi- 
astical Modes. C likewise gives name 
to the alto or tenor CLEF, and to the 
minor key relative to E flat major. 
As a time indication C stands for four 
beats to the measure, and when a line is 
drawn through it, for ALLA BREVE. 

Cabaletta. Sp- Melody in rondo 
form accompanied in tiiiilets, imitating 
the footfalls of a cantering horse ; short 
final movement of an air. 

Cabel or Cabu (Marie) sang sop. 
in opera, debut 1850 at Paris Opera 
Comique to 1878; b. Dreulette, m. 
Cabu, her singing master. B. Li6ge, 
Jan. 31, 1827; d. May 23, 1885. 
Eduard sang in opera at Paris. 

Cabezon or Cabegon, de (Felix 
Antonio) played organ and harpsi- 
chord with skill, though blind from 
birth. B. Madrid, Mar. 30, 1510; d. 
Mar., 1566. 

Cabinet d'Orgue. Fr. Organ case. 

Cabinet Pianoforte. Upright 

Cabiscola. Precentor. 

Caccia. If- Hunting, as corno da 
caccia, hunting horn. 

Caccini (Julio Romano) sang and 
played lute in the service of Grand 
Duke of Tuscany; composed " Le 
Nuove Musiche," madrigals and canons 
for single voice; " Combattimento 
d'Apolline col Serpente " ; and aided 
Peri in setting Rinuccini's pastoral 
play "Dafne," 1593; thus assisting 
in the foundation of modern opera and 
the reformation of music of his day. 
B. 1558, Rome. 

Cachuca. Sp. Dance in 3-4 time 
resembling bolero. 

Cacophony. Gr. Discord. 

Cadeac (Pierre) composed masson, 
motets; master of choristers at Auch, 
IGth century. 

Cadence is employed in music to 
bring a strain of melody or harmonic 
phrase to its rhetorical conclusion. A 
Perfect Cadence is one which first de- 
fines the key, sounding the dominant 
chord, then passes to the tonic chord, 
the only ending satisfying to the ear. 
A close or stop less satisfactory to the 
ear is produced when the tonic chord 
is followed by the dominant, and this 
is the most frequent form of the Im- 
perfect Cadence. Where the chord of 
the dominant seems about to lead up 
to the tonic chord, but substitutes 
other harmony instead, as that of the 
submediant, an Interrupted Cadence 
results. The efl'ect of the perfect 
cadence may be compared to that of 
a period; of an imperfect cadence to 
that of a dash; of an interrupted 
cadence to that of the comma. When 
the tonic chord is preceded by the 
major or minor chord of the subdomi- 
nant the cadence is called Plagal. A 
cadence in two simple chords is a 
Simple Cadence; but when suspen- 
sions or other devices are introduced, 
becomes Compound. Bearing in mind 
these simple definitions, it will only 
be necessary to add that a Mixed Ca- 
dence is one in which both dominant 
and subdominant harmony are intro- 
duced immediately before the tonic 
chord, and that a Medial Cadence is 
merely an Inverted Cadence. The ca- 
dences of mediaeval music were called 
" clausulae," and were subdivided into 
many classes, as Clausula Vera or 
true cadence; Clausula Plagalis or 
plagal cadence ; Clausula Media, Ficta, 
Subsidaria; or medial, false, or sub- 
sidiary cadence, etc. Clausula Vera 
was identical with the modern per- 
fect cadence. In early English " fall " 
was synonymous with cadence; and 
it likewise means a rimning shake or 
trill, either in vocal or instrumental 
music, as a means of returning to a 
first subject, or of conclusion. 

Cadence Imparfaite. Fr. Imper- 
fect cadence. 

Cadence Perlee. Fr. Brilliant 

Cadence Rompue. Fr. Inter- 
rupted cadence. 

Cadenz. Ger. Cadence. 



Cadenza. It. Originally an orna- 
mental passage introduced by a singer 
toward the close of an aria, the cadenza 
spread to instrumental performers who 
sometimes improvised at great length, 
and became so much the fashion that 
Mozart, Beethoven, and Mendelssohn 
all wrote out cadenzas for composi- 
tions meant for solo instruments. 

Caecilian Society gave subscrip- 
tion concerts in London, at which 
oratorios were performed from 1785 to 
1861. The conductors were: Mr. Vin- 
cent, Thomas Walker, his son Joseph 
Walker, and James Shoubridge. 

Caesar (Dr. Julius) composed 
catches; English amateur, 17th century. 

Cafaro (Pasquale) composed a 
" Stabat Mater," cantatas and ora- 
torios; chapelmaster and director of 
the Conservatory at Naples; also 
called Cafrarelli. B. Fel). 8, 1706, Lecce, 
in south Italy ; d. Oct. 23, 1787. 

Cafiarelli (Gaetano Majorano) be- 
came one of the most celebrated so- 
pranists of all times, assuming the 
name Caffarelli in compliment to his 
teacher; also studied five years with 
Porpora, and in 1724 made his debut 
in Rome, singing with continuous suc- 
cess (except in London, where the cli- 
mate did not agree with him) until 
65, by which time he had become very 
wealthy and had purchased a dukedom, 
which a nephew inherited. B. April 
16, 1703, Naples; d. Nov. 30, 1783. 

Cagnoni (Antonio) composed the 
opera buffa " Don Bucefalo," Milan, 
18-17, still popular in Italy, many 
other operas, " Papa Martin " having 
been given in English as " Tlie Porter 
of Havre"; motets; chapelmaster at 
Vigevano and at Bergamo; Com- 
mander of the Crown of Italy. B. 
Feb. 8, 1828, Godiasco, Voghera; d. 
Bergamo, April 30, 1896. 

Cahen (Albert) composed the 
operas " Le Bois," 1880; " La Belle an 
r.ois Dormant," 1886; " Le Venitien," 
1890; "La Femme de Claude," 1896; 
the ballet "Fleur de Neiges." 1891 ; and 
"Jean lePrecurseur," a Biblical drama, 
1874; pupil of Cesar Franck. B. Jan. 
8, 1846; d. Cap d'Ail. France, 1903. 

Cahusac (Thomas) published music 
and made instruments in London, 1755, 


to his death. May 18, 1798, when the 
l)usiness was carried on for a time liy liis 
brotliiM-, W. M., and his son, Thomas, Jr. 

Cain (Henri) wrote libretti for 
Massenet. B. Paris, 1859. 

Ca Ira. Sung by the Parisians on 
their march to Versailles, Oct. 5, 1789, 
was composed as a contre danse and 
published as " Carillon National " by 
B^cour or Bdcourt, drummer at the 
Paris Opera. The words, based on a 
saying of Benjamin Franklin's, are 
said to have been suggested by Oeneral 
Lafayette to Ladr^, a street singer. 

Caisse. Fr. Drum. 

Caisse Claire. Fr. Snare-drum. 

Caisse Grosse. Fr. Bass drum. 

Caisse Boulante. Fr. Tenor drum. 

Calah (John) composed church 
music, etc. ; played organ Peterborough 
Cathedral. B. 1758; d. Aug. 5, 1798. 

Calamus. Reed flute. 

Calando. It. Indicates decrease in 
volume of tone and in tempo. 

Calandrone. It. Primitive two- 
hole clarinet played by peasantry. 

Calascione or Colascione. It. In- 
strument of guitar family having two 
or three strings. 

Calata. It. Sprightly dance in 
2-4 time. 

Calcando. It. Hurrying the time. 

Calcant. Treading. Bellows Treader, 

Calcanten-Glocke. Ger. Bells rung 
by pedal action. 

Caldara (Antonio) composed church 
music, 36 oratorios, 66 operas; assist- 
ant chapelmaster to J. J. Fux at 
Vienna. B. Venice about 1670; d. 
Dee. 28, 1736. 

Caldicott (Alfred James) composed 
13 operettas, cantatas; played organ, 
Worcester; taught Royal College of 
]\Iusic, London. B. 1842, W^orcester, 
Eng.; d. Oct. 24, 1897. 

California, University of, which 
is located in Berkeley, 10 miles NE. of 
San Francisco, included a Department 
of Music headed by Prof. WOLLE. 
Mrs. Phcebe A. Hearst had been one 
of the largest benefactors of this in- 
stitution, and the beautiful Greek 
Theatre, with a seating capacity of 
8000, was the gift of her son, W^il- 
liam Randolph Hearst, the newspaper 
proprietor. While the department of 




Tiiusic is of recent foundation, it had 
attracted a large enrolment in 1908, 
and this Greek Theatre was used not 
merely for a series of concerts by the 
Symphony Orchestra and tlie Minetti 
quartette, but for " half hours of 
mu3ic"givcn rcgularlyon 8undayafter- 
noons, which were free to the public. 

Call. Military signal sounded by 
bugle or drum. 

Call Changes are those rung ac- 
cording to written direction, or as tlie 
conductor calls them, to each bell- 

ringer. See BELLS. 

Call, von (Leonard) wrote instruc- 
tion book for guitar and composed 
songs. B. 1779; d. Vienna, 1815. 

Callcott (Dr. John Wall) helped 
found the London Catch Club, 1787, 
and in 1789 won all its prizes with 
his catch " Have you Sir John 
Hawkins' History?" his canon "O 
that Thou would'st," and his glees 
" O Thou, where'er thie bones att 
rest" and "Go, idle boy"; wrote a 
"Musical Grammar," 180(), and became 
insane while at work on a dictionary 
of music. B. Nov. 20, 17GG, London; 
d. May 15, 1821. William Hutchins 
composed songs including " The Last 
Man," and the anthem " Give Peace in 
our time, O Lord." B. Sept. 28, 1807 ; 
son of JOHN WALL; d. Aug. 5, 1882. 
William Robert Stuart played organ. 
B. London, 1852; son of WILLIAM 
HUTCHINS; d. 1886. 

Calliope. Instrument composed 
of steam whistles arranged in organ 
style and played by keyboard ; in 
Greek mythology name of Muse of 
Heroic Verse. 

Calma, con. It. With calmness. 

Calmato. It. Calmed. 

Calore, con. //. With heat. 

Calori (Angiola) sang sop. in opera 
with great success, 1758-83. B. Milan, 
1732; d. about 1790. 

Caloroso. It. Passionately; 

Calvary. Ludwig Spohr's oratorio 
" Des Hei lands letzte Stunden " is so 
called in the English version per- 
formed under Spolir's own direction 
at the Norwich Festival of 1839. _ 

Calve (Emma) became recognized 
as the greatest of Carmens; created 

tlic role of Anita in Massenet's " Na- 
varraisc," which was composed for her, 
and the name part in that composer's 
"Sapho"; excelled as Santuzza; pupil 
of Mme. Marchesi and of Puget ; debut 
as Marguerite in Brussels, Sept. 23, 
1882; became popular favourite at 
Covent Garden, London, and Metro- 
politan Opera House, New York ; sang 
at Manhattan Opera House, New York, 
1907-8. B. iMadrid, 1804; add. Paris. 

Calvisius (Seth) composed and 
wrote on niusic; taught and directed 
at the Thomasschule and Thomas- 
kirche, Leipsic. B. Gorsleben, Thurin- 
gia, Feb. 21, 1556; d. Leipsic, Nov. 
24, 1615. 

Camargo (Miguel Gomez) com- 
posed and directed niusic at Valla- 
dolid, Spain, 16th century. 

Cambert (Robert) composed the 
first French opera, " Pomone," with 
Perrin, produced Mar. 19, 1761; his 
first operatic composition, " La Pas- 
torale," having been performed at the 
Chateau d'Issy as early as April, 1659. 
Letters patent were issued to Perrin 
establishing the Academic de Musique, 
and for 30 years Cambert and Perrin 
worked together until Lulli came into 
power, when Cambert went to England, 
l)ecoming master of music to Charles 
II. In early life Cambert was organist 
at St. Honore's Church, Paris, and In- 
tendant of Music to Anne of Austria. 
B. 1628, Paris; d. London, 1677. 

Cambiare. It. To turn or alter. 

Cambini (Giovanni Giuseppe) 
composed chamber music in the style 
of Boccherini, which was mistaken for 
the work of that master and pub- 
lished as such ; 12 operas ; " Le Sac 
rifice d'Isaac," an oratorio performed 
at the Paris Concerts Spirituel, 1774; 
60 symphonies, etc. ; conducted ; played 
viola ; wrote criticism ; but died in 
poverty after romantic life, in the 
course of wliich he was captured by 
Corsairs while returning with his bride 
from Leghorn to Naples, and sold into 
slavery in Barbarv. B. Leghorn, Feb. 
13, 1746; d. Paris, 1825. 

Camera, Musica di. It. CHAM- 

Camidge (John) wrote " Six Easy 
Lessons for the Harpsichord " ; pupil 




of Dr. Greene and Handel; organ- 
ist at York Cathedral. B. York, 
1735; d. April 25, 1803. Matthew 
wrote a " Method of Instruction in 
Music by Questions and Answers " ; 
composed sonatas and published col- 
lection of hymn tunes; played organ 
at York Cathedral in succession to his 
father JOHN. B. York, 1758; d. 
Oct. 23, 1844. John composed and 
published a volume of Cathedral 
music, and played organ at Y'ork 
Cathedral in succession to his father 
MATTHEW. B. York, 1790; d. Sept. 
21, 1859. Thomas Simpson played 
organ in Englisli churches and was 
assistant to his father JOHN at Y^ork 
Cathedral. John, son of THOMAS 
SIMPSON, became organist at Bev- 
erly Minster, Eng. 

Camminando. It. Flowing. 

Campagnoli (Bartolomeo) com- 
posed for and played violin ; conducted 
Gewandhaus concerts, Leipsic, 1797. 
B. Cento near Bologna, Sept. 10, 1751; 
d. Nov. 6, 1827, Neustrelitz. 

Cainpana. It. Bell. 

Campana (Fabio) composed " Al- 
mina," "Esmeralda,'" and other operas, 
songs; taught music in London. B. Bo- 
logna, 1815; d. London, Feb. 2, 1882. 

Campanari (Leandro) conducted 
opera at Covent Garden, London, 
Manhattan Opera House, New Y^ork, 
1906-7 ; composed and wrote on 
music; played violin and organized 
string quartet; pupil of Milan Con- 
servatory; settled in Boston, 1878; 
became director violin department 
Cincinnati College of Music in siicces- 
sion to Henry Schradieck; returned 
to Italy; Chevalier of the Crown of 
Italy; conducted at Milan. B. Ro- 
vigo, Italy, Oct. 20, 1857. Giuseppe 
sang bar. with distinction at Covent 
Garden, London, JMetropolitan Opera 
House, New York ; self taught in vocal 
music, having studied 'cello at Milan 
Conservatory, afterwards playing with 
Boston Svm phony Orchestra. Brother 
of LEANDRO. Add. New York City. 

Campanella. It. Small bell. 

Campanetta. II. GLOCKENSPIEL. 

Campanini (Italo) sang ten. in 
concert and opera in the princi]ir)l 
cities of Europe and in America (under 

Mapleson) ; debut at Bologna, 1871. 
B. June 26, 1840, Parma; d. near 
Parma, Nov. 22, 1896. Cleofonte 
conducted at Manhattan Opera House, 
New York, 1906-8; Covent Garden, 
London, La Scala, Milan; studied and 
tauglit, Milan Conservatory. 

Campanology. The art of making 
or ringing BELLS. See " Change 
Ringing Disentangled," Rev. Wool- 
more Wigram, 1871; "Clocks and 
Bells," E. B. Denison; "Church Bells 
and Ringing," W. T. Maunsell. 

Campbell(Alexander) played organ 
in Edinburgh, where he edited and 
published a collection of Scots songs, 
1792. B. Tombea, Loch Lubnaig, Feb. 
22, 1764; d. May 15, 1824. 

Campenhout, van (Frangois) com- 
posed the " BRABANC'ONNE," which 
became Belgium's national air, " Gro- 
tius," and other operas; sang ten. in 
opera for thirty years, ending 1827. 
B. Feb. 5, 1779, Brussels; d. April 24, 

Campioli (Antonio Gualandi) 
sang con. in opera ; debut Berlin, 1708, 
later with Handel in London, 1731. 

Campion (Thomas, M.D.) com- 
posed songs and wrote on theory, being 
jjhysician, poet, and dramatist, as well 
as musician. B. 1575, London; d. 

Camporese (Violante) sang at Na- 
poleon's private concerts in Paris, and 
with equal success in opera; London 
debut, 1817; retired 1827. B. Rome, 
1785; d. 1839. 

Campra (Andre) dominated French 
operatic stage between the reigns of 
Lulli and Rameau, making his first 
success with " L'Europe Galante," 
1697, which with his next work. " Le 
Carnaval de Venise," was published 
in the name of his brother Joseph, a 
doublebass player, as Campra had 
taken orders and held church bene- 
fices. The popularity of his works 
encotiraged him to withdraw from the 
church, and " Hesione," 1700, was pro- 
duced under his own name. " Tan- 
credc," 1702, became the best kno-\\Ti 
of his works (Mile. Maupin, con., sang 
the role of the heroine), and " Les 
Noces de Venus," 1740, was the last. 
Campra became chapelmaster to the 




king, and composed many cantatas, 
motets, and a mass. B. Dec. 4, 1060, 
Aix in Provence; d. Ver.sailles, June 
29, 1744. 

Canali or Canale (Floriaiio) played 
organ in IJreseia, 1581-l(i03, and com- 
posed church music. 

Canaries. Obsolete dance of Eng- 
lish or possibly Spanish origin, re- 
sembling the gigue. 

Cancan. Fr. Vulgar dance devel- 
oped from the quadrille. 

Cancrizans. CANONS by retro- 
gression which may be read backward. 

Cannabich (Christian) composed 
and played violin but was chielly 
known for the unusual refinement ob- 
tained in the performances he con- 
ducted of the Electoral orchestra at 
Mannheim and Munich. B. Mann- 
heim, 1731; pupil of his father, a 
flautist; d. 1798, Frankfort. Carl 
played violin, composed and succeeded 
his father CHRISTIAN as conductor. 
B. Mannheim, 17()9; d. Mar. 3, 1806. 

Canniciari (Pompeo) composed 
church music for two and four choirs; 
directed music S. Maria Maggiore, 
Rome, from 1709 to his death, Dec. 29, 

Canon. Or. " Standard or rule." 
Formal imitation in music, in which 
the first part or subject or antecedent 
is repeated in the answer or conse- 
quent. Canons in which the same 
melody is sung by two voices an oc- 
tave apart are called Two in One at 
the octave; when concluded are P^'inite 
Canons, but when leading back to the 
beginning, and therefore capable of 
interminable repetition, are termed 
Circular or Infinite. Where two 
canons are united in the same com- 
position the result is called a Four 
in Two canon, and if there are eight 
parts singing the same theme it be- 
comes a canon 8 in 1. A canon where 
the consequent is double tlie length of 
the antecedent is a Canon by Augmen- 
tation, and where the consequent is 
only half the length of the antecedent 
becomes a Canon by Diminution. 
Where a canon's consequent follows 
the inverted intervals of the antece- 
dent it is a Canon l)y Inversion. 
Canons not written out but indicated 

by symbols or monograms are Indi- 
cated Canons or Enigmatical Canons. 
Canons conipletel}^ written out were 
called Full or Aperto Canons. Can- 
onical imitation with free accompani- 
ment is frequently to be met with in 
classic music, but Canons Cancrizans, 
which might be plaj'ed backward and 
even upside down, can hardly be con- 
sidered art, however interesting for 
their display of ingenuity. The nomen- 
clature of the canon may be continued 
by adding that the Sciolto is a free 
canon, the Chiuso a Close Canon, and 
the Al Sospiro a canon where the sub- 
ject is answered the second beat of time. 

Canonici. Followers in Ancient 
Greece of the Pythagorean musical 
system as opposed to Musici, who ad- 
hered to the Aristoxenian system. 

Cantabile. It. Singing style. 

Cantadour. Fr. Street singer. 

Cantambanco. It. Mounteljank. 

Cantando. It. CANTABILE. 

Cantante. It. Singer; voice-part. 

Cantare. It. To sing. 

Cantare a Aria. It. Introducing 
an improvisation in singing. 

Cantata. It. In the modern sense 
is either a short oratorio or a short 
opera intended to be given in concert 
form. After the invention of opera, 
which was an attempt to revive the 
declamation of tragic poems in the 
manner of the ancients, the musical 
declamation of verse by solo voice 
with simple accompaniment w^as styled 
cantata. The introduction of arias 
and of elaborate accompaniment fol- 
lowed, and a cantata by Mozart, 1783, 
is scored for three solo voices, chorus, 
and orchestra. Church cantatas, of 
which BACH left manj' fine specimens, 
are often elaborate compositions. 

Cantata Domino. The 9Sth Psalm, 
which may be sung in the Anglican 
Church evening service instead of the 

Cantatilla or Cantatina. It. Di- 
miiuitive of cantata. 

Cantatore. It. Male singer. 

Cantatorium. L. Song book. 

Cantatrice. It. Female singer. 

Cantellerando. It. Subdued sing- 
ing; trilling. 

Canterbury Pilgrims. C. Villierg 




Stanford's three-act opera to book by 
Gilbert a Beckett was first performed 
at Drury Lane, London, by the Carl 
Kosa Opera Conii)any, A\ni[ 28, 1884. 

Canti Carnivali. It. Carnival 

Cantici. It. LAUDI. 

Canticle. Those hymns, psalms, or 
verses which form part of the liturgy 
of the Anglican Church. 

Canticum. L. " Canticle." In 
Latin comedies a song with dancing 
and accompaniment. 

Cantilena. It. " Little song." 
Short vocal composition or instru- 
mental passage in song style ; cantus 
firmus in unison, with organ ac- 

Cantilenare. It. Singing unac- 

Cantillatio. L. Declamatory sing- 
ing or chanting. 

Cantino. It. A violin's E string. 

Cantique. Fr. Hymn or canticle. 

Canto. It. LTpper voice part in con- 
certed mnsic which carries tlie melody. 

Canto a Cappella. It. Church music. 

Canto Armonico. It. Part song. 

Canto Fermo. It. CANTUS 

Canto Figurato. It. CANTUS 

Canto Gregoriano. It. GREGO- 

Canto Llano. Sp. PLAIN CHANT. 

Canto Piano. It. PLAIN CHANT. 

Canto Primo. It. First soprano. 

Cantor. " Precentor." Officer in 
charge of music at Cathedral, Mon- 
astic, or Collegiate churches; prin- 
cipal of a college of church music; 
heads of musical institutions, such as 

Cantor Clioralis. L. Chorus- 

Canto Recitativo. It. Declama- 
tion ; recitative. 

Canto Ripieno. It. Additional 
soprano parts for cliorus. 

Cantoris. In cathedrals where an- 
tiphonal singing was practiced, the 
precentor or cantor usually had his 
stall on the north side of the choir 
facing the altar, and this was called 
the Cantoris side, as opposed to tliat 
on the south side where stood the 

dean's stall, known therefore as the 
Decani side. 

Canto Secondo. It. Second so- 

Cantus Ambrosianus. L. AM- 

Cantus Coronatus. L. Melody 
progressing by consonances and ac- 
companied by fa-burden. 

Cantus Durus. L. Song modu- 
lated into a key of one or more sharps. 

Cantus Eeclesiasticus. L. Plain- 
son;,' or other church melodies; method 
of singing instead of saying the liturgy. 

Cantus Figuratus. L. Church 
music having more than one note to 
the syllable, which was forbidden in 
ancient times. 

Cantus Firmus. L. Plain unorn- 
amented churcli song such as Pales- 
trina loved to glorify by elaborate 
contrapuntal treatment, in which, 
however, the melody was distinctly 
preserved, other parts moving below 
it in counterpoint modeled upon it; 
hence the upper or chief melody part 
in polyphonic works. 

Cantus Fractus. L. " Broken 
melody " or tune proceeding by con- 
sonances, either perfect or imperfect. 

Cantus Gregorianus. L. GREG- 

Cantus Mensurabilis. L. IMeas- 
ured song. The practice of dividing 
music into measures of equal duration 
by means of bars seems to have been a 
gradual growth of the I4th and 15th 
centuries to which many musicians 
contributed, but for which none was 
solely responsible. 

Cantus Planus. L. PLAIN SONG. 

Cantus Romanus. L. Roman or 
Gregorian chant. 

Canun. Turkish zither. 

Canzona. It. Short song, some- 
what like the madrigal or its instru- 
mental imitation ; obsolete term for 
sonata ; obsolete time indication equiv- 
alent to allegro. 

Canzonet or Canzonetta. It. 
Originally a diminutive canzona in 
parts; term for short songs of light 

Canzoniere. If- Song-book. 

Caoinan. Irish funeral song or wail. 

Capellmeister. Ger. Chapelmas- 




tor; director of music in a chapel or 
church or title of honor. 
Capiscolus. Precentor. 
Capo. It. Head or beginning. 
Capo, da. It. Indicates return to 

Capocci (Gaetano) composed church 
music and directed and played organ 
at St. John Lateran, Rome. B. Oct. 
1(), 1811; d. Jan. 11, 1898. Filippo 
became director of music at St. John 
Lateran in succession to his father 
GAETANO ; composed sonatas, etc. ; 
pupil of his father and of GUIIj- 
MANT. B. Rome, May 11, 18-iO; add. 

Caporale (Andrea) composed for 
'cello and played 'cello in London 
1735 to his death, about 1756. 

Capotasto. It. Bar crossing the 
fingerboard of a guitar to which it 
may be fastened by a screw, forming 
a permanent GRANDE BARRfe, rais- 
ing the pitch of the strings and alter- 
ing the key. 

Capoul (Joseph Victor Amedee) 
sang ten. rules in opera ; debut Paris 
Op^ra Comique, 1861 to 1889, when 
he joined administrative staff of Paris 
Opgra. B. Feb. 27, 1839, Toulouse; 
add. Paris. 

Capriccietto. It. Little caprice. 
Capriccio. It. Originally a lively 
whimsical composition in fugal style; 
in the 18th century instrumental 
pieces which would now be styled 
etudes; in the modern sense generally 
a composition in modified rondo or 
sonata form. 

Capuletti e i Montecchi. Vin- 
cenzo Bellini's three-act opera to book 
by Romani, founded on Romeo and 
Juliet, was liist performed at Venice, 
Mar. 12, 1830. 

Caraccio (Giovanni) composed 
church music and madrigals; one of 
14 composers who collaborated in vol- 
wvaQ of psalms dedicated to Pales- 
trina; played organ at S. Maria Mag- 
giore, Rome, and directed 23 years, 
until his death. 1626. B. Bergamo. 

Caracteres de Musique. Fr. Char- 
acters or signs used in musical NO- 

Caradori-Allan (Maria C. R.) 
sang sop. in opera and concert, debut 

London, 1822 to 1846. B. Milan, 1800; 
daughter of Col. Baron de Munck; 
d. Oct. 15, 1865. 

Carafa di Colobrano (Michele 
Enrico) composed 35 operas, some of 
which rivalled those of Rossini and 
Auber in popularity, such as " La 
Fiancee de Lanmiermoor," " Masani- 
ello," " Le Solitaire"; taught com- 
position at Paris Conservatoire; of- 
licer under Murat, decorated by Na- 
poleon in 1812. B. Nov. 17, 1787, 
Naples; d. Paris, July 26, 1872, 
Caral. Old English for €A ROL. 
Carattere. It. Character ; di.Ljuity. 
Cardon (Louis) wrote " Art de 
jouer la harpe " and played harp ad- 
mirably. B. Paris, 1747 ; d. Russia, 
1805. Pierre played 'cello and sang. 
B. Paris, 1751; brother of LOUTS. 

Cardoso (Manuel) composed church 
music; sub-prior and chapelmaster of 
Carmelites at Lisbon and friend of 
King John IV. B. Fronteira, Spain, 
1560; d. Lisbon. Nov. 29, 1650. 

Caresana (Cristoforo) composed 
soUVii'^i, church and ciiaiuher music; 
played organ at Naples. B. Tarentum, 
1055; d. Naples, 1730. 

Carestini (Giovanni) became the 
greatest con. singer of his day; debut 
in Bononcini's " Griselda," Rome, 
1721; Handel's principal singer dur- 
ing London engagement of FARIN- 
ELLl at Bononcini's rival opera house, 
range from d to g"; retired 1758 on 
concluding engagement at St. Peters- 
burg. B. Monte Filatrano, Ancona, 
1705; assumed name Cusanino in 
gratitude to his early patrons the 
Cusani of Milan. 

Carey (Henry) composed " Sally 
in our Alley " and numerous other 
songs and cantatas, for which he wrote 
the verses as well, possibly including 
" God Save the King " ; wrote and 
composed quantities of dramatic farces 
and burlesques, among them " Chro- 
nonhotonthologos," " The Dragon of 
Wantley," and " Nancy," revived as 
" The Press Gang " and " True Bhie." 
B. about 1690; son of George Saville, 
Marquis of Halifax; d. London, Oct. 
4, 1743. George Savile sang and 
acted; advanced his father's claim to 
the authorship of " God Save the 




King " ; father of Anne, who was Ed- 
mund Kean's mother. B. 1743; son 
of HENRY; d. 1807. 

Carezzando. It. Caressingly. 
Caricato. It. Exaggerated. 
Carillon. Fixed BELLS, which may 
be phiyed by hand or by one of many 
mechanical appliances, the most com- 
mon of wliicli is a barrel on the prin- 
ciple of the music box and BARREL 
ORGAN. Illustrations representing 
small carillons played by hand are 
common in mediieval church books, 
but large carillons, such as may be 
found in the steeples of churches or 
town halls in almost every city, first 
came into use in the Low Countries. 
Mathias van den Gheyn, b. Mechlin, 
1721, but settled in Louvain, from 
whom is descended the present Van 
Aerscholdt family of bell founders, 
was among the earliest of great caril- 
lon makers and players or carillon- 
neurs. Mechlin has a carillon of 45 
bells, the largest, cast by Aerscholdt, 
1844, weighing nearly 10 tons; Ghent 
has a carillon of 48 bells; Antwerp 
of 40 bells; Bruges, 48 bells, etc. 

Carlo (Johann Heinrich) improved 
and played trumpet. B. Eckernforde, 
Holstein, 1736. 

Carissimi (Giacomo) composed ora- 
torios, developed the sacred cantata, 
directed music at S. Apollinare, Rome, 
1628 to his death, Jan. 12, 1674; 
taught Bononcini, Scarlatti, Cesti. B. 
Marino, near Rome, 1604. 

Carita, con. It. With tenderness. 
Carl (William Crane) played organ 
in concert and at 1st Pres. Church, 
New York City; taught; pupil of 
Guilmant. B. Bloomfield, N. J., Mar. 
2, 1SG5; add. New Y^ork City. 

Carlo (Geronimo) edited collection 
of five-part motets, published as " Mo- 
tetti del Labirinto," Venice, 1554-55. 

Carlton (Rev. Richard) composed 
madrigals; priest at Norwich Cathe- 
dral; d. about 1638. 

Carmagnole. French Revolution- 
arj'- song beginning " Madame Veto 
avait promis," and with the refrain, 
" Dansons la carmagnole, vive le son 
du canon." 

Carmen. Georges Bizet's four-act 
opera to book by Meilhac and llalevy, 

based on Prosper Merimee's story, was 
produced Mar. 3, 1875, at the Opera 
Comique, Paris, and ranks with the 
most popular in modern repertoire. 
The first act represents a square in 
Seville, the cigarette factory to the 
right, to the left a guardhouse. 
Michaela enters seeking Don Jose, for 
whom she bears a message from his 
mother, but only sees Morales, for the 
Brigadier Don Jose and his officer, 
Zuniga, are in command of the guard. 
Presently the guard is relieved and 
the girls rusli from the factory as 
noon strikes, followed by Carmen, who 
fiirts with the men, and as she re- 
enters the factory, tosses a flower to 
Jose. Then Michaela returns, gives 
Jose a letter, money, and his mother's 
kiss, and he sends her home with lov- 
ing messages, just as a riot breaks 
out in the factory. Carmen, in a fit 
of rage, has stabbed a girl, is arrested, 
and has her arms tied to prevent fur- 
ther mischief. Left alone with Jose, 
Carmen pleads for her release most 
seductively. He finally unties her 
hands, agrees to meet her at the house 
of Lillas-Pastia, and connives at her 
escape. Punished for his fault, Jose 
finds her two months later at Lillas- 
Pastia's, where she has been making 
merry with his superior Zuniga, a 
band of gipsy smugglers, and the 
toreador Escamillo. Carmen coquets 
with him, and urges him to run away 
with her and join the smiigglers. 
Zuniga returns, orders Jose back to the 
barracks, reproaching Carmen for pre- 
ferring a mere brigadier to an officer. 
Jose denounces his superior, and they 
are about to fight, when the gipsies 
disarm and bind Zuniga. and Jose pre- 
fers joining them with Carmen to 
another term in military prison. The 
third act represents a smuggler's camp. 
Carmen has tired of Jose, and wishes 
to rejoin the toreador. She runs the 
cards, finding her death foreshadowed. 
Escamillo, who has found her retreat, 
comes to claim her, but is obliged to 
fight Jose. They are separated by the 
gipsies, and Escamillo leaves, inviting 
Carmen to meet him at the bull fight 
in Seville. Micliaela comes, telling 
Jose that his mother is dying of grief, 




and they go away together as the 
toreador's song is heard in the dis- 
tance. The fourth act shows the en- 
trance to the Seville bull-ring. A 
crowd escorts Escainiilo through the 
gates, but as Carmen is about to enter, 
Jos6 stops licr. Though warned by 
her gipsy friend Frasquita that Jos6 
will kill her, she has no fear, and only 
laughs when he pleads his love and 
finally threatens her. Shouts from the 
bull-ring announce that Escamillo has 
again been victorious, and Carmen, 
with a cry of joy, moves toward the 
entrance, throwing at Jose a ring he 
had given her. In despair and rage, 
he stabs her, and Escamillo, returning 
from the arena with an admiring 
throng, finds Jos6 kneeling beside Car- 
men's corpse. At the first production 
Mme. Galli-Marie sang the title role, 
and the Michaela was Mile. Chapuy. 
The principal music numbers are: 
Act I : the old Habanera " Amor, mis- 
terioso angelo," Carmen, mez. sop.; 
"La madre tua con me," Michaela, sop.; 
" Mia madre io la rivedo," Don Jos6, 
ten. ; the seguidilla " Presso il bastion 
di Seviglia," Carmen; Act II: " Vezzi 
eanella scintillar," Carmen and chorus; 
" Toreador, attento," Escamillo, bar. ; 
" Abbiamo in vista," quintet; " Voglio 
danzar per tuo piacer," Carmen; "II 
fior che avevi," Don Jose; Act III: 
"Mischiam! alziam! " terzetto; " Lo 
dico no, non son paurosa," Michaela; 
Act IV: Toreador's march. 

Carmen (Johannes) composed in 
Paris, 15th century. 

Carnaby (Dr. William) composed 
songs, played organ, sang in Eng. 
Chapel Royal. B. London, 1772; d. 
Nov. 13, 18.39. 

Carnaval de Venise. Tune of un- 
known origin first made famous by the 
celebrated variations written for it by 
Paganini, who first heard it in Venice. 

Carneval. Robert Schumann's 21 
piano pieces, each with a title sugges- 
tive of a carnival scene, were published 
as Op. 9, and dedicated to Carl Lipin- 
ski. 1S37. 

Carnicer (Ramon) composed nine 
operas, including " Adela de Lusig- 
nano," " Elena e Malvino," and " Co- 
lombo," symphonies, church music; 

conducted opera at Barcelona and 
Madrid; taught composition in Ma- 
drid Conservatory. B. Oct. 24, 1789, 
Lerida, Catalonia; d. Madrid, Mar. 
17, 1H55. 

Carol. Song of praise appropriate 
to Christmas, midway in style between 
hj'mns and ballads; anciently song ac- 
companjdng a round dance or the 
dance itself; to sing. 

Caron (Philippe) composed secular 
songs and church music; Cambrai, 
loth century. 

Caron (Rose Lucille) sang sop. in 
opera and concert ; debut Brussels, 
1882, where she created the Brunhilde 
of Ernst Reyer's "Sigurd," to 1902, 
when she became vocal teacher in the 
Paris Conservatoire. B. iSIonerville, 
France, Nov. 17, 1857; add. Paris. 

Caroso (Fabritio) wrote " II Bal- 
larino," Venice, 1581; republished in 
enlarged form, Venice, 1600, as " No- 
bilita di Dame," containing the music 
of dances in lute-tablature. 

Carpani (Giuseppe) wrote libretti 
and " Haydine," an appreciation of his 
friend Haydn. B. Villalbese, Brianza, 
Jan. 28, 1752; d. Vienna, Jan. 22, 

Carpentras or Carpentrasso. 
Eleazar GENET was so called from 
his place of birth. 

Carr (Dr. Frank Osmond) com- 
posed "His Excellency," 1S94, to 
libretto by W. S. Gilbert; and other 
dramatic pieces. B. about 1857, York- 
shire, Eng. 

Carr (John) published music in 
London, 17th century. 

Carre (Albert) became director of 
the Paris Op^ra Comique, 1898, from 
wliich he retired at the close of the 
season 1907-8, after a very successful 
administration, to become director of 
tlie Com^die Francaise, when it was 
rumoured that his successor would be 
M. Ghensi. B. June 22, 1852; add. 

Carreno (Teresa) composed the na- 
tional hymn of Venezuela ; ranked as 
tlie foremost pianist of her sex since 
retirement of Clara Wieck Schumnnn; 
conducted and sang in opera. Pupil 
first of her father, the Minister of 
Finance of Venezuela, later of L. 


Gottschalk, New York, Mathias in " Artaserse," and " L'Av\'iso ai Mari- 

Paris, and Rubinstein; she played in tati"; oratorios and cantatas. B. Na- 

public in New York at nine, and pies, Sept. 25, 1754; d. Perugia, 1822. 

toured the United States; later sang Carvaille (Leon) managed the 

in opera under Mapleson and Maurice Paris Opera Comique from 187G until 

Strakosch; m. E. Sauret, then Gio- its destruction by fire, May 25, 1887; 

vanni Tagliapietva, then Eugeii d'Al- fined and imprisoned for failing to 

berfc, 18UJ-'J5 ; then Ailuro Taglia- take precautionary measures; suc- 

pietra, brother of her second husband, ceeded by M. Paravey, 1888. B. 1825; 

1902. B. Caracas, Dec. 22, 1853; add. pupil of Paris Conservatoire; d. Dec. 

Caracas. 26, 1897. 

Carrodus (John Tiplady) com- Carvalho (Marie Caroline Felix) 

posed for and played violin. B. York- sang sop. in opera, debut in 1849 to 

shire, Eng., Jan. 20, 1830; d. July 13, 1872, and in concert until 1887, rank- 

1895. ing as the foremost of French women 

Cartel. Sketch of a score. singers for nearly a generation; pupil 

Cartellone. It. Prospectus of of her father Felix Miolan, the oboist, 

opera season. and of Duprez at the Conservatoire. 

Carter (Thomas) composed popu- B. Marseilles, Dec. 31, 1827; d. July 

lar songs, "0 Nanny, wilt tliou gang 10, 1895. 

wi' me?" and "Guardian Angels," six Cary (Annie Louise) sang con. in 

sonatas for harpsichord; played organ, opera and concert, 1868 to 1882; Lon- 

B. 1734, Dublin. Sampson composed don, New York, St. Petersburg; pupil 

songs and such dramatic pieces as of J. Q.Wetherbee and Lyman \Vheeler, 

"The Fair American," 1782; "The Boston, Corsi, Milan, and Maurice 

Constant Maid," and the comic opera, Strakosch, under whose management 

"Just in Time," 1792. B. Dublin; she won her greatest success. B. 

elder brother of THO^IAS; d. Oct. Wayne, Me., Oct. 22, 1842; m. Charles 

16, 1804, London. M. Raymond, 1882, and retired; add. 

Carter (Thomas) composed songs New York City. 

and dramatic pieces; directed music Casali (Giovanni Battista) com- 

in Calcutta Theatre. B. Dublin, 1769; posed church music and the operas 

d. London, Nov. 8, 1800. " Campaspe," 1740, and "Antigone," 

Cartier (Jean Baptiste) wrote on, 1752; chapelmaster at St. John's 

composed for, and played violin. B. Lateran, Rome, 1759, to his death, 

May 28, 1765. Avignon; d. Paris, 1841. 1792. 

Carulli (Ferdinando) wrote a Case (John) wrote " The Praise of 

" Methode " for guitar, became famous Musicke," 1586. B. Woodstock, Eng.; 

guitarist, and composed 300 guitar d. Jan. 23, 1599. 

pieces ; wrote " Harmonic appliqu6e Casentini (Signora) sang in Lon- 

a la Guitare," Paris, 1825. B. Naples, don opera, 1791 to 1793. 

Feb. 10, 1770; d. Paris, 1841. Casini (Giovanni Maria) com- 

Caruso (Enrico) sang ten. in opera posed two oratorios and church music; 

at Covent Garden. London, and Metro- played organ Florence Cathedral; op- 

politan Opera House, New Y''ork, posed equal temperament and favoured 

1905-8, having previously toured the Greek modes. B. Florence, 1675. 

South America and sung in principal Cassagrande. It. Bass drum. 

Italian cities; possessed voice of wide Cassation. ISth century music for 

compass and great power, with ex- open air performance, 

tensive Italian repertoire. In June, Cassel (Guillaume) taught sing- 

1908, he was made Chevalier of the ing at Brussels Conservatory. B. 

Legion of Honor. B. Naples, 1874; Lyons, 1794; d. Brussels, 1836. 

add. Villa alle Pauchi, Porta San Castanets. Percussion instruments 

Gallo, Naples. consisting of small shells of hard wood 

Caruso (Luigi) composed 60 operas, hinged together, held in the hand and 

including " II Barone di Trocchia," snapped together. As an accorapani- 




ment for dancing it is popular in 
ISpain ; probably of Moorisli origin. 

Castellan (Jeanne Anais) sang 
sop. in opera and concert, 1S3U to 
1859, touring Europe and America. 
B. Oct. 2G, 1819, Beaujeu, France; 
pupil of the Paris Conservatoire. 

Castelli (Ignaz Franz) wrote 
libretti and edited the Vienna " All- 
genieiner Musikalischer Anzeiger," 
which he founded. B. Vienna, Mar. 
6, 1781; d. Feb. 5, 1802. 

Castillon, de (Alexis Vicomte de 
St. Victor) composed the overture 
" Torquato Tasso," Psalm l.xxxiv for 
soli, chorus, and (-rcliestra, " E.-quisscs 
symphoniqucs," "Marcho Scandinave," 
and chamber music; pupil of Mass6 
and of C^sar Franck. B. Chartres, 
France, Dec. 13, 1838; d. Mar. 5, 
1873, Paris. 

Castrati. It. Eunuchs or artifi- 
cial male sopranos and contraltos. 

Castro, de (Jean) composed church 
music, madrigals, and chansons ; vice 
chapelmaster at Vienna, 1588. B. 

Castro (Ricardo) was director gen- 
eral of the Mexican National Conser- 
vatory of Music, where he had re- 
ceived his musical education, and in 
turn became an instructor. An ac- 
complished pianist, his friends raised 
a fund which enabled him to study in 
Europe for four years, and on his re- 
turn he produced his opera, " Legend 
of Rudel," with such great success 
that he was instantly hailed as the 
foremost Mexican composer. B. Mex- 
ico, 1877; d. Mexico City, Nov., 1907. 

Castrucci (Pietro) played first vio- 
lin in Handel's London opera orches- 
tra, composed for tliat instrument, and 
invented the VIOLETTA MARINA. 
B. Rome, 1(580; pupil of Corelli; d. 
Dublin about 1709. 

Catalan! (Alfredo) composed the 
operas " Elda," ISSO; " Dejanice," 
"Ero e Leandro," " Edmea," 1886; 
"Loreley," 1890; "La Wally," 1892; 
wrote a mass at 14. B. Lucca, June 
19, 1854; pupil of his father, a church 
organist, and of the Paris Conserva- 
toire; d. Aug. 7, 1893, Milan. 

Catalan! (Angelica) ranked as the 
greatest concert and operatic sop. in 

the world from her debut at 10 in 
Venice, 1795, until her retirement, 
1828; possessed a range up to g'" 
and a facility in bravura singing un- 
surpassed; sang with great success in 
all European music centres, and in 
the single year 1807 earned $83,500 
by her English operatic and concert 
engagements. in 1804, Catalani m. 
\'alabrt^gue, of the French diplomatic 
service, who saw to it that her con- 
tracts with managers were of the best, 
rigidly enforced, and spent the greater 
part of her enormous earnings. The 
keenness of his dealings in business 
did not prevent her from giving her 
services freely to charities, and it has 
been estimated that she raised 2,000,- 
000 francs for charity by her concerts. 
In 1814 Catalani was given a sub- 
vention of 100.000 francs to manage 
the Italian opera in Paris, but was 
unsuccessful. Her last appearance in 
public took place at the York Festi- 
val, 1828, after which she retired to 
a villa near Florence, where she es- 
tablished a singing school for girls. 
B. Sinigaglia, Italy, May 10, 1780; 
d. Paris, June 12, 1849. 

Catch. Canon or round for three 
or more voices in which each singer 
took up his part or " catch " in such 
a way as to give new meaning to the 
cue or catch word. These musical 
trifles were in great favor in England 
in the 17th and 18th centuries. 

Catch Club was founded in Lon- 
don, 1701, to encourage the composi- 
tion and performances of canons, 
catches, and glees, and of late years 
has held semi-monthly meetings dur- 
ing the season. The non-professional 
members have included distinguished 
gentlemen, nobles, and members of the 
royal family, and among the profes- 
sional members have been: Beard, 
Battishill. Arne, Hayes, Atterbury, 
Paxton, Webbe. Piozzi, Kny^'ett, Stev- 
ens, Callcott, Danby, Greatorex, Bar- 
tleman. Cooke, Horsley, Goss, Walm- 
isloy, and Turle. 

Catel (Charles Simon) composed 
the operas "Semiramis." 1802; "L'Au- 
berge de Bagn&res." 1807; " Les Baya- 
deres," 1810; symphonies and chamber 
music, and much of the military 


music played by the bands of the Bunn, was first performed May 27, 

French revolutionary armies; became 1837, at Drury Lane, London, Ealfe 

professor of composition at the Con- being one of tJie caste, 
servatoire on its establishment, 1795; Catley (Anne) sang sop. in light 

wrote a valuable treatise on harmony. English opera with great success; 

B. L'Aigle, Orue, June 10, 1773; d. debut Covent Garden, London, 17G2; 

Nov. 2<J, 1830, Paris. retired 1784. B. London, 1745; m. 

Catelani (Angelo) composed operas General Lascelles; d. Oct. 14, 1789. 
and wrote on musical history and biog- Catling, ymallest of lute-strings, 
raphy; chapelmaster and librarian at Cauda. L. Tail of a note. 
JModena. B. Mar. 30, 1811; d. Sept. Caurroy, du (FrangGis Eustache) 

5, 18(j(). composed mass long sung at the 

Catena di TrillL It. Succession funerals of French kings, songs; was 

of trills. Sieur de St. Fremin, canon of Ste. 

Caters. Changes rung on nine bells. Chapelle and prior of St. Aioul de 

Catgut is never made into strings Provins, and " Surintendant de la 

of musical instruments, but the Musique de Roi," 1599. B. Gerberoy 

strings so called are made from the near Beauvais, 1549; d. Aug. 7, 1009, 

intestines of sheep or horses. Paris. 

Cathedral Music in the Anglican Causton (Thomas) composed 

church was originally an adaptation church music and sang Eng. Chapel 

of the Roman liturgical music as it Royal; 10th century, 
had been sung in Sarum Cathedral. Cavacoio (Giovanni) composed 

Archbishop Cranmer is believed to church music; directed music in Ber- 

have made the first adaptation of the gamo Cathedral. B. Bergamo, 1556; 

Litany, and to have authorized the d. Aug. 11, 1026. 

plain song to which it was to be Cavaille-Col (Aristide) built or- 

chanted, and in John Marbecke's gans and was first to employ Barker's 

" Book of Common Praier noted," pneumatic lever. B. Montpellier, Feb. 

1550, is a further musical adaptation 2, 1811, descended of family of organ 

of the Roman services. Henry VIll's builders; d. Paris, 1886. 
Commissioners directed that the ser- Cavaletto. It. Cabaletta; small 

vice be sung in a " plain, distinct and bridge ; break between vocal registers, 
audible manner " ; the singing or Cavalieri, del (Emilio) was among 

chanting of the liturgy is furtlier the first to write instrumental accora- 

authorized by rubric in the Prayer paniments and to employ BASSO 

Book of Edward VI, and the use of CONTINUO; composed "La Rappre- 

song in church service was enjoined sentazione di Anima e di Corpo," " II 

again by Elizabeth in the first year Satiro," and other operas; became 

of her reign, 1559, who specified that " Inspector General of Artists at Flor- 

"the same may be as playnely under- ence." B. Rome about 1550; d. Mar. 

standed as if it were read without II, 1602. 

syng^mge." During the Common- Cavalieri (Katherina) sang sop. in 
wealth the simplest form of psalm Vienna opera, debut at 14 in 1775; 
singing was encouraged, but the or- retired 1793; created the role of Con- 
nate musical accompaniment of wor- stance in "Entfiihrung," which Mozart 
ship was abolished. In 1660 music composed for her; favourite pupil of 
was restored to the church service by Salieri, who also composed for her. 
Charles IT, but the communion ser- B. Vienna, 1761; d. June 30, 1801. 
vice was said, not sung, and Cathedral Cavalieri (Lina) sang sop. in 
Music was nejrlected until 1840, since opera, debut in " Pagliacci," Lisbon, 
which time there has been a return 1900; in Naples, Warsaw, Metropoli- 
to full choral service, including chant- tan Opera, New York, and Covent 
ing of the communion. Garden, London ; in earlier life favour- 
Catherine Grey. Michael William ite in caf^s chantant. B. Dec. 24, 
Balfe's three-act opera, to book by 1874, Rome. 




Cavalleria Rusticana. Pietro 
Mascagni's one-act opera, to book by 
G. Targioni-Tozzetti and G. Menasci, 
based on a tale by Verga, won the 
prize oU'ered by the publisher Son- 
zogno, and was ( performed ]\Iay 
17, 1890, at lionie, with immediate suc- 
cess. Tliis drama of " rustic cliivahy " 
is laid in a iSicilian viihige to which 
Turiddn, a yomig peasant, returns 
after his s(Mvice in the army. In his 
absence Allio, the carrier, lias married 
Lola, with whom Turiddn was in love, 
and he consoles himself by piaving 
the gjiilant to Santuzza. Lola again 
ensnares him, however, and his love 
for her is expressed in a beautiful 
Siciliana which is introduced in the 
overture. The rising curiain discloses 
a public square. Santuzza comes to 
the cottage of Lucia in search of her 
faithless lover, and is told that Tur- 
iddu has gone to Francofonte. Allio 
conies in cracd^ing his whip, singing 
the joys of the road and the iidelity 
of his wife Lola, and asks for wine. 
Lucia tells him that Turiddn has gone 
to the next village to buy some, but 
Allio remembers to have seen him near 
bis own cottage. Just then the Easter 
hymn is begun in the church, and the 
peasantry enter, leaving Lucia and 
Santuzza alone. The girl tells Tur- 
iddu's mother that she has been be- 
trayed. Later, as Lucia enters the 
church, Turiddu appears, and San- 
tuzza pleads with him to fulfd his 
promise of marriage, but be refuses. 
Lola is heard singing in the distance, 
and when she enters she taunts San- 
tuzza while coquetting with Turiddu. 
She too goes into the church, and 
Turiddn, throwing Santuzza, who tries 
to detain him, to the ground, follows. 
Then Santuzza, mad with jealousy and 
despair, tells Allio that Lola has de- 
ceived him, aTid he vows vengeance. 
After a Ijeantifui intermezzo the ac- 
tion is resumed. The people are leav- 
ing church, and Turiddu invites his 
friends to join him in some wine. 
Allio refuses, and then cojiies a chal- 
lenge in Sicilian fashion, Turiddu bit- 
ing Allio's ear. Turiddu rejients his 
folly, bids farewell to his mother, to 
whom he commends Santuzza, and 
rushes ofT to join Allio in combat. A 

few moments later the peasants an- 
nounce that Alfio has killed him. The 
principal musical numbers are the 
Siciliana " O Lola, c'hai di latti," in the 
overture, Turiddu, ten. ; " II cavallo 
scalpita," Alfio, bar. ; " Inneggiamo, 
il Signor," Santuzza, sop., and chorus; 
" Voi lo sapete, O mamma," Santuzza; 
" Fior di giaggolo," Lola, mez. sop. ; 
the Intermezzo; and "Viva il vino," 
Turiddn. At the first performance 
Kol)erto Stagno was the Turiddu and 
G(Miima Belliiicioni the Santuzza. 

Cavalli (Pietro Francesco) com- 
posed 27 operas, including " Le Nozze 
di Teti," 1639; " Serse," 1660, for the 
marriage festivities of Louis XIV in 
Paris ; " Ercole amante," and church 
music; played organ at St. Mark's, 
Venice, where he finally became chapel- 
master; son of Caletti-Bruni, a musi- 
cian of Crema, Venice, assumed name 
Cavalli in compliment to his patron, 
a Venetian nobleman. B. about 1600; 
d. Jan. 14, 1676. 

Cavallini (Ernesto) composed for 
and played and taught clarinet. B. 
Aug. 30, 1807; d. Jan. 7, 1873. 

Cavalquet. Fr. Military trumpet- 

Cavatina. It. Originally meant a 
melody in one part and without re- 
peat, but is now applied to such arias 
as " Salve dimora " in " Faust " and 
" Be tiiou faithful " in Mendelssohn's 
" St. Paul." 

Cavendish (Michael) composed 
"Ayres for four Voyces," 1599; and, 
with nine other composers, "The Whole 
Booke of Psalmes," published by Este, 

Cavos (Catterino) composed " Ivan 
Sonsanin " and successful Russian 
fairy operas ; conducted at Padua, 
taught in Venice, became conductor 
of St. Petersburg opera, 1797. B. 
Venice, 1776; son of the director of 
"La Fenice"; d. 1840. 

Cazzati (Maurizio) composed 
churcli music; chapelmaster to Duke 
of Sabioneta and to churches in Fer- 
rara, BerganK), and Bologna. B. 1620, 
Guastalla ; d. 1677. 

C Barre. Fr. Time indication C 
with a line throucrh it. 


C Dur. Ger. C major. Cervelat or Cervalet. Small reed 

Cebell. Obsolete name of dance instrument now obsolete, 

form now called GAVOTTE. Cervetto. Professional name of 

Cecilia (Saint). Noble Roman the BASSEVI family, 

virgin and martyr whose festival, Nov. Ces. Ger. C flat. 

22, is celebrated as that of the tute- Cesaris (Johannes) composed mo- 

lary saint of music and musicians, tets, and secular songs to French 

and for whom many important socie- words, 15th century, 

ties have been named. Cesti (Marcantonio) composed 

Celere. It. Swift. "L'Orontea," "La Dori," and other 

Celerita, con. It. With speed; operas; did much to reform and im- 
swiftly. prove the opera of his day; chapel- 
Celesta. Keyboard percussion in- master at Florence, 1G46; vice chapel- 
strument invented by Mustel, Paris, master at Vienna, IGGC. B. about 1620; 

Celeste. Fr. Directs use of soft entered the Church; d. Venice, 1G69. 

pedal. Cetera. It. Citara or zither. 

Celeste, Vols. Fr. Organ or har- Cevallos (Francisco) composed 

monium stop ; Vox Angelica. church music ; canon and music direc- 

Celestino (Eligio) composed for tor Burgos Cathedral from 1535 to 1572. 

and played violin; concertmeister to Chabrier (Alexis Emmanuel) 

Duke of Mecklenburg. B. 1739, composed the operas "Gwendoline," 

Pvome; d. Jan. 14, 1812. Brussels, 188G; " Le Roi malgre lui," 

Celiier (Alfred) composed light Paris Opera Comique, 1887; and 

operas, including " Nell Gwj'nne," re- " Briseis," left unfinished ; the scena 

vived later with new book as " Dor- " La Sulamite," " Espana," a rhap- 

othy," " The Mountebanks," to book sody on Spanish airs ; conducted, etc. 

by W. S. Gilbert, 1892, " Bella Donna," B. Ambert, Puy de DOme, Jan. 18, 

"Pandora," book by Longfellow, Bos- 1841; d. Paris, Sept. 13, 1894. 

ton, 1881 ; orchestral " Suite Sym- Chaconne. Fr. Obsolete Spanish 

phonique," setting of Gtay's " Elegy," dance in 3-4 time, often constructed 

etc. ; played organ and conducted. B. upon a ground bass, and sometimes 

London, 1844; d. 1891. introduced as a slow movement in 

'Cello. Popular abbreviated name sonatas. 

of VIOLONCELLO. Chadwick (George Whitfield) com- 

Cembal d'Amore. Probably a posed three symphonies, six overtures, 

double clavichord, now obsolete. eight choral works with orchestra. 

Cembalo. DULCIMER or cimbalom, chamber music, songs ; conducted the 

still played in so-called Hungarian Springfield and Worcester, IMass., 

and Gipsy orchestras; abbreviation of Festivals, directed the New England 

clavicembalo or HARPSICHORD. Conservatory of Music, 1897; played 

Cembanella or Cennamella. It. organ-; pupil of Eugene Thayer, Bos- 

Flnte or pipe. ton; Reinecke, Jadassohn, Lcipsic 

Cenerentola. Gioacchino Rossini's Conservatory. " Rip van Winkle," an 

opera, to book by Feretti, based on overture, was performed at Leipsic, 

" Cinderella," was first performed and later in Boston, where Mr. Chad- 

during the Roman Carnival of 1817 wick settled as teacher and organist, 

at the Teatro Valle. Other works to be noted are the con- 

Centone. It. Patchwork or pas- cert overtures " Thalia," " Melpom- 

ticcio. ene," " Euterpe," symphonies No. 1, 

Cerone (Dom. Pietro) wrote on in C major; No. 3 in F major, which 

theory ; priest and musician to won first prize in the competition of 

Ciiapels Royal of Spain and Naples, the National Conservatory of Music, 

B. 1566, Bergamo; d. Naples. 1894; "Columbian Ode" for dedica- 

Certon (Pierre) composed church tion of the Chicago Exposition, 1S92; 

music; chapelmastcr at the Ste. Chnp- "The Viking's Last Vovage," for Ihe 

elle, Paris. D. Paris, Feb. 23, 1572. Boston Apollo Club, 1880. Mr. Chad- 




wick also wrote a loxt book on liar- 
mouy. 13. Nov. 13, 1854, J.,o\vl'11, 
Mass.; add. Boston. 

Chair Organ. Choir or Prestant 

Chalet. Adolplie Adam's three-act 
comic opera, to book by Scribe, was first 
performed Sept. 25, 1834, in Paris. 

Chalumeau. Fr. Prom the Latin 
" calumus," a reed, was the name oi 
an obsolete instrument also called 
shawn or schalmey, from which 
clarinets and oboes may have been 
derived. The term applies to the 
clarinet's lowest register. 

Chamber Music is that heard to 
better advantage in a small room or 
chamber, ratlier than in a large con- 
cert room, church, or theatre. The 
term originally included vocal as well 
as instrumental pieces for solo or con- 
certed performance. In modern usage 
the term is restricted to music for 
strings or combinations of strings 
with piano. 

Chamber Organ. Small organ. 

Chambonnieres, de (Jacques 
Champion) composed for, taught, and 
played harpsichord; musician to Louis 
XIV; took name from his wife's es- 
tate. Son of Jacques de CHAMPION. 

Chaminade (Cecile) composed a 
Symphonic lyrique for chorus and or- 
chestra; the ballet '' Callirhoe." Mar- 
seilles, 18S8; songs and piano pieces; 
played piano in concert; debut at 18. 
B. Paris, Aug. 8, 1801; add. Paris. 

Champion (Antoine) plaj-ed organ 
in Paris, IGth century. Thomas 
composed GO psalms for four voices; 
played organ and harpsichord at courts 
of Charles IX and Henri III of 
France. Jacques played organ in 
Paris during reign of Louis XIII; 
son of THOMAS; father of CHAM- 

Change. MODULATION" or change 
of key. 

Changeable Chant. One that may 
be sung in either major or minor 

Changer de Jeu. Fr. To change 
an organ's stops. 

Change Ringing. Diversity of 
effect in liell ringiiisf obtained by chang- 
ing the order in which they are rung. 

Changes. Alterations of bell mel- 
ody by changing the order iu \vhich 
bells are rung. 

Changing Notes. Pas.sing notes 
or discords on accented pares of a 

Chanot (Frangois) miide a pear- 
shaped violin, which a committee of 
the Institute ot France declared ecjual 
in quality to those of Guarnerius and 
Stradivarius, 1817, but like all at- 
tempts to improve on the models of 
tiiose masters, his instrument finally 
proved a failure. B. Mirecourt, France, 
1787; d. Brest, 1823. Georges made 
violins modeled on that of his brotlier 
FRANCOIS, but eventually returned to 
the classic model. He married Flor- 
entine Demoliens, the oidy woman 
known to have become a skilled violin 
maker. B. Mirecourt, 1801 ; retired 
1872. Georges, Jr., made violins in 
London. B. Paris, 1831 ; son of MME, 
and GEORGES CHANOT; d. 1895. 
G. A., F. W., and Joseph, three sona 
of GEORGES, JR., also made violins. 

Chanson. Fr. Songs which are 
the French equivalent of the German 
lieder or English ballad, and like them 
are of all degrees of merit or demerit, 
reflecting the religious, political, and 
ethical status of the people among 
whom they were sung. Numerous 
classes of chansons may be grouped 
under four general heads, which seem 
to have been recognized by early 
French poets: chansons historique, 
de metier, d'amour, and bachique ; and 
to these divisions may be added the 
chanson des rues, or street song. 

Chant is the specific term for the 
musical rendering of a church ser- 
vice, although it also means " song " 
or " to sing," and is the French equiv- 
alent of song, tune, or vocal part. 
Ecclesiastical chants, whether Angli- 
can, Galilean, Parisian, or of Cologne, 
are merely modifications of cantus 
fimii built upon GREGORIAN 
TONES. Anglican chant in John 
Marbecke's " Book of Common Praier 
noted " is an adaptation of the Roman 
ritualistic music to the first English 
versions of the service, 1550, and the 
Gregorian chants continued to be em- 
ployed in Anglican churches until 




liturgical music was suppressed by 
Cromwell. With the accession of 
Charles II, chanting was resumed in 
Cathedrals, at least. The ancient 
chants have been more carefully 
studied since 1840, the result being 
numerous editions of Anglican ser- 
vice books, of which the most impor- 
tant in recent years is " The Cathe- 
dral Prayer Book." ReformedChurches 
on the Continent held chanting in dis- 
favour, like the English Puritans, 
preferring metrical versions of the 
psalms and other passages of scrip- 
ture used in worship. Modern Angli- 
can chants are either Single, consist- 
ing of a first strain of three and a 
second of fo\ir measures in length; 
or Double, having twice the length 
of a single chant. As originally sung 
in the Roman liturgy every syllable 
was sounded to a single note, and the 
Gregorian chant had five parts: the 
intonation, the first reciting note or 
dominant, the mediation, the second 
reciting note or dominant, and the 
ending. The Anglican chant elimi- 
nates the intonation, and permits sev- 
eral words to be chanted to the note, 
perfecting the rhythm. Fitting words 
to the music is called " pointing," and, 
in the absence of authority, editors 
have exercised their ovra discretion in 
pointing the psalter and canticles. 

Chant Egal. Fr. Chant on two 
tones or chant en ison. 

Chantant. Fr. Singing. 

Chanter. One who chants; lay 

Chanter a Livre Ouvert. Fr. 
Sight singing. 

Chanterelle. Fr. A violin's E 
string; highest string on instruments, 
generally employed in producing a 

Chanterres. Fr. Medisoval ballad 
singers or cantadours. 

Chanteur. Fr. Male singer. 

Chanteuse. Fr. Female singer. 

Chant Gregorien. Fr. Plain song 
or Gregorian chant. 

Chantries. Roman Catholic chapels 
endowed for the celebration of masses 
attached to cathedrals and monasteries. 

Chant sur la Livre. Fr. The 
accoinpanimeiit of a written part by 

another in free connterjjoint, or by tliree 
others, composed and sung imjirumptn. 

Chapeau Chinois. Fr. Small bclla 
arranged on a frame resembling a 
Chinese hat. 

Chapelle. Fr. Choir or orchestra 
or musical establishment, either reli- 
gious or secular. 

Chapelle, Maitre de. Fr. Chapel- 

Chapels Royal. Clergy and lay 
clerks attached to royal families. 
There are English chapels royal at 
Whitehall, and St. George's, W^indsor, 
but the term is usually restricted to 
the chapel at St. James's Palace, where 
the establishment, besides the clergy, 
includes ten boys, eight gentlemen, a 
chapelmaster, an organist, and a 

Chappell & Co. publish music 
and manufacture pianos in London. 
The house was founded in 1812 by 
Samuel Ciiappell, Francis Tatton La- 
tour, and J(dm Baptist Cramer, but 
eventually passed to the exclusive con- 
trol of Mr. Chappell, who died, 1834, 
leaving the business to his widow and 
sons. ■William wrote on music, pub- 
lished song collections, and projected 
the Musical Antiquarian Socieiv, 
1840. B. London, Nov. 20, 1809; d. 
Aug. 20, 1888. THOMAS PATEY 
planned the London Saturday and 
Monday Popular Concerts, which were 
managed by his younger brother Ar- 
thur, and together they aided in 
building St. James's Hall. Thomas 
Patey died 1902, and his son T. Stan- 
ley succeeded to his interest in the 
house, which had become a corpora- 
tion, 1890. 

Chappington (John) built organs 
in England. D. 160G. 

Chappie (Samuel) composed and 
played organ 40 years at Ashburton, 
though blind from infancy. B. Cred- 
iton. Eng., 1775; d. Oct. 3, 1833. 

Characteristischer Ton. Ger. 
Leading note. 

Characters. Signs employed in 

Characterstiicke. Ger. Descrip- 
tive music. 

Chard (Dr. George "William) com- 
poser church music and glees; organ- 




ist Winchester Cathedral. B. Win- 
chester, Eng., 1765; d. May '23, 1849. 

Charity Children attached to Lon- 
don charity schools held annual song 
festivals in 8t. Paul's Cathedral, 1704 
to 1877, mustering from 50UU to 6000 

Charles II. Sir George A. Mac- 
farren's two-act English opera, to book 
by Desmond Ryan, was first performed 
in London, 1849. 

Charpentier (Gustave) composed 
the opera "LOUISE," Paris OpCra 
Comique, 1900; " Orphee," " Tete 
rouge," " La Couronnement de la 

Muse ' 

ranked with the best of 

younger French composers. A native 
of Dieuze, Alsace-Lorraine, his par- 
ents removed to Tourcoing after the 
Franco- Prussian war ; at 17 he en- 
tered the Lille Conservatory, won 
many prizes; became pupil of Mas- 
sart, Pessard, and Massenet at the 
Paris Conservatoire; captured the 
prix de Rome, 1887, with " Didon," 
his "scene lyrique"; composed the 
suite "Impressions d'ltalie"; and a 
" symphonic drama," " La Vie de 
Po&te," in four movements for orches- 
tra, chorus, and soli, to his own words. 
Other important works of more recent 
date are : " Fleurs dn Mai," to Bau- 
delaire's poems ; " Quinze pofemes 
chant&s"; an orchestral suite, 1894; 
"Serenade a Watteau," 1896; "Impres- 
sions fausses," orchestra and voices. 
B. June 25, 1860; add. Paris. 

Charpentier (Marc Antoine) com- 
posed 17 operas, music to plays by 
Moli&re andCorneille; church music, or- 
atorios, cantatas, symphonies ; chapel- 
master to tlie Ste. Chapelle and in- 
teiiilant to Due d'Oileaiis, Ke<;ent of 
France. B. Paris, 1634; d. 1702. 

Chasse, a la. Fr. In hunting 

Chatterton (John Balsir) com- 
posed for harp; harpist to Queen Vic- 
toria. B. Norwich, 1802; d. London, 
April 9, 1871. 

Chatzozerah or Khatsotsrah. 
Beh. Silver trumpets used by Moses 
for calling the assembly and " for the 
journeying of the camps." 

Chausson (Ernst) composed " H4- 
Ifene," two-act lyrical play; music for 

Shakespeare's " Tempest," " La L6- 
gende de Sainte-C6cile," lyrical play, 
and " Le Roi Arthus," Brussels, 1903; 
three symphonic poems, " Solitude 
dans le bois," " Viviane," " Soir de 
fete"; synipliony in B Hat; "Jeanne 
d'Arc," and other sonj;s with orches- 
tra, church, and chamber music ; pupil 
of C6sar Franck. B. 1855, Paris; d. 
Limay, July 10, 1899. 

Chauvet (Charles Alexis) com- 
posed for and played organ at the 
Trinite, Paris; pupil of Benoist and 
Ambroise Thomas. B. June 7, 1837; 
d. Jan. 28, 1871. 

Chavanne, von (Irene) sang con. 
Dresden Court Opera, 1885; pupil 
Vienna Conservatory. B. Gratz, 1807 ; 
add. Dresden. 

Check. Part of the action in 
pianos which holds the hammer from 
the time it falls back from the string 
until released by rising of the key. 

Cheese (Griffith James) played 
and wrote on piano and organ. B. 
1751; d. London, Nov. 10, 1804. 

Chef d'Attaque. Fr. Concert- 

Chef d'oeuvre. Fr. Masterpiece. 

Chef d'Orchestre. Fr. Conductor 
of orchestra. 

Chef du Chant. Fr. Operatic 

Chelard (Hippolyte Andre Jean 
Baptiste) composed the opera " Mac- 
beth," to book by Rouget de I'lsle; 
" Die Hermannschlacht," " L'Aquila 
Romana " ( posth. ) ; comic operas ; 
chapelmaster at Munich and Weimar; 
conductor German opera in London ; 
pupil of Gossec, Meliul, Kreutaer, and 
Cherubini at Paris Conservatoire; 
won prix de Rome, 1803. B. Feb. 1, 
1789, Paris; son of clarinetist at 
Grand Opera; d. Feb. 12, 1801. 

Chelidonizing. Singing the "swal- 
low " or spring song. 

Chell (William) wrote on music, 
in which he graduated at Oxford, 
1524; held appointments at Hereford 
Cathedral until deposed by Elizabeth. 

Chelys. Gr. Mercury's lyre; ob- 
solete name of viol. 

Cheng. Chinese mouth organ, said 
to have suggested invention of accor- 
dion and melodeon. 




Cherubini (M. Luigi C. Z. S.) 
composed 15 Italian and 14 French 
operas, 17 cantatas, 11 masses, an ora- 
torio, two requiems, a symphony, and 
chamber music; influenced the devel- 
opment of French composers during 
nearly half a century at the Paris 
Conservatoire; was esteemed the 
greatest living writer for the stage 
by Beethoven, and was the last great 
master of polyphonic style. His mas- 
terpieces were " Les DEUX JOUR- 
NEES" ("The Water Carrier"), an 
opera which has held its own with 
German, French, and English audi- 
ences, and a celebrated Requiem in C 
minor. Son of the cembalist at the 
Pergola Theatre, Florence, Maria Luigi 
Carlo Zenobio Salvatore, to give his 
name in full, began to learn music from 
his father at six, and composition at 
nine. At 16 he had composed three 
cantatas, an oratorio, a Te Deum, three 
masses, two Dixits, a Miserere, a Mag- 
nificat, and other works, and at 17 the 
Archduke, afterwards Emperor Leopold 
II, sent him to study with Sarti, of 
Bologna, where he remained four years, 
thoroughly mastering counterpoint, 
and writing antiphons in imitation of 
those of Palestrina. In 1780 " Quinto 
Fabio," his first opera, was produced 
at Alessandria. From 1784 to 1786 
he was in London, where his operas 
" La Finta Principessa " and " Giulio 
Sabino " were given. The next year 
he spent in Paris, then returned to 
Italy. His opera " Ifigenia in Avilide " 
was produced at Turin, after which he 
returned to Paris. His music had 
hitherto been modeled upon that of 
the Neapolitan dramatic composers, 
but in 17S8 lie produced " Demophon," 
to book by ]\Iarmontel, which proved 
a radical departure from existing con- 
ventions, marking out a style dis- 
tinctly his own. He conducted the 
Italian opera at Paris, and when the 
Conservatoire was founded, became 
one of the inspectors of studies. The 
post was unsuitable, Cherubini was 
out of favour with Napoleon, and had 
contracted a marriage wliich was by 
no means happy, and in 1805 he was 
glad to accept a commission to write 
an opera for the Vienna Imperial 

Theatre. During a sojourn in that 
city he met Beethoven, whose admira- 
tion he does not seem to have re- 
turned, and produced the operas " Was- 
sertrager " ( " The Water Carrier " or 
"Deux Journees") and " Faniska." 
Shortly afterwards Napoleon captured 
Vienna, and Cherubini likewise. Men- 
tal anxieties broke down his health, 
and Cherubini went into retirement at 
the country seat of Prince Chimay. 
There he was asked to write a mass 
for the dedication of a church. The 
three-part mass in F resulted, 1809, 
and thereafter, while not wholly aban- 
doning the stage, the composer de- 
voted himself mainly to church music. 
On his return from Elba Napoleon 
gave Cherubini the cross of the Legion 
of Honor, and during the reign of 
Louis XVIII he became a member of 
the Institute, joint surintendant of tlie 
king's music, and finally director of 
the Conservatoire, a post he held until 
his death. Other works to be noted are 
" Marguerite d'Anjou," " Lodoiska," 
" Koukourgi " ( altered, expanded, and 
renamed " Ali Baba"); " Elisa," 
" Medee," operas; the ballet operas 
" Anacreon " and " Achille a Scyros "; 
the later operas, " Pimmalione," " Le 
Crescendo," and " Abencerages," and 
" Ali Baba " ; symphony in D for 
London Philharmonic Society; the 
masses in F, D minor, A flat; the 
Solemn Mass in C, the Requiem in C 
minor, and the Requiem in D minor 
for male voices. B. Florence, Sept. 
14, 17G0; d. Paris, Mar. 15, 1842. 
See biography: Edward Bellasis, Lon- 
don, 1874 ; " Derniers souvenirs d'un 
musicien," Adolphe Adam, 1859. 

Cherubinical Hymn. Trisagion 
or Ter Sanctus; in English that part 
of the commimion service beginning 
" Holy, Holy, Holy." 

Chest of Viols. Set of two trebles, 
two tenors, and two basses was so 
called in the 17th century, and when 
supplemented by harpsichord or organ 
and a few woodwinds, sufficed for the 
ordinary orchestra. 

Chester Musical Festival was 
founded 1772 luider the direction of 
Dr. William Hayes, conductor, and 
I\Ir. Orme, the Cathedral organist. 




Festivals were contiinu'd at irregular 
intervals until IH-J.'.), when they ceased, 
to be revived 51) years later by Dr. 
Bridge, sinee wliidi time they liave 
been given triennially with great ar- 
tistic success. 

Chest Tone or Voice. The lowest 
or first register. 

Cheval de Bronze. Daniel F. E. 
Auber's three-act comic opera, to book 
by Scribe, was first performed Mar. 
23, 1835, at the Paris Opera Comique. 
An English version is known as " The 
Bronze Horse." 

Chevalet. Fr. Bridge of stringed 

Chevalier composed 34 court bal- 
lets, 1587-1617, and played violin at 
courts of Henri IV and Louis XIII of 

Cheve (Arnaand) directed the 
ficole GalinParis-Cheve, in Paris, 
which is devoted to teaching sight 
singing and sight reading by means 
of a numerical notation combined with 
sol-fa. Jean Jacques Rousseau was 
first to suggest the numeral system of 
notation, and his theories were adapted 
to practical use by Pierre Galin, a 
Bordeaux teacher of mathematics, 
1786-1821. Aime Paris, Galin's pupil, 
devised the special nomenclature which 
has grown into the Tonic Sol-Fa sys- 
tem, 1798-1866. Emile Cheve, a phy- 
sician who married a sister of Paris, 
wrote an account of the system " Me- 
thode Elementaire de la Musique Vo- 
cale," and the vigorous propaganda 
that followed resulted in the introduc- 
tion of the method in the schools of 
Paris and many otlior cities. 

Chevillard (Pierre Alexander 
Frangois) played and taught 'cello 
in the Paris Conservatoire, and 
founded the " Societe des derniers 
quatuors de Beethoven," 1835. B. 
Antwerp. Jan. 15, 1811; d. Paris, 
Dec. 18, 1877. Camille composed a 
" Ballade symphonique," " Le Ch6ne 
et le Roseau," symphonic poem ; cham- 
ber music ; headed the " Society fran- 
caise de musique de chambre," assisted 
Lamoureux at the first Parisian per- 
formance of "Lohengrin," 1887; con- 
ducted concerts in succession to Lam- 
oureux, whose daughter he m., and 

who translated VVeingartner's book on 
the symphony. B. Paris, Oct. 14, 
1S5'J; sou of PIERRE A. F.; add. 

Cheville. Fr. Peg used in string 

Chevroter. Fr. To quiver; faulty 

Chiabran (Francesco) composed 
and played violin; pupil of iiis uncle 
Somis; known also as Chal)ran or 
Chiabrano. B. Piedmont, 1723. 

Chiara. It. Pure, distinct. 

Chiaramente. It. Clearly, purely, 

Chiarezza, con. It. With bright- 
ness, or clearness. 

Chiarina. It. Clarion or trumpet. 

Chiave. It. Clef or key. 

Chiavette. It. " Little keys or 
clefs." Transposing clefs used for 
higher Church Modes to keep the 
notes within the limits of the staff. 

Chica. South American Spanish 
dance, said to have originated with 

Chicago traced its eminence in 
music to 1891, wh(;n Theodore 
THOMAS was brought from Cincin- 
nati with the majority of his players 
to found the Chicago Orchestra, now 
known in his memory as the Thomas 
Orchestra. For many years the con- 
certs of this organization were given 
in the Chicago Auditorium, which was, 
in the opinion of competent judges, 
one of the best, as well as the largest 
of theatres suitable for musical per- 
formances in America. It is to be 
noted with regret that the directors 
of the Auditorium Association, finding 
this house unprofitable, proposed to 
remodel it in 1909 for hotel or busi- 
ness purposes. At first the Chicago 
orchestra numbered 60 men, and con- 
certs were given twice each week for 
a comparatively short season. In 
1901 the orchestra was enlarged to 
90, and the patronage of the concerts 
had so increased as to justify plans 
for the erection of a Sjmiphony Hall. 
Mr. TluDmas survived long enough to 
conduct the first concerts in the or- 
chestra's new home, and on his decease 
l^'rederick A. STOCK became conduc- 
tor. In 1908-9 biweekly concerts 
were planned for a season of 22 weeks, 




and in addition there were occasional 
tournees. Cliicago is the seat of many 
edueatiunal institutions. The Ameri- 
can Couservatory of Music was au- 
tliorized by a charter of the state of 
Illinois to confer certificates and the 
degree Bachelor of Music, the latter 
on completion of a post graduate 
course, it professed to give the most 
thorough course of study in the art 
of music that could be found in Amer- 
ica. The Conservatory was founded 
in 1880 by John J. Hattstaedt, who 
was its president and head of the 
piano dejiartment in 1908. Other 
members of the faculty then were: 
Piano: Victor Garwood, Allen Spen- 
cer, Heniot Levy, Silvio Scionti, Jen- 
nette Loudon, Effie Murdock, Ida 
Kaehler, Lillian W. Pomeroy, Louise 
Robyn, Florence Hackett, Earl Blair, 
May Doelling, Ella Mills, Amanda 
Closius, Sadie Krause, Helen Asliley, 
Lucile Fitzgerald, Albertine Heller, 
Edna Cookingliam, Frank Van Dusen, 
Emma Dean, George Weiler, Kurt 
Wanieck, Clyde Stephens. Singing: 
Karleton Hackett, E. C. Towne, Ragna 
Linne, John T. Read, O. E. Robinson, 
Jennie Johnson, Susan E. Drought, 
Viola Paulus, Hester Schoeninger. 
Violin: Herbert Butler, Adolf Weidig, 
Charles Moerenhout, Josef Halamicek, 
William Eis, George Colburn, Lulu 
Sinclair, Mary Cox. Organ: Wilhelm 
Middelschulte, Effie Murdock, Sara L. 
Beals. Harmony, Counterpoint, Com- 
position: Adolf Weidig, Hubbard W. 
Harris, Charles Elander, George Col- 
burn. Orchestration: Adlof Weidig. 
Violoncello : Jan Kalas. Harp: Alice 
Genevieve Smith. Clarinet: Frank 
Schoepp. Cornet: J. D. Llewellyn. 
Flute: Herman Wiesenbach. Trom- 
bone: Gustav Stange. Bassoon: Paul 
Kruse. Mandolin, Guitar: J. B. Cor- 
bett. Ensemble Playing : Adolf Weidig. 
'Normal Department: John J. Hatt- 
staedt, Victor Garwood, Karleton Hack- 
ett, Allen Spencer, Jennette Loiidon, 
Louise Robyn. Public School Music: 
0. E. Robinson, George A. Blackman. 
Dramatic Art, Oratory: Emma G. 
Lumm-Crane, Frances Donovan, Helen 
Alden, Mary L. Abell. Italian and 
French: Stephen Spagiari. German: 

Adolf Carpen. The registration then 
included 2000 students. The Bush 
Temple Conservatory embraced 
schools for languages, opera, and 
acting, as well as music in all of its 
branches, and was in affiliation with 
producing theatres. Kenneth M. Brad- 
ley was the director in 1908. Chi- 
cago Musical College was founded 
18U9, and in 1908 included, besides 
all branches of music, schools of 
acting, opera, of expression, and of 
modern languages. In that year Dr. 
Ziegfeld was president, and the board 
of musical directors included William 
Castle, Hugo Heerman,Bernhard Liste- 
mann. Dr. Louis Falk, Herman De- 
vries, Hans von Schiller, Felix Borow- 
ski, Ernesto Consolo, Mrs. 0. H. Fox, 
and J. H. Gilmour. Of the many im- 
portant singing societies called Apollo 
Club one of the largest and most im- 
portant is domiciled in Chicago. In 
1908 the musical director was Harri- 
son M. Wild. 

Chickering (Jonas) founded the 
first important American piano fac- 
tory, 1823. B. New Ipswich. N. H., 
1798; d. Boston, 1853. CoL Thomas 
E. C. took first prize at the Paris Ex- 
position of 1867 with an improved 
piano; became Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor; continued the piano 
business. B. Boston, 1824; d. 1871. 
His sons succeeded to the business, 
which was incorporated. In 1908 C. 
H. W. Foster was president of the 

Chiesa. It. Church. 

Chiffres. Fr. Figures, as Basse, 

Chilcot (Thomas) composed songs 
to words by Shakespeare and harpsi- 
chord concertos ; played organ at 
Abbey Church, Bath, Eng. D. 1766. 

Child (Dr. William) composed 
services and other church music; com- 
poser to Charles II of Eng.; organ- 
ist Chapel Royal. B. Bristol, 1606; 
d. Mar. 23, 1697. 

Chilesotti (Oscar) wrote valuable 
books on musical antiquities; ama- 
teur 'cellist and flautist; graduated 
in law at Padua. B. July 12, 1848, 
Bassano; add. Milan. 

Chilston wrote on theory in Eng- 


land, lotli cciifury, viewinj^ music as words from Spencer's " Polymetis," 
a branch of applied maUieiuatics. His was lirst performed Mar. 1, 1751, at 
treatise is almost entirely reprinted Covent Garden, 
in Hawkins' " History of Music." Choir. In abbey or cathedral 

Chime Bells attuned to a scale and clmrclies that portion set apart for 
played either by striking l)y jiaiid with the daily services, usually the eastern 
a hanmier or by ringing, eitiier to an- end, which is sometimes enclosed by 
nounce worship or tlie hour of the a screen; the singers in a church; 
day. The BARREL mechanism has subdivisions of a church chorus, that 
been applied to chime ringing, and seated near the Cantor or Precentor 
Lewis, the organ builder, invented a being the Cantoris, as distinguished 
pneumatic chime. from that seated near the Dean, or 

Chinese Pavilion. CHAPEAU Decani. 
CHJNOIS. Choirman. Adult member of a 

Chipp (Dr. Edmund Thomas) choir, 
composed the oratorio "Job"; " Na- Choir Organ. Small organ used to 
omi, a Sacred Idyl," cliurch and organ accompany the choir, formerly placed 
music; played organ Ely Cathedral, in front of and below the Great 
Eng. B. London, Dec. 25, 1823; d. Organ. 
Nice, Dec. 17, 1S86. Chollet (Jean Baptiste Marie) 

Chirimia. Sp. Oboe. created many ten. roles in operas of 

Chirogymnast. Any apparatus Herold, Auber, Adam, Halevy, and 
designed to strengthen the iingers. Balfe, at Paris Op6ra Comique. B. 

Chironomy. Gesticulations of the Paris, May 20, 1798; d. Nemours, 
hands in conducting. Jan. 12, 1892. 

Chiroplast. Instrument invented Chopin (Frangois Frederic) com- 
by Logier, 1810, consisting of position posed piano music unsurpassed for 
frame and wrist and finger guides to perfection in style, rich singing qual- 
aid in correct performance on the ity, and originality; played with a 
piano. delicacy combined with poetic fervour 

Chitarra. It. GUITAR. which distinguished him above the 

Chitarra col Arco. It. String in- other great pianists of his generation, 
strument shaped like guitar but played developing a style of piano technique 
like viol. in which " everything must be made 

Chitarrina. It. Small Neapolitan to sing " instead of aiming chiefly at 
guitar. orchestral effect. Son of Nicholas 

Chitarrone. It. Large double- Chopin, who had gone from Nancy to 
necked lute or theorbo with two sets Poland, becoming first bookkeeper in 
of wire strings, especially useful for a snuff factory, afterwards a captain 
bass accompaniment. in the National Guard, and finally a 

Chiuso. It. Closed; concealed. teacher of French, in the Warsaw 

Chladni (Ernst Florens Fried- Lyceum, Chopin inherited from his 
rich) made the first serious investi- mother, born Justine Kn^zanowska, 
gations into the laws of sound, and much of the temperament of his na- 
embodied his experiments, among five land, for which he ever retained 
which was that showing the vibration a patriotic devotion. Adalbert Zywny 
of plates and chords by means of sand was his first teacher, and he first ap- 
sprinkled over them, in a " Treatise peared in concert at nine, and as a 
on Acoustics," which Napoleon gave composer at 11. At 12 he entered 
him 6000 francs to translate into the Warsaw conservatory, studying 
French; invented the CLAVICY- with Joseph Eisner, and at 14 his 
LINDER. B. Nov. 30, 1756; LL.D., rondo in C minor was published as 
Leipsic; d. April 3, 1827. Op. 1. Tlie variations on "La ci 

Choeur. Fr. Chorus. darem," Op. 2, the trio for piano and 

Choice of Hercules. George Fred- strings, Op. 8, the sonata, Op. 4, the 
erick Handel's musical interlude, to E minor nocturne, and the polonaises 

6 . 




in G minor, D minor, and B flat were 
composed before he was 19, at wliich 
time he first visited Berlin. In 1829 
he gave successful concerts in Vienna, 
and after a brief sojourn at Warsaw, 
departed on a concert tour in 1830, 
which included Bi-eslau, Dresden, 
Prague, Vienna, Munich, and Stutt- 
gart, but which proved a financial 
t'ailvire. In the latter city he composed 
the etude in C minor, Op. 10, No. 12, 
believed to have been inspired by his 
grief at the capture of Warsaw by the 
Russians. Debarred by physical frail- 
ties from fighting for Poland, Chopin 
henceforth regarded himself as an 
exile, and made his home in Paris, 
where the misfortunes of his country 
caused him to be received with great 
cordiality. In 1832 Chopin gave his 
first concert in Paris, and although 
embarrassed at first by want of money, 
soon established himself as a teacher 
and concert pianist. He formed the 
acquaintance of the leading musicians 
of the period, including Bellini, Cheru- 
bini, and Meyerbeer, but does not ap- 
pear to have won the regard of either 
Liszt or Berlioz. However, Schumann 
reviewed some of his compositions 
with the eulogy " Hats off, gentlemen ! 
a genius! " and his music soon ac- 
quired a ready sale in Germany. In 
1835, Chopin visited Carlsbad, where 
he saw his parents; Dresden and 
Leipsic, in the latter city meeting 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Clara 
Wieck. The following year he again 
toured Germany, and in 1837 made 
his first visit to England, where he 
consulted a physician regarding the 
pulmonary troubles which finally re- 
sulted in his death, and where he like- 
wise arranged for the publication of 
his music by Wessel & Co. 1837 was 
memorable for the beginning of his 
liason with Mme. Dudevant (George 
Sand), to whom he had been intro- 
duced by Liszt, and with whom he 
went to Majorca in the fall of 1838. 
Chopin's disease had progressed to an 
alarming stage by this time. He was 
naturally a sentimentalist, morbid, 
frail, of almost efTeminate delicacy, 
while Mme. Dudevant was robust, 
masculine, and of virile intellect. The 

union of two such opposing natures 
could only result in unhappiness for 
both, but each found in the other a 
fertile source of " copy." George 
Sand's impressions of the pianist are 
recorded in " Un Hiver a Majorque," 
the " Histoire de ma Vie," and " Lu- 
crezia Floriani " ; while those of 
Chopin found expression in his pre- 
ludes. Op. 28, and other works. They 
returned to France in the spring of 
1839, spending their summers at 
Noliant, their winters in Paris, until 
1847, when they separated after a 
bitter quarrel, the shock of which 
may have hastened the composer's 
end. On the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tion of 1848, Chopin went to England, 
where he gave a number of concerts, 
although so weak he had to be carried 
into the concert room. In the fall he 
visited Scotland, but his concerts 
failed to arouse enthusiasm, and in 
1849 he returned to Paris, where he 
died, and was buried at the Pere-la- 
Chaise, after an elaborate funeral ser- 
vice attended by all the musicians of 
the French capital, at which Mozart's 
Requiem was sung. B. Zelazowa 
Wola, near Warsaw, Mar. 1, 1809; 
d. Oct. 17, 1849. See Nieck's "Life," 
London, 1888; Hunneker's "Chopin," 
New York, 1900. A complete list of 
Chopin's works follows: Rondo, C 
minor, Op. 1 ; "La Ci darem," varia- 
tions, Op. 2 ; Introduction and Polo- 
naise for piano and 'cello in C, Op. 3; 
sonata in C minor. Op. 4 ; Rondo a 
la Mazur, Op. 5 ; 4 mazurkas. Op. 6 ; 
5 mazurkas. Op. 7 ; trio piano and 
strings, Op. 8; 3 nocturnes, Op. 9; 
12 etudes. Op. 10; E minor concerto, 
Op. 11; " Ludovic," variations. Op. 
12; fantasia on Polish airs, Op. 13; 
Krakoviak rondo. Op. 14; 3 nocturnes. 
Op. 15; E flat rondo. Op. IG; 4 
mazurkas, Op. 17; E flat valse, Op. 
18; bolero. Op. 19; B minor scherzo. 
Op. 20; F minor concerto, Op. 21; 
E flat polonaise. Op. 22 ; G minor bal- 
lade, Op. 23; 4 mazurkas. Op. 24; 12 
etudes. Op. 25 ; 2 polonaises. Op. 26 ; 
2 nocturnes, Op. 27 ; 24 preludes. Op. 
28 ; A flat improm])tu. Op. 29 ; 4 ma- 
zurkas. Op. 30; B flat minor scherzo, 
Op. 31; 2 nocturnes, Op. 32; 4 ma- 


zurkas, Op. 33; 3 raises, Op. 34; B hymns and hymn tunes himself, the 

flat minor sonata, Op. 35 ; F sharp most famous being "' Ein feste Burg," 

impromptu, Op. 3G; 2 nocturnes, Op. which is reproduced in the works of 

37 ; Ballade in F, Op. 38 ; C sharp Bach, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, and 

minor scherzo, Op. 39; 2 polonaises, Wagner; and in 1524 he published a 

Op. 40; 4 mazurkas. Op. 41; A flat collection of hymns, with Waltlier, 

valse, Op. 42; tarantelle, Op. 43; known as the "Erfurt Enchiridion." 

polonaise, F sharp minor, Op. 44 ; pre- Elaboration of chorales into contra- 

lude, C sharp minor, Op. 45; allegro puntal works with organ accompani- 

de concert, Op. 40 ; A flat ballade. Op. ment, practised by Johann Sebastian 

47; 2 nocturnes, Op. 48 ; F minor fan- Bach and a host of lessor musicians, 

tasia, Op. 49; 3 mazurkas, Op. 50; gave rise to a distinctive school of 

D flat impromptu. Op. 51; F minor German organists and composers, and 

ballade. Op. 52 ; A flat polonaise, Op. has had an important influence on all 

53 ; scherzo in E, Op. 54 ; 2 nocturnes, modern German music. 

Op. 55 ; 3 mazurkas, Op. 56 ; berceuse, Choral Fantasia. Ludwig van 

Op. 57; B minor sonata, Op. 58; 3 Beethoven's composition first per- 

mazurkas, Op. 59; barcarole. Op. 60; formed Dec. 22, 1808, at the Theatre 

polonaise fantasie, Op. 61; 2 noc- an den Wien, Vienna, foreshadowed 

turnes. Op. 62; 3 mazurkas, Op. 63; the Choral Symphony. It is in C 

3 valses. Op. 64 ; G minor sonata for minor, scored for solo piano, orchestra, 
piano and 'cello, Op. 65 ; fantasie im- solo quartet, and chorus, 
promptu, Op. 06 ; 4 mazurkas. Op. 67 ; Choral Harmonic Society gave 

4 mazurkas. Op. 68 ; 2 valses. Op. 69 ; amateur concerts of vocal and instru- 
3 valses, Op. 70; 3 polonaises, Op. 71; mental music in London, 1837. 

E minor nocturne, marche funfebre in Choral Harmonists Society gave 

C minor and 3 Ecossaises, Op. 72; amateur concerts of the larger choral 

rondo in C for two pianos, Op. 73; 17 works with orchestra from 1833 to 1852 

songs with piano accompaniment; 3 in London, having seceded from the 

etudes; mazurkas in G, B flat, D, C, City of London Classical Harmonists, 

and A minor; valses in E major and Choral Service. Anglican church 

minor; polonaises in G sharp minor service which is sung or chanted 

and B flat minor; variations in E; throughout. 

duet concertante for piano and 'cello; Choral Symphony. Ludwig van 

fugue and nocturne. Op. 4, Op. 5; Op. Beethoven's ninth and his only sym- 

60, and all succeeding compositions in phony with chorus was commissioned 

this catalogue were published after the by the London Philharmonic Society, 

composer's death. Nov. 10, 1822, for $250, and bears 

Chor. Ger. Chorus. the inscription " Grosse Sinfonie ge- 

Choragus. Gr. Chorus leader in schrieben fiir die Philharmonische Ge- 

aneient Greek drama; titular musical sellschaft in London von Ludwig van 

ofiticial in Oxford University, Eng. Beethoven," but was first performed 

Choral. Pertaining to the chorus at the Kilrnthnerthor Theatre, Vienna, 

or choir. May 7, 1824, and in London, Mar. 21, 

Chorale. Ger. " Hymn tunes." 1825. The work was probably begun 

With the substitution of German for by Beethoven as early as 1817, al- 

Latin in church services by Martin though he had thought of setting Schil- 

Luther and his followers, it was found ler's " Ode to Joy," which forms the 

that melodies in rhythmic music were text, as early as 1792. 

more popular with the people than the Choral Vicars. Lay vicars who 

old Gregorian church music, so, while supervise music in Anglican cathe- 

the older music Avas retained in some drals. 

instances, secular tunes were often Chord. Several musical sounds in 
adapted to hymns, and new tunes and combination whether dissonant or con- 
now hymns were evolved by the Prot- sonant, as the chord of the dominant, 
estant leaders. Luther wrote many the common chord, the chord of the 




sixth, of the ninth, of the diminished 
seventh, a major or minor cliord. 

Chord. String. 

Chorda Characteristica. L. Chord 
of tlie seventh. 

Chordae Essentiales. L. Key 

Chordaulodion. Automatic in- 
strument of BARREL type invented 
hy Kaufl'mann of Dresden, 1812. 

Chordienst or Choramt. Ger. 
Clioral service. 

Chordirektor. Ger. Chorusmaster. 

Chordometer, Gauge for measur- 
ing strings. 

Chords Etouffes. Fr. Damped 

Choriambus. Metrical foot com- 
posed of two short between two long 

Chorister. Any singer in a chorus 
or choir ; in a more restricted sense, 
boy singers attached to Anglican 
Cathedrals or Chapels Royal or such 
vested choirs as that of Trinity 
Cliurch, New York, wherein the boys 
receive instruction, and in some in- 
stances food, lodging, and an allowance 
of money for their services. Many of 
the privileges belonging to choristers 
in England, such as educational facili- 
ties, the right to exact certain fees 
and to elect " boy bishops " have dis- 
appeared, but the tendency to assume 
entire control of the physical, mental, 
and moral well being of the chorister 
is beginning to assert itself again in 
the English Cathedrals. The office of 
chorister has assumed additional im- 
portance in Catholic countries of late 
years since the promulgation of mu- 
sical reforms and a return to the 
strict Gregorian style. Any number of 
choristers have achieved places of dis- 
tinction in church and state, and from 
Palestrina and Bach, to Dr. Burney 
and Sir Arthur Sullivan, hundreds of 
eminent musicians obtained their first 
instruction as choristers. 

Chorley (Henry Fothergill) wrote 
"Modern German Music," 1854; 
"Thirty Years Musical Recollections," 
1862; "Handel Studies," IS.'in; "Na- 
tional Music of the World," 1880 
(posth.), and music criticism for the 
London " Athenaeum " from 1830 to 

his death; translated libretti and 
wrote songs. B. Dec. 15, 1808, Black- 
ley Hurst, Lancashire, Eng. ; d. Lon- 
don, Feb. 16, 1872. 

Choron (Alexandre Etienne) pub- 
lished a " Dictionnaire des Musi- 
ciens," many works of the German 
and Italian masters; composed many 
songs, including " La Sentinelle," 
which is still popular; translated and 
edited Allirechtsberger's works; taught 
many eminent nuisician.s ; directe(l 
iimsic at public fetes from 1812 to 
close of Napoleon's reign ; founded 
" Institution Royale de Musique clas- 
sique et religieuse," which he directed 
1824-30. B. Oct. 21, 1771, Caen; d. 
June 29, 1834. 

Chorton. Obsolete pitch to which 
organs were tuned, higher than pitch 
for secular music. 

Chorus. Those who sing the 
choruses, whether in opera, oratorio, 
concert, or in church. In ancient 
Greece the chorus was composed of 
men and women who recited com- 
ment and explanatory text on the 
action as presented by the principal 
actors. The first operas were an 
attempt at reviving the classic trag- 
edy, and a similar duty again de- 
volved upon the chorus, which was 
ranged upon the stage in two rows, 
and took no part in the action. Gluck 
was the first operatic composer to em- 
ploy the chorus in such a manner as 
to make the singers part of the dra- 
matis personse, contributing to the 
action of the piece. Choruses may be 
written in any number of parts. Bach 
sometimes wrote for chorus in unison, 
Handel generally for four-part chorus 
in his oratorios, and Tallis composed 
a motet in 40 parts. Choruses are 
often divided into choirs, and there 
are masses in the Italian style for 10 
and 12 choirs of four voices each. 
The burden or refrain of a song is 
called its chorus. The term was once 
employed as equivalent to the modern 
word ensemble. 

Chorus was the name of an obsolete 
instrument of tlie bagpipe faniily, and 
is also the name of the mixture and 
compound organ stops. 

Choudens, de (Antoiae) founded 




the Paris music pul)Iishing house 
knowTi as Choudens fils, June, 1845. 
D. 1888, when the business passed to 
Ills s(in Pa»l. 

Chouquet (Adolphe Gustave) 
wrote " Histoire de la Musique dra- 
matique en France," " Le Musee du 
Conservatoire national de Musique," 
contributed to musical periodicals; 
taught music in New York, 1840-56; 
keeper of the Museum of the Paris 
Conservatoire, 1871. B. April 16, 
1819, Havre; d. Paris, Jan. 30, 

Chrismann (Franz Xavier) built 
organs in Austria; secular priest. B. 
1715; d. Rottenmann, Styria, May 20, 

Christe Eleison, Gr. Part of the 
KYRIE in the MASS. 

Christmann (Johann Friedrich) 
wrote on theory, composed, played 
flute and piano; Lutheran clerg^^man. 
B. Sept. 10, 1752, Ludwigsburg; d. 
May 21, 1817, Heutingsheim. 

Christmas Carol. CAROL sung at 
Christmas title. 

Christmas Music. Music appro- 
priate to the Feast of the Nativity. 

Christmas Oratorio. Johann Se- 
bastian Bach's six church cantatas 
composed for the holy days in Christ- 
mas tide, 1734, to words written by 
Picander and himself; called in Ger- 
man " Weihnachtsoratorium." 

Christus. Felix Mendelssohn's ora- 
torio to words by Chevalier Bunsen 
was begun 1844, laid aside until the 
completion of " Elijah," resumed in 
1847. Eight numbers were published 
after Mendelssohn's death, and these 
were sung, 1852, at the Birmingham 
(Eng. ) Festival. 

Christus am Oelherge. Beetho- 
ven's first choice of name of the 
work now known as the " Mount of 

Chroma. Or. "Color." One of 
the modifications of the Greek musical 

Chroma Duplex. L. Semiquaver; 
double sharp. 

Chromatic. A scale consisting of 
a succession of semitones ; an interval 
augmented or diminished by a sharp, 
flat, or natural ; a chord containing a 

note or notes foreign to diatonic pro- 
gression ; harmony made up of chro- 
matic cliords. 

Chromatique. Fr. CHROMATIC. 

Chrotta. Obsolete instrument of 
viol family also called CRWTH and 

Chrysander (Friedrich) wrote a 
biograpliy of Handel remarkable for 
the abundance of material and minute 
research as well as for his exaggerated 
idea of that composer's importance, 
and for the writer's opposition to 
modern music; edited Handel's com- 
plete works for the Handel Gesell- 
schaft. B. Liibthee, Mecklenburg, 
July 8, 1826; d. Sept. 3, 1901, 

Church (John) wrote an " Intro- 
duction to Psalmody," 1723; master 
of choristers, Westminster Abbey. B. 
Windsor, 1G75; d. Jan. 6, 1741. 

Chvirch (John) founded the John 
CHURCH CO. after having had 11 
years' experience in the music house 
of Oliver Ditson Co., Boston, Mass. 
B. Boston, May 9, 1834; d. April 19, 

Church Company, John, was 
founded in Cincinnati by John 
CHURCH in 1859, published music 
and manufactured the Everett Piano. 
In 1869 the trade name was changed 
to John Church & Co. In 1872 the 
house purchased the plates of Root & 
Cady and later, in the same year, the 
stock and good will of Root & Sons 
Music Co., both of Chicago, and opened 
a branch house in New York City. In 
1908 branches were also operated in 
Chicago, Leipsic, and London. In 1885 
the company was incorporated with 
IMr. Church as president, and estab- 
lished its piano factory in Boston. 
In 1892 it was reorganized with a 
capital of $1,250,000 and Frank A. Lee 
became president and general manager, 
which offices he held in 1908. Fac- 
tories subsequently established are 
known as the Harvard, the Dayton, 
and the John Church Co., and are 
located in Dayton, Ky. 

Chwatal (Franz Xavier) composed 
more than 200 salon pieces for piano. 
B. Rumburg, Bohemia, June 19, ISOS; 
d. Soolbad, Elmen, June 24, 1879. 




Joseph improved the action of the 
organ and founded tlie organ building 
firm of Chwatal & Sohn at Merseberg. 
B. Jan. 12, 1811; brother of FRANZ 

Ciaccona. It. CHACONNE. 

Ciaja, della (Azzolino Bernar- 
dino) composed masses, motets, and 
cantatas; was Knight of St. Stephen, 
and presented to the church of that 
order in Pisa a splendid organ of 
which he supervised the building. B. 
Mar. 21, 1671, Sienna. 

Ciampi (Legrenzio Vincenzo) 
composed " Didone " and many other 
operas, church, and chamber music. 
B. 1719, Piacenza; visited London, 

Ciauchettini (Veronica) composed 
piano sonatas and concertos and 
taught. B. 1779, Czaslan, Bohemia ; 
sister of J. L. Diissek ; m. Francesco 
Cianchettini. Pio composed cantata 
to words from Paradise Lost; edited 
Mozart and Beethoven's works ; played 
piano at the London Opera House at 
five and traveled as an " infant prod- 
igy." B. Dec. 11, 1799, London; son 
of VERONICA; d. July 20, 1851, 

Gibber (Susanna Maria) ranked 
as the greatest tragic actress of her 
generation, but sang con. so admirably 
that Handel composed for her; oper- 
atic debut as Amelia in Lampe's opera. 
Mar. 13, 1732, at the Haymarket, Lon- 
don. B. Feb., 1714; sister of DR. 
ARNE, whose pupil she was; m. 
Theophilus Cibber, 1734; d. Jan. 30, 

Cid. Jules Emile Fr6d6ric Masse- 
net's opera in four acts and ten tab- 
leaux, to book by Dennery, Gallet, and 
Blau, based on the well known legends 
of the Spanish hero, was first per- 
formed Nov. 30, 1885, at the Acad^mie, 
Paris. Rodrigue, "The Cid" loves 
Chimene, whose father. Count Gormas, 
he is compelled to kill in a duel. 
Chimene demands vengeance of King 
Ferdinand IV, but is counselled to 
■wait, as Rodrigue's services are needed 
to repel a Moorish invasion. When 
The Cid returns victorious Chimene 
demands his head, and the King agrees, 
only requiring that she shall herself 

pronounce sentence. Chim&ne does so, 
but it is a sentence to marriage, not 
of death. The original cast included : 
Rodrigue, Jean de Reszke, ten.; Gor- 
mas, Pol. Plangon, bass; Don Di&gue, 
Ed. de Reszke, bar. ; Chimene, Mme. 
Fides-Devries, sop. The principal mu- 
sical numbers are : Act I : " Que c'est 
beau," Chimene and Gormas ; " Ah, 
la ch6re promesse," Chimene and In- 
fanta; " O, noble glave etincelant," 
Rodrigue ; " O rage, O desepoir," Don 
Diegue; Act II: "Perce jusques au 
fond du cceur," Rodrigue ; " A moi, 
Comte, deux mots!" Rodrigue; "Ah 
lui! Ciel! Rodrigue !" Chimene ; "Ah! 
je doute et je tremble," tutti; Act III: 
" De cet aff reux combat," Chimene ; 
" Oh, jours de premifere tendresse," 
Rodrigue and Chimene; Act IV: 
" Gloire h celui que les Rois maures," 
and " Gloire au Cid, au vainqueur." 

Cifra (Antonio) composed 200 mo- 
tets and madrigals; pupil of Pales- 
trina; conducted St. John's Lateran, 
Rome, and at court of Archduke 
Charles. B. Rome, 1575; d. 1638. 

Cimador (Giambattista) composed ; 
arranged music; taught. B. Venice, 
1761; d. London, 1808. 

Cimarosa (Domenico) composed 66 
operas, cantatas, oratorios; ranked 
with the foremost of the older Italian 
dramatic composers; chapelmaster to 
Emperor Leopold II, and later to the 
King of Naples ; chamber composer to 
Catherine II of Russia; banished from 
Naples because of revolutionary opin- 
ions, and died, possibly of poison, 
while en route to Russia. Pupil for 
11 years at Conservatorio Santa Maria 
di Loreto, Naples, he won success with 
his first opera, " Le Stravaganze del 
Conte," 1772, Naples, and for 18 
years divided his time lietween Naples 
and Rome, producing 20 operas, which 
were popular in London, Paris, Dres- 
den, and Vienna as well as in Italy. 
Among his best known works are : 
" II pittorc Parigino," " 11 con\ ito 
di pietra," " La ballerina amante," 
" L'Olimpiade," "Artaserse," "II sa- 
crifizio d'Abramo," " L'impresario in 
angustie," " La Cleopatra," " La ver- 
gine del Sole," " II mntrimonio se- 
greto," " Le astuzie femminile," 




"L'amante disperato," " L'iuipc^iin 
siipoiato,'' " Gli Ora/.ii e Curiazii," 
" Penelope,"' " Aeliillo all' assedio di 
Troja," and " Seniirainide."' B. Dec. 
17, 174!), Aversa, Naples; d. Jan. 11, 
1801. Venice. 

Cimbalom. Hung. Dulcimer. It. 
C*imbali; cymbals; tambourine. 

Cimbel. Qer. Mixture stop in 

Cimbelstern. Qer. Star shaped 
cymbals attached to organs set in mo- 
tion by pedal. 

Cincinnati College of Music 
teaches vocal and orchestral music, 
composition, and is the oldest of en- 
dowed music schools in the United 
States, having been founded in 1872 
through the liberality of Reuben 
Springer and other wealthy citizens. 
Its property adjoins the great Music 
Hall, tlie organ of which is available 
for students, and besides a number of 
class rooms and a large dormitory, 
offices, etc., it possesses in the Odeon 
an excellent auditorium for chamber 
music, and a smaller hall for recital 
purposes. The property is worth about 
$1,500,000, and is administered by a 
board of trustees. Theodore Thomas 
was the first director, and he assem- 
bled an unusually able teaching corps. 
The heads of the violin department 
have been successively JACOBSOHN, 
CAMPANARI, and Jose Marien. Al- 
bino GORNO headed the piano de- 
partment almost from the beginning; 
Otto Singer taught theory, and the 
heads of the vocal department have 
been Bush W. FOLEY, Tecla Vigna, 
Lino Mattioli. Upon the removal of 
Theodore Thomas to Chicago the man- 
agement of the college devolved upon 
President Peter Rudolph NeflT, and 
upon his retirement, in 1896, Frank 
van der STUCKEN became director. 
VOORT, Gisela L. Weber, Louis Victor 
SAAR, and Romeo Gorno were mem- 
bers of the faculty in 1908, and the 
retirement of Mr. Van der Stucken 
left executive administration with the 
president, ex-I\Iayor Fleischmann. 
Cincinnati Conservatory teaches mu- 
sic in all branches, possesses a hand- 

some establishment in the suburb 
" Mt. Auburn," with equipment for 
boarding pupils from a distance, and 
has always ranked wilh the largest 
and best of private musical institu- 
tions. It was founded 1867 by Miaa 
Clara Bauer, who was the directress 
in 1908, and employs a large staff of 
teachers, including Cav. Pier Adolfo 
Frederic Shailer Evans, Malton Boyce, 
and Frances Moses. Cincinnati Fes- 
tival was for many years the most 
important biennial music festival in 
America, notable alike for the excel- 
lence of the performance of standard 
choral and orchestral works, for the 
high reputation of the soloists, and 
the number of new works first made 
known. An outgrowth of a large 
festival given by German singing so- 
cieties in 1849 at which the North 
American Sangerbund was organ- 
ized, the Cincinnati Festival Avas 
established in 1873 with Theodore 
THOIMAS as conductor, his orchestra 
as the nucleus of the instrumental or- 
ganization, and a chorus of 1250 singers 
made up of 29 societies. The concerts 
differed from those of the German 
singers in giving prominence to or- 
chestral works, and in singing to Eng- 
lish texts. Later a permanent May 
Festival chorus was organized, and 
since 1878 the festivals have been held 
in the great Music Hall. Mr. Thomas 
retained the direction of the festivals, 
and his orchestra continued to be their 
main instrumental support until his 
death. Frank van der Stucken suc- 
ceeded to the post of director, and 
conducted the May Festival of 1908. 
Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, 
founded by an organization of women 
presided over by Mrs. William H. Taft, 
( Helen Herron ) , became the legitimate 
successor of several orchestral bodies 
in the performance of s_A-mphonic mu- 
sic. On the withdrawal of Theodore 
Thomas to Chicago some of the musi- 
cians who had played in l)is orchestra 
yireferred to remain in Cincinnati, the 
chiefs of the various choirs being at- 
tached in many instances to the Cin- 
cinnati College of Music. Tliey or- 
ganized the Cincinnati Orchestra, the 




best known conductor of which was 
Micliael Brand, who had been 1st 
'cello with Mr. Thomas, and gave a 
series of concerts, including an excel- 
lent " popular " series on Sunday 
afternoons. While head of the violin 
department at the College, Henry 
Schradieck gave symphony concerts 
with an orchestra composed of ad- 
vanced instrumental students and 
members of the faculty, assisted by 
musicians from the Cincinnati Orches- 
tra; after his departure there came a 
time when serious orchestral music 
was heard no more. This want was 
supplied by the association of women, 
who obtained pledges for the support 
of a series of symphony concerts, em- 
ploying the best musicians in the Cin- 
cinnati Orchestra, and engaging a few 
additional men from abroad. There 
were several conductors during the 
first season of 1894—5, but in 1895-6 
Frank van der Stucken was engaged 
as conductor, and, although it proved 
a dillicult matter to obtain funds with 
which to meet an annual deficit, the 
Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra bid 
fair to become a permanent institu- 
tion. Unfortunately the " Symphony 
Orchestra Association Co." became in- 
volved in a controversy with the mu- 
sicians' union during the season of 
190G-7, and the orchestra, still under 
the baton of Mr. Van der Stucken, 
while the Association had for its 
president Mrs. C. R. Holmes, was dis- 
banded in April, 1907. In that season 
the receipts had been $49,794.41, leav- 
ing a deficit of only $10,056.45, which 
the supporters of the association de- 
frayed. Such orchestral music as 
Cincinnati enjoyed during 1907-8 
was furnished chiefly by visiting 

Cinelli. It. CYMBALS. 

Cink. Ger. Reed organ stop. 

Cinq Mars. Charles Gounod's four- 
act " opera dialogue " to book by 
Poirson and Gal let was first performed 
at the Paris Op6ra Comique, April 5, 

Cinque, It. Fifth part in con- 
certiMl music. 

Ciprandi (Ercole) sang ten. in 
opera, 1754-70, London and Milan. 

Cipriani (Lorenzo) sang buffo in 
opera, J.ondon, 1790-91. 

Circassienne. Daniel F. E. Auber's 
three-act comic opera to book by 
Scribe was produced at the Paris 
Opera Comique, Feb. 2, 1861. 

Circular Canon closes in a key a 
semitone higher than that in which 
it commences, and in the course of 
12 repetitions therefore passes through 
all the keys. 

Circulus. L. Obsolete character 
indicating " tenipus perfectum " or 
three semibreves to the measure. A 
semicirculus or half circle was the 
character indicating common time for 
which C is now employed. 

Cis. Ger. C sharp. 

Ciscis. Ger. Double C sharp. 

Cis Dur. Ger. Key of C sharp 

Cis Moll. Ger. Key of C sharp 

Cistella. L. Dulcimer or citole. 

Cistre. Fr. CITTERN. 

Cistrum. SISTRUM. 

Citara. It. Cither; guitar; cit- 

Cithara. Ancient lute. 

Cithara Bijug'a. Double-necked 
guitar or lute. 

Cither. Instrument of the lute 
family, but having a flat back, strung 
with wire and played with a plectrum, 
from which the ZITHER is derived. 
Some forms of the cither were played 
with bow; others strung with catgut, 
were plucked with the fingers. 

Citole. Obscure old English name 
of instrument, probably the PSALT- 

Civetteria, con. It. Coquettishly. 

Civil Service Musical Society- 
gave concerts in London, 1864 to 1880, 
conducted by Sir Arthur Sullivan and 
John Foster. 

Claassen (Arthur) composed the 
prize chorus " Der Kamerad," sjtu- 
phonic poem " Ilohenfriedberg"; con- 
ducted New York and BrookljTi Arion 
societies ; founded " Claassen Musical 
Institute." B. Feb. 19, 1859, Stargard, 
Prussia; add. New York. 

Clag-get (Charles) invented piano 
and harpsichord improvements which 
were approved by Haydn, and devised 




many curious instruments which have 
never come into general use; composed 
and played violin. B. 1740, Water- 
ford, Ireland; d. Dublin, 1820. 

Clairon. Fr. CLARIX. 

Clang. Tone quality or timbre; 
noise of clashing metals; blast of loud 
wind instruiiiciUs. 

Clapisson (Antoine Louis) com- 
posed " La Promise " and *' La Fan- 
chonnette " and many other operas 
which failed of success because of 
poor libretti ; played violin; collected 
ancient inst rumonts now in the mu- 
seum of the Paris Conservatoire; Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor and 
Member of the Institut. B. Naples, 
Sept. 15, 1808; d. Paris, Mar. 19, 

Clapper. Metal rod suspended 
from within the centre of a bell, the 
strokes of which set it in vibration; 

Claque. Fr. People openly em- 
ployed at entertainments in France 
and in secret elsewhere to direct and 
emphasize the applause. 

Claquebois. Fr. Xylophone. 

Clarabella. 8 ft. organ stop of 
open wooden pipes. 

Clara Voce. It. Clear Voice. 

Clari (Giovanni Carlo Maria) 
composed church music, some of which 
was appropriated by Handel ; chapel- 
master at Pistoia, Bologna, and Pisa. 
B. 1669. Pisa; d. about 1745. 

Claribel Flute. 4 ft. pitch organ 
stop of open wooden pipes. 

Clarichord. Obsolete English term 
either for clavichord or harp. 

Clarin. Ger. Clarion or trumpet; 
4 ft. pitch reed organ stop. 

Clarinblasen. Ger. Trumpet call; 
the trumpet's softer tones. 

Clarinet. Woodwind instrument 
closely corresponding to the violin in 
compass and of great importance in 
modern orchestras, was probably an 
improvement on the ancient shawm 
or chalumeau. devised by Denner in 
Nuremberg about 1690. It differs 
from the oboe in having a single in- 
stead of a double reed, and in being 
cylindrical rather than conical and 
thus having a twelfth instead of an 
octave as its first overtone. It is a 

stopped pipe, having a mouthpiece and 
bell, with twenty sideholes, of which 
thirteen are controlled by keys, the 
rest stopped with fingers and thumb. 
There are four registers, the lowest of 
rich contralto quality being known as 
the " chalumeau or schalmei " and 
ranging from g to e'. The transition 
to the next register above is dillicult, 
as the player must increase the wind 
pressure, and this register, the me- 
dium, ranges from f to b' flat (in- 
cluded with the chalumeau in orches- 
tration, and marked dial.), while the 
clarion register from which the instru- 
ment is named ranges from b' to c'", 
and the superacute or highest register 
from d'" to c"". The two upper regis- 
ters are indicated in scores by the 
abbreviation •' clar." The length of 
the tube determines the instriunent's 
scale, thus the shorter clarinet is in 
C, a longer in B flat and a still longer 
one in A. Complicated scales for one 
instrimaent become simple on another, 
and the compass is extended by hav- 
ing instruments in diflTerent keys. A 
shrill toned instrument useful in mili- 
tary bands is set in E flat, and there 
are clarinets in D, E, F, and A flat. 
The instrument in F is the tenor clari- 
net, also known as Basset Horn, Corno 
di Bassetto or Alto Clarinet. Bass 
clarinets, sounding an octave below 
the ordinary instruments are usually 
set in B flat or A. Johann Christian 
Bach is said to have first employed 
the clarinet as a regular orchestral in- 
strument in 1763, but it remained for 
Mozart to give it permanence and 

Clarinettista. It. Clarinetist. 

Clarinettiste. Fr. Clarinetist. 

Clarinetto. It. CLARINET. 

Clarino. It. Trumpet. 

Clarion or Clarino. 4 ft. pitch 
reed organ stop. 

Clark (Rev. Frederick Scotson) 
composed; played organ; founded 
school for organ and church music. 
B. Nov. 16, 1840, London; d. July 5, 
1SS3. London. 

Clark (J. Moir) composed quintet 
in F for piano and strings and suite 
for flute and piano. B. Aberdeen 
about 18G3. 




Clark (Ricliard) composed, wrote 
on music, edited collections of vocal 
music; sang in Eng. Chapel Royal. 
B. April 5, 1780, Datchet, Bucks, 
Eng.; d. Oct. 5, 1856. 

Clarke (Dr. Hugh Archibald) was 
professor of music at University of 
Pennsylvania from 1875; wrote text 
books on harmony and counterpoint; 
composed the oratorio " Jerusalem," 
music to the " Acharnians," performed 
by the university 1886, music to 
" Iphigenia in Tanris," performed by 
the university 1908 ; pupil of liis 
father Dr. J. P. Clarke. B. 1839, Tor- 
onto, Canada; add. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Clarke (Jeremiah) composed first 
setting of Dryden's " Alexander's 
Feast," an " Ode on the Glorious As- 
sumption of the Blessed Virgin," 
church and dramatic music; sang 
and played organ in Eng. Chapel 
Royal ; killed himself because of dis- 
appointment in love. B. about 1669; 
d. London, Dec. 1, 1707. 

Clarke-Whitfeld (Dr. John) com- 
posed cathedral services and anthems ; 
organist Hereford Cathedral, professor 
of music at Cambridge. B. Dec. 13, 
1770, Gloucester, Eng.; d. Feb. 22, 
1836, Holmer near Hereford. 

Classical is a term applied to the 
music of the older masters and to the 
sonata and opera forms to which they 
adhered as opposed to the freer style 
of the ROMANTIC school. 

Claudin. Professional name of LE 

Claudine von Villabella. Franz 
Schubert's music to a drama by 
Goethe, was composed in 1815, but 
never performed, and all but the first 
act is now lost. 

Clauss-Szarvady (Wilhelmine) 
played piano ; noted for interpreta- 
tion of Scarlatti, Bach, and Beetho- 
ven. B. Prague, Dec. 13, 1834; m. 
Friedrich Szarvady, 1857; d. Sept., 

Clausula. L. CADENCE. 

Clavecin. Fr. Harpsichord; key- 
board of chime of bells or carillon. 

Claviatur. Ger. Keyboard; 

Clavicembalum. L. Harpsichord 
or clavicembalo. 

Clavichord. Obsolete instrument 
for which Johann Sebastian Bach 
wrote his " Wohltemperirtes Clavier," 
thus enforcing the practicability of 
Equal TEMPERAMENT tuning; 
which Beethoven preferred among all 
keyed instruments; and which Mozart 
played, was not unlike a square 
jjiano in appearance, but differed in 
principle, being a development of the 
monochord. The strings were set in 
vibration by tangents which at the 
same time fixed their vibrating 
lengths, the shorter vibrating portion 
being immediately damped by an in- 
terlaced band of cloth. The tone pro- 
duced was faint but sweet, and could 
be swelled or diminished at the will 
of the performer. In the earlier in- 
struments one set of strings was made 
to serve for two or more notes, F 
sharp being produced on the F string, 
for example, by a tangent stopping 
that string at shorter length. In 
Bach's time, however, the clavichord 
was made " bimdfrei," that is with- 
out frets, each pair of strings for the 
chromatic scale having its own tan- 
gent. A clavichord dated 1537 may 
be seen in the Metropolitan Museum, 
New York. Some of the later instru- 
ments were made with two or more 
keyboards or manuals, and with pedal 
notes as well. 

Clavicy Under. CHLADNI'S in- 
strument composed of glass tubes or 
cylinders. Another instrument of the 
same name produced tones by the vi- 
bration of glass plates in motion by 
hammers operated by keyboard. 

Clavicytherium. Clavichord. 

Clavier. Oer. Any keyboard 
stringed instrument, such as the piano 
or clavichord. 

Clavier. Fr. The organ or piano 

Clavierauszug. Ger. Piano score. 

Clay (Frederic) composed music for 
the " Black Crook," 1872, and other 
dramatic pieces, the songs " Long 
Ago," the " Sands of Dee," " She wan- 
dered down the mountain side " ; the 
cantatas " Ihe Knights of the Cross," 
1866, and " Lalla Rookh," which con- 
tains " I '11 sing thee songs of Arabv," 
1877. B. Paris, 1838; son of James 




Clay, M.P.; d. Great Marlow, Eng., 
Nov. 24, 1889. 

Clayton (Thomas) adapted and 
composed diamalie pieces for Drury 
Lane, London; played in the King's 
band, 1()!)2-1702. B. about 1G70; d. 
about 1730. 

Cle du Caveau. Collection of 
French songs taken from vaudevilles 
and comic operas and popular tunes 
dating from the time of Henri IV to 
1848. Piron, Crebillon fils, and Collg, 
French song writers, formed a club in 
1733, which dined in the Cafe le 
Caveau, and the meeting place gave 
the name to many later organizations 
of a like nature, and from these clubs 
came the name of the collection, which 
embraces 2350 songs. 

Clefs are the characters employed 
in NOTATION to indicate absolute 
pitch, and, in modern music, are three 
in number, being modified forms of the 
letters C, G, and F, from which they 
take their names. On whatever line 
it may be placed, the C clef or tenor 
clef (Soprano, German Soprano, Alto, 
Mean, Counter Tenor clef) indicates 
c', and the purpose in altering the 
position of the letter on the staff is 
to bring as many notes as possible 
within the staff, thus avoiding ledger 
lines. The G clef or treble of the 
piano indicates g' and is placed on the 
second line of the staff. The F or bass 
clef of the piano indicates f and occu- 
pies the fourth line of the staff. 
Placed on the third line it becomes the 
baritone clef. In ancient music two 
other clefs were employed, a D clef 
indicating d" and the gamut clef from 
the Greek gamma, indicating G. Both 
have become obsolete. 

Clegg (John) played and composed 
for violin, although his works have 
been lost; pupil of Dubourg and Bo- 
noncini. B. 1714, Dublin; d. 1750, 

Clemens (Jacob) composed church 
and secular music; chapelmaster to 
Charles V at Vienna ; called " Non 
Papa" (not the Pope), native of 
Flanders, 10th century. 

Clement (Felix) wrote " Diction- 
naire lyrique," a " M^thode d'orgue," 
"Histoire g^n^rale de la musique 

religieuse," composed; edited church 
music; played organ and directed 
music at the Sorbonne. B. Jan. 13, 
1822, Paris; d. Jan. 23, 1885. 

Clement (Franz) composed; played 
violin wit!i distinction; conducted the 
Vienna Opera ; possessed remarkable 
memory, writing a piano score of 
Haydn's "Creation" without the book; 
first performed Beethoven's great vio- 
lin concerto (which had been dedi- 
cated to him ) , Dec. 23, 1806. B. Nov. 
17, 1780; d. Nov. 3, 1842. 

Clement (Johann Georg) com- 
posed 14 masses, 28 offertories, 18 
graduals, Te Deums, a requiem for 
Emperor Ciiarles VI ; chapelmaster at 
Breslau for 50 years; knight of the 
Golden Spur; also called Clemen and 
dementi. B. Breslau about 1710. One 
son became first violin at Stuttgart, 
afterward chapelmaster at Carlsruhe. 

dementi (Muzio) composed 100 
studies published as " Gradus ad Par- 
nassum," 1817, which are the founda- 
tion of modern piano playing; ranked 
as the legitimate successor to Scar- 
latti as composer for and performer 
on the piano ; founded the London 
music publishing house of CLEMENTI 
& CO. ; taught with great success ; 
enjoyed the admiration of Beethoven 
and the friendship of all the great 
musicians of his generation except 
Mozart, with whom he played in a 
dra\\Ti contest before Emperor Joseph 
II. Son of a goldsmith with a taste 
for music who placed him under Bu- 
roni, choirmaster in a Roman church, 
he became a pupil of Cordicelli in 
1759. When 14 he composed a mass 
which aroused the admiration of Peter 
Beckford, M.P., who took him to his 
country home in Dorsetshire, Eng., to 
perfect himself in his studies. In 1770 
Clementi gave brilliantly successful 
concerts in London, and from 1777 to 
1780 w^as cembalist at the Italian 
Opera, London. During the following 
year he toured Europe, having the 
famous encounter with Mozart in 
Vienna. Tliereafter his home was in 
England, although he made occasional 
concert tours of the continent. Losing 
heavily in the failure of Longman & 
Broderip, with whom he had an in- 




terest, he founded a new publishing 
house and recouped his losses. From 
1810 he devoted himself to his busi- 
ness, composing only in leisure mo- 
ments. B. Rome, 1752 ; m. daughter 
of J. G. G. Lehmann, cantor of Berlin 
Nicolaiikirche, 1804; d. Mar. 10, 1832, 
Evesham, Eng. 

Clementi & Co. manufactured 
pianos and violins and published mu- 
sic in London. The house was founded 
by MUZIO CLEMENTI, and after 
various changes in personnel, became 
Collard & CoUard in 1S32. 

Clemenza di Tito. W. A. Mozart's 
two-act opera to book by Mazzola, 
adapted from Metastasio, was first 
performed Sept. 6, 1791, at Prague, 
one day after its completion. It was 
Mozart's 23d and last opera. 

Clicquot (Frangois Henri) built 
organs in many French churches. B, 
1728, Paris; d. 1791. 

ClifEe (Frederick) composed sym- 
phonies in C minor (Op. 1) and in E 
minor, " Cloud and Sunshine," an 
orchestral poem ; " The Triumph of 
Alcestis," scena for con. and orchestra, 
Norwich Festival, 1902; and an '" Ode 
to the North-East Wind"; pupil of 
Sullivan, Stainer, Prout, and Taylor; 
organist and piano virtuoso; taught 
piano Royal College of Music, London; 
toured Australia, 1898, Africa and 
America, 1900-3. B. May 2, 1857, 
Bradford, Eng.; add. London. 

Clifford (Rev. James) compiled 
and published an important collection 
of " The Divine Services and Anthems 
usually sung in the Cathedrals and 
collegiate Choirs of the Church of 
England," 16G3; minor canon St. 
Paul's Cathedral. B. 1622, Oxford; 
d. 1008. 

Clifton (John C.) composed vocal 
music; invented the " Eidomusicon " 
to teach sight reading. B. 1781, Lon- 
don; d. Nov. 18, 1841. 

Clive (Katherine) sang the part 
of Dalila in the first production of 
Handel's oratorio " Samson " ; first 
made known Dr. Arne's song " Where 
the Bee sucks " ; made her first suc- 
cess in Collev Cibber's ballad opera 
"Love in a Riddle"; and as "Kitty 
Clive " was immensely popular in 

comedy and comic opera. B. 1711, 
London; daughter of William Raftor; 
m. George Clive, 1734; d. Dec. G, 1785. 

Clocca. L. Bell. 

Cloche. Fr. Bell. 

Clochette. Fr. Handbell. 

Clock. To swing the hammer of 
a stationary bell. 

Clokerre. Old Eng. for belfry. 

Close. CADENCE ; half close, im- 
perfect cadence. 

Close Play. Smooth or legato style 
in lute playing. 

Cluer (John) invented improve- 
ments in music type, printed Handel's 
operas, London, 1724, to his death, 
about 1730, when his engraver, Thomas 
Cobb, continued his business. 

Clynkebell. Chime. 

C Moll. Ger. C minor. 

Cobb (Gerard Francis) composed 
Psalm Ixii with orchestra; chairman 
board of music studies, Cambridge. B. 
Nettlestead, Kent, Eng., Oct. 15, 1838; 
add. Cambridge. 

Cobbold (William) composed mad- 
rigals, the anthem " In Bethlehem 
towne"; one of 10 arrangers of "The 
Whole Booke of Psaliiies," published 
by Thomas Este ; plaj'ed organ Nor- 
wich Cathedral. B. Norwich, Jan. 5, 
1559 ; d. Beccles, Nov. 7, 1639. 

Cocchi (Gioacchino) composed 
operas ; taught with great success ; 
conducted Mrs. Cornelys' London con- 
certs. B. Padua about 1720; d. 
Venice, 1804. 

Coccia (Carlo) composed the operas 
"Clotilde," Venice, 1815; "Donna 
Caritea " (in six days), Turin, 1818, 
and many other dramatic works and 
cantatas; conducted at Lisbon and 
London; court musician to Joseph 
Bonaparte. B. April 14, 1782, Naples; 
d. Novara, April 13, 1873. 

Coccia (Maria Rosa) composed a 
Magnificat for four voices and organ, 
an eight part " Dixit Dominus " ; 
given the title " maestra di capella " 
by Bologna Academia Filarmonica; 
honoured by the Saint Cecilia, Rome, 
1775, which published an account of 
her examination. B. Rome, Jan. 4, 

Cocks (Robert) founded the music 
publishing house in London known 




as Robert Cocks & Co., 1823, which 
issued more tlian 10,000 works. B. 
1797; d. London, April 7, 1887. The 
business was continued until 1898 by 
Kobcrt M. Cocks, when the estab- 
lishment was jjurchased by Messrs. 

Coda. It. "Tail." Originally a 
few bars or chords preceding a ca- 
dence to give a formal conclusion to 
a composition, especially those in 
which the theme was often repeated; 
Beethoven developed the coda until it 
often becomes part of the movement, 
e\('n introducing new subject matter. 
Elaborate codas are common in the 
works of his successors. 

Codetta. It. Short coda. 

Codon. Gr. Small bell such as 
those attached to harness; trumpet 
with bell mouth-piece or the bell itself. 

Coenen (Cornelius) conducted Am- 
sterdam orchestra, 1S59; Utrecht Na- 
tional Guarde band, 1860. B. 1838 at 
The Hague. 

Coenen (Franz) composed a sym- 
phony, cantatas, quartets, setting of 
Psalm xxxii; directed Amsterdam 
Conservatory; played violin. B. Rot- 
terdam, Dec. 20, 1826; son of church 
organist. Willem composed the ora- 
torio " Lazarus," songs ; concert pian- 
ist in America and in London. B. Rot- 
terdam, Nov. 17, 1837, brother of 
FRANZ; settled in London, 1802. 

Coenen (Johannes Meinardus) 
composed the opera " Bertha und Sieg- 
fried," ballet and incidental music, 
cantatas, chamber music, two sym- 
phonies ; conducted and built up the 
" Palais Orchestra " at Amsterdam. 
B. Jan. 28, 1824, at The Hague; d. 
Jan. 9, 1899. Amsterdam. 

Coerne (Louis Adolphe) composed 
the opera " The Maid of Marblehead," 
symphonic poem " Hiawatha "; organ- 
ist; directed Buffalo Liedertafel; pu- 
pil of Paine, Kneisel, Rheinberger, and 
Hieber. B. Newark, N. J., 1870. 

Cogan (Dr. Philip) composed 
piano concerto and sonatas; taught; 
played organ St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. B. 1750, Cork, Ireland; d. 
Dublin. 1834. 

Cogli Stroraenti. It. With the 

Cohen (Jules Emile David) com- 
posed the operas " Maitre Claude," 
" Jos6 Maria," " Lcs Bleuets," choral 
works, symphonies, masses; chorus- 
master at the Paris Op6ra 20 years; 
professor at the Conservatoire, 35 
years. B. Nov. 2, 1835, Marseilles; 
d. Jan. 13, 1901, Paris. 

Coi Bassi. It. With the basses. 

Coi Violini. It. With tlie violins. 

Col. //. " With the," as Arco, with 
the bow; Destra, with the right hand; 
Voce, with the voice. 

Colasse (Pascal) composed nine 
operas including " Thetis et Pelee," 
"Jason," "La naissance de Venus"; 
conducted at Paris Opera, 1677; a 
" surintendant de la chapelle royale " 
and " maitre de musique de chambre " 
to Louis XIV; pupil of LuUy. B. 
Jan. 22, 1649; d. Versailles, July 17, 

Colbran (Isabella Angela) sang 
sop. in opera, 1803-24; composed; 
favourite of the King of Naples; m. 
Rossini, 1822, and went with him to 
Paris. B. Madrid, Feb. 2, 1785; 
daughter of Gianni Colbran, court 
musician to the King of Spain; d. 
BologTia, Oct. 7, 1845. 

Cole (Blanche) sang sop. in opera 
with Carl Rosa and headed her own 
company. B. Portsmouth, 1851; m. 
Sidney Nalor, 1868; d. Aug. 31, 1888, 

Coleman or Colman (Dr. Charles) 
composed songs, masques, and dra- 
matic music; composer and court mu- 
sician to Charles I. D. July 9, 1664. 
Charles played in the Royal Band. 
Died about 1694. Edward composed 
songs ; sang in the Chapel Royal. 
His wife was one of the first women 
to appear on the English stage. Son 
of DR. CHARLES; d. Aug. 29, 1069. 

Colla (Giuseppe) composed the 
operas " Adriano in Siria," Milan, 
1703; "Licidae Mopso," 1769; " Enea 
in Cartagine," Turin, 1770; " Tolo- 
meo," Milan. 1774, in which AGUJARI 
made a great success, afterwards mar- 
rying the composer. B. Parma, 1730; 
d. Mar. 16, 1806. 

Collard (F. J.) patented piano im- 
]irovejncnts in 1811 ; employed in the 
business of CLEMENTI &"C0., with 




which he was associated. D. 1879. 
On the death of Clementi the firm be- 
came CoUard & CoUard, and in 1908 
the firm was headed by John Clementi 

College of Organists, Royal. 
Founded 18U4 and chartered 1893; 
grants diplomas to organists after ex- 
amination or honoris causa. Tlie 
headquarters are in London. 

College Youths, Ancient Society 
of. i'ounded in 1030 for cliange-ring- 
ing at the Cliureh of the College of 
Sts. Spirit and Mary, is the largest as 
well as tlie oldest and most important 
of such organizations in England. The 
founders included the then Lords Salis- 
bury, Brereton, and Dacre, and Sir 
Cliff Clifton, and it continues to num- 
ber many of the nobility in its mem- 
bership as patrons and performers. 

Col Legno. It. Indicates that 
the strings of the viol are ta be struck 
witli the stick of the bow. 

Collet de Violon. Fr. Violin's 

Collinet. Name for flageolet de- 
rived from that of famous performer. 

Colomba. A. C. Mackenzie's opera, 
to book by Francis Hueffer, founded 
on Prosper Merimee's tale, was written 
for the Carl Rosa Opera Company and 
produced at Drury Lane, April 5, 

Colombe. Charles Gounod's two- 
act comic opera to book by Barbier 
and Carre was produced June 7, 1800, 
at the Opera Comique, Paris. 

Colombi (Vincenzo) built the or- 
gan in the Cathedral of St. John's 
Lateran, Rome, 1549. 

Colonna (Giovanni Paolo) com- 
posed the opera " Amiicare," Bologna, 
1093; six oratorios and church music; 
played organ ; chapelmaster of San 
Petronio, Bologna. B. Brescia, 1637; 
d. Nov. 28, 109.5. 

Colonne (Judas, called Eduard) 
foimded the Paris concerts bearing his 
name, at which many recent French 
composers gained their first hearing, 
and distincruished himself by carefully 
reviving all the choral and orchestral 
works of Berlioz, including " La Dam- 
nation de Faust"; studied violin at 
the Paris Conservatoire, won tbr first 

prize in harmony, 1858; played first 
violin in Opera orchestra ; established 
the " Concert National " with Hart- 
mann, 1873-74, continuing them alone 
after the latter date; Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor, 1880; m. Elise Ver- 
gin, tlie singer; conducted at the Grand 
Opera, 1892; ranked with the best of 
modern conductors. B. July 24, 1838, 
Bordeaux; d. Paris, March 28, 1910. 

Colophane. Rosin for fiddle bows 
was so called because the best was 
obtained in Colophon, Asia Minor. 

Coloratura. It. Florid passages 
in vocal music, consisting of divisions, 
runs, trills, and cadenzas. 

Coloscione or Colachon. Variety 
of guitar. 

Colour. " Timbre." The word had 
a variety of meanings in mediaeval 
music, and is now employed to suggest 
imaginary analogies between tones and 

Colporteur. George Onslow's three- 
act lyric drama to book by Planard 
was produced Nov. 22, 1827, in Paris. 

Coltellini (Celeste) sang mez. sop. 
in opera with great success in Vienna; 
debut Naples, 1781; m. M. Mericofre, 
1795, and retired. Paisiello composed 
"Nina" for her. B. Leghorn, 1704; 
daughter of the poet; d. 1817. 

Columbani (Orazio) composed 
church music and songs; one of the 
composers who dedicated a version of 
the Psalms to Palestrina. B. Verona; 
became Cordelier monk, 16th century. 

Columbia University established 
its department of music in 1896 with 
the most illustrious of American com- 
posers. Dr. Edward A. MACDOWELL, 
as professor of music. Instruction was 
given, from the first, in the history 
and criticism of music, and in har- 
mony, coimterpoint, and composition. 
In 1904 Prof. MacDowell withdrew 
from Columbia LTniversity, and Cor- 
nelius RLTBNER was elected to suc- 
ceed him. With Professor Riibner is 
associated Leonard B. McWHOOD 
(formerly assistant to Prof. Mac- 
Dowell ) as Adjunct Professor, these 
two constituting the entire faculty in 
1908. Tlie original lines of instruc- 
tion have been broadened and enlarged 
since the foundation of the depart- 

Gasparo Spontini Giacomo Meyerbeer 

GioACHiNo Rossini 
Gaetano Donizetti Vincenzo Bellini 




ment, and some practical courses in 
ear-training and in orchestral and 
choral purforniancc added. Individual 
instruction in musical performance 
has never been undertaken. The 
courses in music may be counted 
toward the academic degrees ( Bach- 
elor of Arts and Bachelor of Science) 
as well as toward the degrees in music 
(Bachelor of Music, Master of Arts in 
Music, and Doctor of Philosopliy in 
Music). In addition, music may be 
presented as a subject for examination 
by a candidate for admission to the 
Academic College or to the School of 

Colyns (Jean Baptists) composed 
the operas "'Sir William," 1877; 
" Capitaine Raymond," 1881; played 
violin ; was for some time at Dresden ; 
tanglit in the Brussels Conservatory. 
B. Nov. 24, 1834, Brussels; d. Brussels, 
Oct. 31, 1!)()2. 

Combarieu (Jules Leon Jean) 
■wrote on musical history, theory, and 
aesthetics; taught at the Lycee Grand, 
Paris. B. Feb. 3, 18.59, Cahors; pupil 
of Philip Spitta; add. Paris. 

Combination Pedals invented by 
the French organ builders CAVAIL- 
LE-COL enable the performer by 
means of a pedal controlling a ventil 
to bring into play or shut off any 
combination of stops at will. 

Come. It. " As or like." Prima, 
at first; Sopra, as above. 

Comes. /.. ANSWER. 

Comes (Juan Bautista) composed 
churcli music ; chapelmaster Valencia 
Cathedral. B. 15G8, Valencia; d. 

Comettant (Pierre Jean Oscar) 
composed; wrote criticism for the 
Paris " Si^cle," " La musique, les mu- 
siciens, et les instruments de musique 
chez les difTerents peuples du monde," 
Paris, 18G9; " Trois ans aux fitats 
Unis," describing his sojourn in Amer- 
ica, 1852-5; played piano; pupil 
Paris Conservatoire. B. April 18, 
1819, Bordeaux; d. Paris, Jan. 24, 

Comic Opera in the broadest sense 
is one in which the incidents and dia- 
logues are hinnorons, but the name is 
sufficiently elastic to include the form- 

less " creations " which are depend- 
ant \i\)m\ the costumier and ballet 
master ratlier tiian nnisic for tlieir 
chief interest. The term might, with 
propriety, be restricted to works of the 
Cilbert and Sullivan type. The earli- 
est comic opera still extant is " Le 
jeu de Robin et Marion " of ADAM 
DE LA HALE, first performed at the 
French court in Naples, 1285, re- 
scored for modern orchestra and per- 
formed at Arras, 189G. Opera comique 
as it developed in France consisted of 
dramatic pieces with music and danc- 
ing and instrumental accompaniment, 
often along tragic rather than comic 
lines, like the German singspiel, all or 
nearly all the dialogue being spoken; 
differing from the Italian opera buffa, 
which is sung throughout, never 
spoken. Exceptions to the last state- 
ment will be found in occasional opera 
buffa modelled on the French style. 

Comma. The interval between a 
major and minor tone, the ratio being 
80: 81 in the common comma or comma 
of Didymus. The Pythagorean comma 
or comma maxima is the difference 
resulting from tuning up from the 
same tone 12 perfect fifths and seven 

Commer (Franz) composed music 
to " The Frogs " of Aristophanes and 
" Electra " of Sophocles ; edited im- 
portant collections of music; founded 
the Berlin Tonkiinstlerverein in 1844, 
jointly with Kullak ; librarian to 
Konigliche Musik-Institut and choir- 
master St. Hedwig's Church, Berlin. 
B. Cologne, Jan. 23, 1813; d. Aug. 17, 
1887, Berlin. 

Commodamente. It. Easily, 

Commodo. It. " Easily or at con- 
venient speed." 

Common Chord. A tone and its 
major or minor third and perfect fifth. 

Common Time has two beats or 
any multiple of two beats to the 
measure. Simple Common Time in- 
cludes all rhythms of two or four, as 
4-4 or 2-4. Compound Common Time 
is where the value of each beat is three 
quavers or crotchets although the num- 
ber of beats be even as 6-4, 6-8, 12-8 
In ancient notation a circle O meaub 




"tempus perfectum," which had three 
semibreves to the measure. A semi- 
circle C meant " tempus imperfectum," 
which had two semibreves to the meas- 
ure, and this sign has been retained 
in modern notation for alia capella 
time or tempo ordinario, which gen- 
erally has four minims to the bar 
and is played or sung slowly. If a 
vertical line is drawn through the C 
it indicates alia breve time or four 
minims to the measure played twice 
as fast. 

Communion Service. In the 
Anglican Church in which the Com- 
munion Service Is a translation or 
rather an adaptation of the MASS, 
the English words w'ere originally 
sung to the music already familiar 
from having been employed with the 
Latin ritual, and the services edited 
by Marbeck and Tallis were noted in 
full. ]\Iusic in the Anglican Church 
gradually decreased in importance with 
the growth of the Puritan movement, 
practically ceased to exist during the 
Commonwealth except in Psalmody, 
and although restored by Charles II, 
was rarely heard throughout a service 
except in the Chapel Royals and Cathe- 
drals and Collegiate Churches until 
about 1840, when a renewed interest 
in ritualistic music was manifested, 
which has resulted in a careful re- 
vision of the older music for the 
Communion Service, and many new 

Compagnia del Gonf alone, founded 
at Rome in 1264, played sacred dramas 
with music, or " miracles " which may 
have suggested the later ORATORIOS. 

Company of Musicians estab- 
lished by letters patent issued by 
Edward IV in 1472 as " a perpetual 
guild or fraternity and sisterhood of 
minstrels" (musicians qualified to 
sing or play in public), and char- 
tered by James I, July 8, 1604, con- 
trolled the exercise of the musical pro- 
fession in London, and appears to have 
been the English prototype of the 
modern musicians' unions. 

Compass. The range of sound of 
Avhich a voice or instrument is capable. 

Compere (Loyset) composed church 
music and songs j distinguished pupil 

of Okeghem; chorister, canon, and 
chancellor of the St. Quentin Cathe- 
dral; d. Aug. 16, 1518. 

Compiacevole. It. Pleasant, 

Complement is whatever interval 
added to another interval will com- 
plete an octave. 

Compline completes the Horae 
Diurnae of the Latin breviary and fol- 
lows the vesper service, with or 
without pause. The Latin term is 
" Completorium." 

Composer. An author of music. 

Composition. An invention in 
music whether for voices, instruments, 
or both in combination. Literally " a 
putting together." The art of writ- 
ing music according to scientific rules. 

Composition Pedals were of two 
kinds, single action, by which an or- 
ganist could throw out or draw in 
certain stops, and double action, which 
not only threw out a certain number 
of stops but drew in all the rest. 
Prior to Bishop's invention of these 
pedals a shifting pedal was employed 
permitting a change from the " great " 
or " loud " to the " choir " or " small " 

Composizione. It. Composition, 
Di Tavolino, table music. 

Compound Intervals are those 
greater than an octave, those less than 
an octave being called simple. 

Compound Stops are those which 
control more than one rank of organ 

Compound Time is the rhythm 
formed by combining two, three, or 
four measures of simple time, and 
besides the principal accent on the 
first note of each measure, has sub- 
ordinate accents on each group of 
notes. It is common or triple accord- 
ing to the niunber of groups in each 
measure: thus 6-8 consisting of two 
measures of 3-8, and 12-8, consisting 
of four measures of 3-8 time are com- 
mon; 9-8, consisting of three meas- 
ures of 3-8, and 9-4 consisting of 
three measures of 3—4 are triple. 

Comte Ory. Gioacchino Rossini's 
two-act opera to book by Scribe and 
Dolestre-Poivson, both score and text 
being adaptations of earlier works by 




the same men, was produced Aug. 20, 
1828, at tlie I'aris Acadeniie lloyale. 

Con. It. " With," as cou Aninia, 
with spirit; con Amore, with all'ec- 
tion; con Sordini, with mutes; con 
Brio, with lite and lire. 

Conacher & Co. built oryans in 
Iludderslicld, l*hig., bcyiiiiiing in 1854. 

Concentores Sodales founded by 
William Horsley, tlie organist. Dr. 
Callcott and other London musicians, 
1798, met in various taverns and sang 
canons, glees, and madrigals composed 
by the members. Disbanded, 18-17. 

Concentus. L. Harmony or part 
music; cimsonance. 

Concert. A performance of music 
of a miscellaneous character, to which 
the public is admitted by payment, is 
the modern acceptation of a term 
which seems to have originally referred 
to several instruments playing one 
tune in unison or to a set of viols or 
other instruments. Famous concerts 
of the world's music centres and the 
organizations which give them are 
referred to under the names of the 
cities to which they belong. 

Concert. Ger. Concerto. 

Concertante. It. Composition 
suitable for concert performance; mu- 
sic for two or more instruments with 
solo parts. 

Concerted Music. Vocal or in- 
strumental music for two or more 

Concertina. Portable free reed in- 
strument of hexagonal form, invented 
by Sir Charles Wheatstone, 1829, con- 
sisting of a bellows with keyboard at 
either extremity, made in treble, tenor, 
bass, and doublebass sizes with a com- 
bined range from G' to g'". The Ger- 
man instrument of the same name, 
unlike the English, produces differ- 
ent tones by inspiratory and expira- 
tory action, and is tuned in one key. 

Concertino. Solo instruments re- 
quired in the performance of a CON- 
CERTO GROSSO; a diminutive con- 
certo in freer form than a concerto, 
and often having a single movement. 

Concertista. It. Virtuoso. 

Concertmeister. Ger. The first 
violin and leader of the orchestra. 

Concerto. It. An instrimiental 

composition in three movements based 
upon tiie sonata form and serving to 
display the performer's skill, with or- 
chestral accompaniment. Concertos 
for more than one solo instrument 
are known as double, triple, quad- 
ruple, as the case may be. Originally 
the term was ajiplied to vocal com- 
positions with organ accompaniment 
termed concerti ecclesiastici or con- 
certi da chiesa or church concertos. 
A " concerto da camera " for two vio- 
lins and bass published in 1G85 by 
Giuseppe Torelli was the model upon 
which the CONCERTI GROSSI of 
Corelli, Geminiani, and Vivaldi were 
based, and to which Bach and Handel 
adhered. Mozart crystallized the form 
of the concerto as it is known to-day, 
giving larger prominence to the or- 
chestra, which, however, was still 
chiefly confined to accompaniment. 
The introduction of cadenzas by per- 
formers led Mozart to write 35 ca- 
denzas for his own concerti, an ex- 
ample which Beethoven followed. 
With Beetlioven the orchestral part 
in the concerto assumed symphonic 
proportions, and the composers suc- 
ceeding him have conformed to his 
ideas in this respect. Brahms has 
even gone to the extreme in his D 
minor concerto of deferring the en- 
trance of the piano until the orchestra 
has played 91 measures. Exceptions 
to the definition given in the first 
sentence of this article may be noted 
in Liszt's "Concert Path#tique," which 
is for two pianos without orchestra, 
and in Litolff's Concert- Symphonic for 
piano and orchestra in E flat, which 
introduces a scherzo as the third of 
four movements. 

Concerto Grosso. Composition for 
two or more solo instruments and or- 
chestra in several movements, analo- 
gous to overtures and suites. 

Concerto Spii'ituale. It. Sacred 

Concert Pitch is usually higher 
than A at 435 double vibrations per 
second or French diapason normal, be- 
cause that pitch is estimated at a 
temjiorature of 59 degrees F. and the 
temperature of a concert room is much 
wa rmer. 




Concertspieler. Ger. Soloist con- 
certo player. 

Concertstuck. Ger. Concert piece ; 

Concha. L. Triton's horn or shell- 
shaped trumpet; conch. 

Concitato. It. Agitated; disturbed. 

Concone (Giuseppe) composed 
vocal music and solfeggi; taught in 
Paris; chapelmaster and organist at 
the Chapel Royal, Turin. B. 1810, 
Turin; d. June 1, 18G1. 

Concord combines notes which give 
the ear complete satisfaction, such as 
perfect fifths and major and minor 
sixths and thirds, their octaves, and 
combinations of them not involving 
other intervals. Other concords rec- 
ognized in HARMONY may be pro- 
duced by placing concordant notes 
below those which would otherwise 
be discordant. 

Condell (Henry) composed " The 
Enchanted Isle," a ballet, farces, and 
other dramatic music and the prize 
glee " Loud Blowe the Wyndes " ; 
jjlayed violin at London Opera, Co- 
vent Garden, and Drury Lane. B. 
1757; d. June 24, 1824. 

Conducting has grown in impor- 
tance with the evolution of the or- 
chestra and the increasing number of 
parts and of performers until the con- 
ductor has virtually become a soloist 
and the musicians under him an in- 
strument, with this difference, that 
the conductor's instrument is instinct 
with life, and with intelligence — more 
or less — and should therefore be cap- 
able of quicker response and more 
subtle expression than any of the solo 
instruments designed for big tonal 
effects. Almost any one can beat time, 
just as almost any one can sing, but 
great conductors are still more rare 
than great singers, since the many 
qualities which must be combined in 
the " prima donna conductor " are 
seldom realized in one person. Pri- 
marily the conductor must set the 
tempo for the orchestra or chorus or 
both. In this he will have the guid- 
ance of the composer's indicated inten- 
tion so far as language and notation 
give it, generally supplemented by the 
metronome, by tradition, and also by 

such enlightenment as may be had 
through careful study of the work to 
be performed. This knowledge he must 
be able to impart to the musicians 
under him in the clearest and most 
decisive manner. Every motion of the 
baton should mean something, every 
gesture should give direction, for it 
is necessary, as Wagner suggested, 
that the musicians be taught to look 
for the melody in every bar, and then 
sing it. In obtaining delicate effects 
in light and shade, and in rubato, the 
conductor has the same right to dis- 
cretion which the pianist has always 
claimed and often abused. He may 
likewise accord certain liberties to his 
musicians in extended solo passages, 
for it has been repeatedly observed 
that an orchestra in which the con- 
ductor drills his men with too much 
severity loses in brilliancy. Above all, 
possessing knowledge of music and 
interpretive talent in the highest de- 
gree, the conductor must know how to 
command men, for it is more difficult 
to keep an assemblage of musicians in 
the proper mood for the best work 
than to tune a violin or even a piano. 
Perfect understanding between con- 
ductor and musicians is absolutely 
essential to the best results, and it 
need hardly be added that such imder- 
standing can only be arrived at in a 
permanent orchestra. In mediaeval 
music where chorus and orchestra were 
alike of small proportions a conductor 
in the modern sense was no more nec- 
essary than in chamber music at pres- 
ent. In early French opera time was 
beaten by rapping a long baton or 
stick on the floor, and in Rousseau's 
day the baton had been shortened in 
length and was beaten against the con- 
ductor's desk. In Beethoven's youth 
it was part of his duty as cembalist at 
the Bonn opeia to give the time, and 
Bach habitually directed while playing 
organ. But while conducting may 
have been practised in the modern 
sense in the Sistine Chapel at Rome as 
early as the 16th century, it remained 
for INIendelssohn, while at the head of 
the Cewandliaus concerts in Leipsic to 
establish the importance of the con- 
ductor's office, and his influence grew 




paraniouiit in mutter of interpreta- 
tion until a new school grew up with 
such leaders as Wagner, von Biilow, 
SeidI, and Richter, whose successors in 
the present generation have been Ni- 
kisch, Weingartner, Mottl, Muck, and 
Mahler. See : " Le Chef d'Orcliestre," 
Hector Berlioz, Paris, 1848, for dia- 
grams of various beats, arrangement 
of orchestra, conducting in tlieatre, 
etc. ; " Ueber das Dirigiren," Richard 
Wagner, 18()i), Eng. trans, by Dann- 
reuther, 1887 ; " Ueber das Dirigiren," 
Felix Weingartner, 189G, dealing with 
use and abuse of tempo rubato ; Carl 
Schroder, " Handbook on Conducting," 
Eng. trans., London, 1891. 

Conductor's Part. Condensation 
of a score on two staves, giving the 
entrances of the various instruments 
in proper order. 

Conductus. Obsolete 13th century 
polyphonic music in from one to four 
parts sometimes sung without words, 
in which the cantus firmus was of 
secular not church origin. 

Conduit. Fr. Wind trunk. 

Cone Gamba. Bell gamba. 

Conforti (Giovanni Luca) wrote 
" Passaggi sopra tutti i salmi," which 
gives vocal ornaments for use in 
church service. B. Mileto, 1560; 
joined the Papal choir at Rome, Nov. 
4, 1591. 

Confrerie de St. Julien was com- 
posed of musicians who settled in 
Paris about 1330, formed a guild for 
self-protection at a time when the 
art of the troubadour or minstrel had 
ceased to be fashionable, and monopo- 
lized secular music in France until the 
reign of Louis XIV. In 1658 that 
monarch confirmed the privileges which 
had been granted the Confrerie by his 
ancestors, but two years later his 
majesty desired to hear the perform- 
ance of a new work by Jean Baptiste 
Lulli, and the Confrerie having grown 
so negligent of its art as to be unable 
to comply, Lulli was commissioned to 
organize the band of 24 men known 
as " Le Petits violons du Roi." This 
was the beginning of the Confrerie's 
decline, and it was suppressed in 

Congregational Music. That sung 

in church by the people as opposed to 
that sung bv a trained choir. 

Conjunct. In GREiOK MUSIC a 
combination of Hexachords; notes 
close together. 

Conradi (August) composed the 
opera " Riibczahl," five symphonies, 
dance music; conducted in Dusseldorf, 
Cologne, and Berlin theatres; played 
organ. B. June 27, 1821, Berlin; d. 
May 26, 1873, Berlin. 

Conradi (Johann Georg) composed 
tlie operas '" Ariane," " Diogenes," and 
"■ Numa Pompilius," 1691; "Jerusa- 
lem," 1692; " Sigismund," " Genese- 
rius," and " Pygmalion," 1693; chapel- 
master at Oettingen, Bavaria. 

Conried, Ritter von (Heinrich) 
became impresario at the jNIetropolitan 
Opera House, New York, 1903, made 
a notable production of " Parsifal," 
the first to be given outside the 
Festspielhaus in Bayreuth; produced 
Richard Strauss's " Salome," 1907, but 
was compelled to withdraw it by the 
owners of the opera house. Appren- 
ticed to a weaver in Vienna as a boy, 
he was fired with ambition to become 
an actor, and, on mastering his trade, 
obtained employment at the Vienna 
theatres in a minor capacity. After 
acquiring some reputation as a come- 
dian, he left Vienna for New York, 
where he soon assembled a small com- 
pany of German players about him. 
In 1887 he obtained a lease of the 
Irving Place Theatre, which speedily 
became famous for the excellence of its 
ensemble at a time when the English 
houses were dominated by the star 
system. It was due the merit of 
the performances there given that the 
Metropolitan Opera House Realty Co., 
owners of the building, installed him 
as manager in succession to Maurice 
Grau, who retired because of ill health, 
1905 he received a decoration from 
Franz Leopold carrying the right to 
the prefix " von," and received the 
honorary degree of M.A. from Har- 
vard, and was made honorary member 
of the board for Germanic language 
and literature at Harvard and Vassar. 
In 1907 Mr. von Conried was afflicted 
with a nervous disorder which threat- 
ened to make him a permanent in- 




valid, and on the advice of his physi- 
cians he retired from the management 
of the Opera on the conclusion of the 
season 1907-8. giving way to Messrs. 
Andreas DIPPEL and GATTI-CA- 
SAZZA. Mr. von Conried had previ- 
ously retired from the management of 
the Irving Place Theatre, and in the 
fall of 1908 was endeavouring to re- 
gain his health in Europe and was at 
the same time engaged in writing his 
memoirs. B. Sept. 13, 1855, Bielitz, Si- 
lesia; d. Meran, Austria, Apr. 27, 1909. 

Consecutives. The progression of 
parallel fifths or octaves, although 
occasionally exemplified in the works 
of the great composers, is forbidden 
by theorists. Consecutive fifths neces- 
sarily move in different keys, and 
doubling octaves, unless to strengthen 
a melody temporarily, would be throw- 
ing away a part in vocal music or 
string quartets, which could ill be 

Consento. It. Harmony; notes 
of a chord sounded together as opposed 
to arpeggio. 

Consequent. The answer to a 
fugue subject. 

Conservatoire National de Mu- 
sique et de Declamation, referred 
to in this work as the Paris Conserva- 
toire had its beginning in the Ecole 
Royale de Chant, opened in 1784 by 
Gossec in the Hotel des Menus-Plaisirs 
du Roi. Plans had been submitted 
for the formation of such a school 
by a horn player, Rodolphe, in 1775. 
The first concert took place in 1786. 
A school for declamation was then 
added, and the institution became 
the Nicole Royale de Chant et de 
Declamation. In 1792 Sarrette or- 
ganized the ficole gratuite de Musique 
de la Garde Rationale Parisienne, 
afterwards known as the Institut 
National de Musique. On Aug. 3, 
1795, both schools were incorporated 
as the Conservatoire de Musique, with 
Sarrette as president. Four years 
later the Conservatoire had COO pupils 
of both sexes, 125 professors, and a 
printing office for the publication of 
" fitudes de Conservatoire," edited by 
Catel, Mi'hul, Rode, and Kreutzer. 
Napoleon made important changes in 

the Conservatoire organization, im- 
proving it, as he had many other edu- 
cational institutions; and in 1800 the 
faculty consisted of: Sarrette, di- 
rector; Gossec, Mehul, Lesueur, Cheru- 
bini, Monsigny, inspectors of tuition; 
Louis Adam, Berton, Blasius, Catel, 
Devienne, Dugazon, Duvernoy, Garat, 
Gavinies, Hugot, Kreutzer, Persuis, 
Plantade, Rode, Rodolphe, Sallentin, 
and in all 31 first class professors; 
Adrien, Baillot, Boieldieu, Domnieh, 
Eler, Jadin, and in all 40 second class 
professors. Again reorganized in 1812 
by the Decree of Moscow, nine pupils 
of each sex in preparation for the 
Theatre Frangais were allowed 1100 
francs each for maintenance. When 
Louis XVIII came to the throne Sar- 
rette was dismissed, reinstated during 
six months of 1815 and again dis- 
missed, and the Conservatoire was 
closed, to be reopened in 1816 as the 
6cole royale de Musique, with Perne 
as inspector general. Sarrette had 
been allowed a budget of 240,000 
francs, whii3h was reduced to 100,000 
in 1802, but he gave form to the 
courses of study by means of the 
" ]\Iethodc de Conservatoire," estab- 
lished the prix de Rome, 1803, founded 
the library, and inaugurated theatrical 
and concert performances for the pu- 
pils. Perne held office until April 1, 
1822, formed special classes for dec- 
lamation and opera, and an ficole 
primaire du chant, besides affiliating 
subordinate schools at Lille and 
Douai. Cherubini increased the num- 
ber of public concerts, established an 
auxiliary school at Toulouse, opened 
additional instrumental classes, im- 
proved the discipline and in all ways 
raised the institution's standard to 
a higher plane. Among the faculty 
during his long administration were: 
Habeneck and Paer, inspectors of tui- 
tion ; Lesueur, Berton, Reicha, Fetis, 
Halgvy, Carafa, composition ; Lain6, 
Lays, Garat, Plantade, Ponchard, 
Banderali, Bordogni, Panseron, and 
Mme. Damoreau, vocal ; Benoist, or- 
gan; L. Adam and Zimmerman, piano; 
Baillot, Habeneck, and Kreutzer, vio- 
lin; Baudiot. Norblin, and Vaslin, 
'cello; Guilou, Tulou, flute; Voght, 




oboe; Lef^vre, Klos6, clarinet; Del- 
cambre, (Jebauer, bassoon; J3aupiat, 
Meifred, horn; Dauveiiie, trumpet; 
Dieppo, trombone ; Naderman, i'ru- 
mier, liarp; Adolphe Nourrit, opera; 
IMicliolot, Samson, Provost, Beauval- 
let, dramatic action. Feb. 8, 1842, 
Cherubini was replaced by Auber, who 
established lectures on the history and 
literature of music, j^reatly enlarged 
the buildings and equipment and aided 
in the reform of pitch. Additions to 
tlie faculty during Auber's adminis- 
tration included Adolphe Adam, Ani- 
broise Thomas, and Reber, composi- 
tion; Elwart, Bazin, harmony; Bat- 
taille, Duprez, Faure, Garcia, Revial, 
Masset, vocal ; Mme. Farrenc, H. 
Herz, Marmontel, Le Couppey, piano; 
Alard, C. Dancla, Girard, and Mas- 
sart, violin; Franchomme and Chevil- 
lard, 'cello; Tulou, Dorus, flute; Ver- 
roust, oboe; Willent, Cokken, bassoon; 
Gallay, Meifred, horn; Foi-estier, Ar- 
ban, cornet ; Reginier, Monrose, Bres- 
sant and Mile. Brohan, dramatic 
action. During the latter part of 
Auber's term Lassabathie was ap- 
pointed administrateur, but on the 
appointment of Ambroise Thomas to 
the post of inspector general on the 
death of Auber, the oflice of adminis- 
trateur and the allowance of main- 
tenance to pupils were discontinued. 
Under the Thomas regime lectures on 
the general history of music, a class 
in orchestra and a compulsory sight 
singing class were established, and the 
Conservatoire received an increased 
allowance from the state which en- 
abled it to pay better salaries. Theo- 
dore Dubois became director upon the 
death of Thomas, 1896. In 1908 the 
library of the Conservatoire nmnbered 
more than 30,000, and the museum, 
founded in 1861 with the Clapisson 
collection as a nucleus, contained more 
than 700 instruments. The affiliated 
schools included those of Marseilles, 
Lille, Lyons, Nancy, Nantes, Perpi- 
gnan, Rennes. Toulouse, and Roubaix. 
The management and faculty was 
constituted as follows: Director, 
GABRIEL FAURE; composition and 
WIDOR, Andre Gedalge, Georges Caus- 

saude, Lavignac, E. Pessard, Taudou, 
Leroux, Chapuis, GEORGES MARTY; 
history of music, Bourgault, Ducou- 
dray ; solfege, Rougnon, Eniile Schvartz, 
Cuignache, Kaiser, Vervaelde, Au- 
zende, Sujol, Pifl'aretti, Mile. Har- 
douin, Mme. Marcan, Mme. Renart, 
Mme. Roy, Mme. Vinot, Mme. Sau- 
tereau, JNIme. Massart, Mme. Vizen- 
tini; singing, Mme. ROSE CARON, 
Dubulle, Ed. Duvernoy, J. LASP]LLE, 
Manoury, de Martini, Lorrain, Engel, 
Hetlich, Cazeneuve; vocal ensemble, 
Biisser; lyric declamation. Max Bon- 
vet, Melchissedec, Isnardon, Dupey- 
ron ; dramatic declamation, G. Berr, 
Leloir, Paul Mounet, Silvain, Jules 
Truffier, Mme. Sarah Bernhardt ; in- 
strumental ensemble, Charles Le- 
febvre, Chevillard, Capet; piano ac- 
companiment, P. Vidal; organ and 
improvization, GUILMANT; piano 
classes, Diemar, Risler, Delaborde, 
Philipp, Cortet; preparatory piano 
classes, Falkenberg, Mme. Chene, Mme. 
Trouillebert, Mme. Long; harp, Has- 
selmans; chromatic harp, Tassu- 
Spencer; violin, Berthelier, A. Lefort, 
G. Remy, Nadaud; viola, Lafarge; 
preparatory violin class, Desjardins, 
A. Brun ; 'cello, Loeb, Cros St. Auge ; 
doublebass, Charpentier; flute, Taf- 
fanel; oboe, G. Gillet; clarinet. Mi- 
mart; bassoon, Eugene Bourdeau; 
horn, Bremond; cornet, J. Mellet; 
trumpet, Franqviin ; trombone, Al- 
lard. ERNEST REYER continued to 
be inspector-general of the auxiliary 
schools of the Conservatoire in 1908, 
and the librarian was M. Weckerlin. 
Tliere was an enrollment of more 
than 700 free pupils of either sex in 

Conservatori, or public schools for 
teaching music, were early established 
in Italy in connection with hospitals 
and benevolent institutions, and some- 
times provided free board, lodging, and 
clothing for poor students of either 
sex, differing in these respects from the 
ACCADEMIA, which usually were de- 
voted to the arts and sciences in gen- 
eral. Naples was the seat of the con- 
servatori Santa Maria di Loreto, San 
Onofrio, De' Poveri di Gesvl Cristo. and 
Delia Pieta de' Turchino, all of which 




had their beginninjjf in a music school 
founded in 1490 by the Fleming Jean 
Tinctor. In Venice were the conserva- 
tor! L'Ospedale della Pieta, Dei Mendi- 
canti, Degl' Incurabili, and L'Ospeda- 
letto de' SS. Giovanni e Paolo; besides 
which there were many music schools 
attached to cliurches and cathedrals, 
patterned after the one established by 
Pope Gregory the Great in Rome. All 
these schools have passed away, al- 
thougli there are highly important 
Conservator! at NAPLES and MILAN, 
under royal patronage. 

Consoiante. It. Consolingly. 

Consonance. Notes in accord which 
produce an agreeable effect sounded 
together as opposed to dissonance, or 
discordant tones. 

Consort. Set of viols six in num- 
ber ; to sound in accord. 

Construction. FORM in which a 
composition is expressed. 

Contes d'Hoffmann. J. Offenbach's 
operetta to book by Jules Barbier was 
first performed at the Paris Opera 
Comique, and speedily became popular 
in all parts of the world. Revived at 
the Manhattan Opera House, New 
York, Nov. 27, 1907, the name part 
Avas sung by Dalmores, with Mme. 
Zeppilli as Olympia; Jomell! as Giu- 
lietta; Trentini as Antonia; De Cis- 
neros, as Nicklausse, etc. The poet 
Hoffmann is drinking with friends at 
Luther's tavern. Finding him A^ery 
sad, they declare he is in love, but the 
poet tells them all that is in the past. 
Then he undertakes to describe his 
three love affairs, which are enacted 
in character with Olympia, Giulietta, 
and Antonia. An epilogue reveals 
Hoffmann alone in the tavern, which 
his companions have deserted. The 
Muse appears to him in a vision, and 
tells him she is the only mistress to 
follow, and the only one who will 
remain true to him. 

Conti (Francesco Bartoloineo) 
composed " Don Chisciotte in Sierra 
Morena," and in all 16 operas, 13 
serenades, nine oratorios ; theorbist 
and court composer, Vienna. P. Flor- 
ence, Jan. 20, 1081; d. Vienna, July 
20, 17.32. Ignaz composed serenades 
and oratorios. B. 1699; son of 

Mar. 28, 1759. 

Continued Bass. FIGURED BASS 
or basso continuo. 

Continuo. It. Continued bass. 

Contra. It. Indicates an octave 

Contrabasso. It. DOUBLEBASS. 

Contrabass Posaune. It. TROM- 
BONE; 16 ft. and 32 ft. organ 

Contrabass Tuba. It. BOMBAR- 

Contraddanza. It. COUNTRY 

Contra Fagotto. It. DOUBLE 

Contralto. The lowest female voice, 
generally ranging between g and d", 
but sometimes extending to three 
octaves. Rossini and his followers 
wore the first to compose important 
music for this voice. The name is 
derived from the fact that this voice 
was contra . or below the highest male 
voice or ALTO. 

Contrappuntista. It. Writer on 
or cnmposer in counterpoint. 

Contrappunto. It. COUNTER- 
POINT; Alia Mente, improvised or 
Chant sur le Livre. 

Contrappunto Doppio. It. Double 


Contrapuntist. Writer on or 
composer in counterpoint. 

Contr'arco. Violation of approved 

Contrary Motion. Melodies or 
harmonies progressing in opposite di- 
rections, some ascending while others 

Contrassoggetto. It. Counter 

Contra Tempo. It. Against time; 

Contratenor. It. ALTO. 

Contraviolone. It. DOUBLE 

Contrebasse. Fr. DOUBLE BASS. 

Contredanse. Fr. Lively dance 
consisted of eight measure phrases, 
each repeated and in 2-4 or 6-8 time, 
which became popular in France dur- 
ing the Regency, although of English 

Pertaining to 




B. Coneggio, IGtli 

ori^'in, the name l)einff a corrnption 
of COUNTRY DANCE. A pioup of 
coDtredanses make a QUADRILLE, 

Converse (Frederick Shepherd) 

C()Mii>()se(l opera " I'ipeof Desire," <,n\t'ii 
RosUm, U.S.A., Jan. 31, lOUli; dramatic 
pooni "Joh," orcliestral music, son<,'s. 
(Jradnateof Harvard, and pupil of tlie 
Munich Academic; assistant professor 
of music. Harvard, 1905. B. Jan. 5, 
1871, Newton, Mass. 

Conversi (Girolamo) composed ma- 
drij^als and songs 

Conversio. L. Inversion. 

Cooke (Dr. Benjamin) composed an 
An.ulican service in G and oilier church 
music, ciioruses, glees, chamher music ; 
played organ Wesl minster Ahhey and 
conducted London Academy of Ancient 
Music. 1*>. Lond(m, 17;^4 ; son of a 
music publisher; d. Sept. 14, 1793, 

Cooke (Captain Henry) composed 
coronation music for Charles II, under 
whose reign he was master of the chil- 
dren of the Chapel Royal and com- 
poser; fought in the Royalist army 
during Civil War, obtaining captain's 
commission. B, about 1600; d, July 
13, 1672. 

Cooke (Nathaniel) published a 
collection of psalm and hymn tunes, 
partly original; played organ, B 
1773, I)Osli;i,m, Chichester, Eng. ; d. 
April 5, 18--J7. 

Cooke (Robert) composed an Angli- 
can evening service in C, prize glees; 
plaved organ Westminster Abbey. B, 
1768, London; son of DR. BENJA- 
MIN"; dro^\^led himself in the Thames, 
Aug. 13. 1814.- 

Cooke (Thomas Simpson) adapted 
many operas for the London stage, 
composed glees and dramatic pieces; 
sang ten. ; played violin, flute, oboe, 
clarinet, bassoon, horn, doublebass, 
'cello, and piano; directed music at 
Drury Lane and Covent Garden, Lon- 
don. B. Dublin, 1782; son of an oboe 
player; d. Feb. 26, 1848. Grattan or 
ITenry Michael Angelo played oboe ; 
bandmaster 2d Reg. British Life 
Guards. B. 1809; son of THOMAS 
SIMPSON"; d. Sept. 12, 1889, 

Coombe (William Francis) com- 
posed piano music; played organ. B. 

178G, Plymouth, Eng.; son of a sing- 
ing teacher; d. 1850. 

Coombs (James Morris) composed 
a Tc Deum and other church music; 
organLst at Chippenham, Eng. B. 
Salisbury, 1769; d. Mar. 7, 1820. 

Cooper (George) wrote an " Intro- 
duction to the Organ," and admirably 
interpreted Bach on that instrument; 
played organ Eng. Chapel Royal. B. 
July 7, 1820; d. Oct. 2, 1876. 

Cooper (Richard) first engraved 
music in Scotland, for Allan Ramsay's 
collection of Scots songs set by Alex- 
ander Stuart, 1725. D. Jan. 20, 1764, 

Coperario (John) taught music to 
the family of James 1, of England, and 
composed " The Masque of Flowers," 
" Songs of ]\Iourning," and other occa- 
sional music; played viol da gamba; 
Italianized his English name Cooper 
while living in Italy, prior to 1604; 
d. 1027. 

Coppola (Pier Antonio) composed 
the operas "11 Figlio bandito"; "Nina 
pazza per amore," Rome, 1835, Paris, 
1839, as "Eva"; " Ines de Castro," 
1842, and other dramatic and church 
music, and conducted at Royal Thea- 
tre, Lisbon. B. Castrogiovanni, Sicily, 
Dec. 11, 1793; d. Nov. 13, 1877. 

Copula, L. Flowery slurred des- 
cant in mcdiicval music. 

Copyright protects the author or 
other owner of a musical or literary 
work or painting or engraving in " the 
right to copy " or reproduce such copy- 
righted work, and by implication pre- 
vents others from so copying. In the 
United States, by compliance with 
certain formalities, this right may be 
obtained for a period of 28 years, re- 
newable for a further period of 14 
years. In Great Britain copyright 
endures for the author's life and for 
seven years after his death or for a 
period of 42 years after publication, 
which ever may be longest. Perform- 
ing right which is embraced in British 
copjTight is not recognized in Ameri- 
can law, music being protected only 
where it forms an integral part of the 
play. International copyright as pro- 
vided for by the Berne convention of 
1886 has decreased piracy in Europe, 
and reciprocal copyright privileges 




have now been established between 
most of tlie powers. A copy of the 
existing American law may be had 
free on application to the Copyright 
Division, Library of Congress, Wash- 
ington, D. C, and information regard- 
ing British copyright may be obtained 
by addressing the Registry at Sta,- 
tioners' Hall, London, Eng. 

Coquard (Arthur) composed the 
operas " L'Epee du Roi," 1884; " Le 
Mari d'un jour," 1886; "La Jacquerie," 
1895 ; " La Troupe Jolicoeur," 1902 ; 
many dramatic scenes for voice and 
orchestra ; wrote " De la Musique en 
France depuis Rameau," criticisms for 
" Le Monde " ; lectured at the National 
Institute for the Blind. B. May 2G, 
1846, Paris; add. Paris. 

Cor. Fr. Horn. 

Corale. It. Chorale, hymn, or 
psalm tune. 

Cor Anglais. Fr. Tenor oboe set 
in F and a lifth lower than the oboe 
proper, ranging in compass from e to 
b" flat. Although the name means 
English horn, and it is " Corno Ing- 
lese " in Italian, and " Englisclies 
Horn " in German, the instrument is 
doubtless of German origin, being a 
development of the tenor POM- 
MER. Modern composers employ it 

Coranto. COURANTE. 

Corbet (Francisque) played guitar 
at courts of Louis XIV and Charles II; 
real name Corbetti or Corbetta ; taught 
De Vabray. De Vise, and Medard. B. 
about 1620, Pavia; d. 1681, Paris. 

Corbett (William) composed inci- 
dental music to Shakespeare's plays, 
concertos, and sonatas; played violin 
at the London Opera; collected Italian 
music and violins during sojourn in 
Italy; returned to England 1740, 
playing in Royal orchestra. D. Mar. 
7, 1747. 

Corda, sopra una. It. Directs 
that a passage is to be played on one 

Corde a Jour. Fr. Open string. 

Cor de Chasse. Fr. Hunting horn. 

Corde Fausse. Fr. False string. 

Corder (Frederick) composed 
" Nordisa," which was produced with 
brilliant success by the Carl Rosa 

Opera Company, 1887; " River Songs," 
" Roumanian Dances " for violin and 
piano; overture " Prospero," the can- 
tata " Bridal of Triermain " for the 
Wolverhampton Festival, 1886; "0 
sun, that waken'st all," song to Ten- 
nyson's words ; " The Sword of Ar- 
gantyr," cantata for Leeds Festival, 
1S89; taught composition Royal Col- 
lege of Music, London ; conducted 
A([uarium Concerts, Brighton; wrote 
criticisms and made translations. B. 
Jan. 2(i, 1852, London; add. London. 

Cor de Vaches. Fr. Cow horn. 

Cordier (Jacques) played violin 
and rebec and taught dancing to Hen- 
rietta Maria, Queen of Charles I, of 
England; called Bocan. B. about 
1580, Lorraine. 

Corelli (Arcangelo) founded the 
technique of violin playing; composed 
chamber sonatas and concert! grossi 
■\\hicli have influenced later orchestral 
development ; ranked as the first great 
violin virtuoso ; pupil of Matteo Si- 
monelli in counterpoint, and of G. B. 
Bassani on the violin; among the 
most admired and least spoiled mu- 
sicians in history. In early life he 
visited Germany, probably Bavaria 
and Hanover, possibly staying in Paris 
for a time on his homeward journey. 
About 1685 he was settled in Rome 
and had published 12 sonatas, acquir- 
ing a high reputation both as com- 
poser and violinist. Cardinal Pietro 
Ottoboni became his friend and, ex- 
cept for occasional visits to other 
cities, there Corelli lived for the re- 
mainder of his life, leaving the Car- 
dinal about $300,000 in money and a 
collection of paintings. (The money 
was distributed to Corelli's surviving 
relatives it should be added.) B. Feb. 
12, 1653, Fvisignano, Imola; d. Jan. 
10, 1713. 

Corfe (Joseph) composed a volume 
of church music, glees; wrote on Sing- 
ing and Thorough-Bass; sang in Salis- 
bury Cathedral and Eng. Chapel 
Royal; master of choristers Salisbury 
Cathedral. B. Salisbury, 1740; d. 
July 29, 1820. Arthur Thomas com- 
posed a service and otiier church mu- 
sic, wrote " The Principles of Har- 
mony and Thorough-Bass "; succeeded 




/lis father as master of tlie cliildrcn 
and organist at Salisbury Cathedral. 
B. Salisbury, April 9, 1773; son of 
JOSEPH; d. Jan. 28, 18G3. Dr. 
Charles William played organ at 
Clirist Church, Oxford. B. July 13, 
1814, one of 13 children of ARTHUR 
THOMAS; d. Dec. 16, 1883, 0.\ford. 
John Davis plaj^ed organ Bristol 
Cathedral. B. 1804; brother of DR. 

Corifeo. It. CORYPHAEUS. 

Coi'kine (William) published books 
of " Ayres to sing and play " with lute 
and viol accompaniments, London, 
1010 and 1612. 

Cormuse. Fr. BAGPIPE. 

Cornamusa. It. BAGPIPE. 

Cornelius (Peter) composed the 
BARBER OF BAGDAD, the unfa- 
vourable reception of which led to 
Liszt's retirement from Weimar; 
aided Liszt in the establishment of 
the New German school, and upheld 
the Wagnerian art theories by articles 
in the " Neue Zeitschrift fiir Musik " 
and translations of Liszt's French 
lectures ; joined W^agner in Munich 
and taught harmony and rhetoric in 
the " Kiinigliclie Musik-schule " of 
which von Biilow was director, com- 
posed the opera " Gunlod " in Wag- 
nerian style and many songs. B. Dec. 
24, 1824, Mayence; d. Oct. 26, 1874. 

Cornelys (Theresa) managed con- 
certs at Carlisle House, London, di- 
rected by Bach and Abel, 1764-73, 
which were the most notable of that 
period; first favourite of Senator 
Malipiero of Venice, then of the Mar- 
grave of Baireuth ; became directress 
of theatres in the Austrian Nether- 
lands, went to England to sing opera 
as " Mme. Pompeati"; finally became 
impoverished, her career terminating 
in Fleet Street prison. B. 1723, Ven- 
ice; daughter of the actor Imer; d. 
Aug. 19, 1797. 

Cornet. Brass valve instrument of 
the trumpet family with compass 
ranging from c' to g'", having com- 
plete chromatic scale, with good vocal 
quality when well played, but lacking 
the power and brilliancy of the trum- 
pet, for which it is often substituted. 
The fundamental tone is an octave be- 

low the compass indicated, but is 
rarely used. Cornets are usually in 
Ji Hat with an A crook, but a smaller 
instrument in E flat is used in mili- 
tary and brass bands. 

Cornet. Oljsolete woodwind instru- 
ment, with cup mouthpiece, covered 
with leather, known as ZINKE and 
in Italy as rornetto. 

Cornet, Echo. Swell organ stop of 
small scale which originally consisted 
of the same ranks of pipes as the 
MOUNTED CORNET; now applied 
to any small scale sesquialtera or 

Cornet, Mounted. Solo great or- 
gan stop fast becoming obsolete which 
had several ranks of pipes so that the 
open, principal, 12th, 1,5th, and tierce 
tones were sounded together. Usually 
the compass was upward from c'. 
'■ Cornet voluntaries " consisted of 
embellished passages on this stop to 
a soft bass on the choir organ. 

Cornette (Victor) composed and 
wrote methods for orchestral instru- 
ments, director and chorusmaster at 
various Paris theatres; deputy or- 
ganist at St. Sulpice and the Invalides, 
Paris. B. 1795. Amiens; d. Paris. 

Cornetto. It. CORNET. 

Corno. It. HORN. 

Corno Alto. It. Horn of high 

Corno Basso. It. Deep toned horn. 

Corno di Bassetto. It. BASSET 
HORN; organ stop of clarinet quality. 

Corno di Caccia. It. Hunting or 

Corno Flute. 8 ft. organ stop of 
soft tone. 

Corno Inglese. It. COR AN- 

Cornopean. Obsolete name of 
valved cornets. 

Cornu. L. Roman horns. 

Cornyshe or Cornish (William) 
sang in Chapel Royal during reign of 
Henry VII ; master of the children; 
accompanied Henry VIII to Field of 
the Cloth of Gold. D. 1524. Wil- 
liam, Jr., composed part songs and 
sacred music. Son of WILLIAM. 

Cor Omnitonique. Fr. Horn 
capable of producing chromatic scale. 

Coro. It. CHORUS. 


Corona. It. Fermata or pause. " Euridice," Peri's operas, which were 

Coronach or Coranacli. Funeral given at his home in Florence, 1597, 

song chanted by the seannachie or and are considered the earliest Italian 

bard on the death of a chief or other operas. B. about LjOO of noble fam- 

great man in the Gaelic parts of Scot- ily; d. about 1604. 
land. In modern times the coronach Corteccia (Francesco di Bernardo) 

lias given way to the cumliadh which, composed madrigals, ohureli music; 

instead of being chanted, is played on chapelmaster to Cosimo I, and or- 

the bagpipe. ganist and canon of S. Lorenzo, Flor- 

Corps de Voix. Fr. Quality or ence. B. Arezzo; d. Florence, June 7, 

fulness of the voice. 1571. 

Corrente. It. COURANTE. Cortellini (Camillo) composed 

Correpetiteur. Fr. Chorus in- church music and madrigals; played 

struetor. violin so well as to be called " II Vio- 

Corri (Domenico) composed " Ales- lino " ; in service of municipality of 

sandro nell' Indie," London 1774; Bologna, 1583. 

" The Travellers," Jan. 22, 1806, songs; Coryphaeus. L. Chorus or dance 

wrote "The Art of Fingering" and leader; titular officer of music at 

a "Musical Dictionary," 1798; con- Oxford University on Dr. Heather's 

ducted, taught, and published music in foundation. 

Edinburgh, the business being carried Coryphee. Fr. Ballet dancer who 

on by his son JOHN as Corri & Co.; leads a gi-oup. 

settled in London in partnership with Cosi Fan Tutte. W. A. Mozart's 
Dussek, who married his daughter, two-act opera buffa to book by Da 
B. Oct. 4, 1746, Rome; d. London, Ponte was first performed in Vienna, 
May 22, 1825. Natale managed the Jan. 26, 1790. The music has been 
Scotch end of the publishing house of greatly admired, and as the libretto 
Corri & Co. B. 1765; brother of was not, many attempts have been 
DOMENICO; d. 1822. John carried made to provide new books, and in 
on his father's business in Edinburgh, several languages. Rosaura and Isa- 
f ailing in business 1801. Son of bella, two Andalusian ladies, are be- 
DOMENICO. Philip Anthony helped trothed to Don Fernando and Don 
found the London Philharmonic but Alvar. The lovers sing their praises 
later settled in America. Brother of to the disgust of Don Onofrio, an old 
JOHN. Haydn, a third brother, bachelor, who declares that they are 
taught music in Dviblin and became no better than other women, and pro- 
organist at the Pro-Cathedral. B. poses a test of their constancy, to 
1785; d. Feb. 12, 1860. The London which the young men agree. They 
house of Corri, Dussek & Co. failed pretend to have gone to Havana with 
in 1801, and Dussek fled to escape his their regiments, but return in dis- 
creditors. Domenico continued in busi- guise to make love to each other's 
ness alone until succeeded by his son fiancee. Dolores, maid to the ladies, 
Montague, who was b. Edinburgh, has been made a party to the scheme. 
1784; d. London, 1849. After sev- To their delight, both young men are 
oral changes in name Montagvie re- rejected, but Onofrio then suggests a 
tired, and the only member of the further temptation. By his direction 
family remaining in business was the yoimg men pretend to take poison 
Natale, who established himself in in their despair at not overcoming the 
London, but d. 1822, leaving no scruples of the young ladies. Rosaura 
successor. and Isabella, much moved by this evi- 

Corri-Paltoni (Mme. Frances) dence of passion, call Dolores to go for 

sang mez. sop. in opera. B. Edin- a physician, and by her advice take 

burgh, 1801 ; daughter of Natale the young men in their arms, pending 

Corri. his arrival. Dolores comes back dis- 

Corsi (Jacopo) played harpsichord guised as a physician, and pretends to 

at the performances of " Dafne " and administer antidotes. To calm the 




anxietj' of licr young ladies, Dolores 
now tells them of the plot, which tliey 
resolve to turn to the disa(lvanta<,'e of 
their lovers. They consent to mar- 
riage, and Dolores, this time dis- 
guised as a notary, performs the cere- 
mony. The bridegrooms depart, only to 
return and upbraid the young women 
for their heartless conduct, but after 
teasing them suineiently, the ladies 
confess the trick, Don Fernando and 
Don Alvar humbly beg forgiveness, 
and Don Onofrio confesses he was 

Cossmann (Bernhard) played 
'cello in solo and quartet with dis- 
tinction ; taught in Frankfort Hoch 
Conservatorium. B. May 17, 1822, 
Dessau ; add. Frankfort. 

Costa (Andrea) wrote " Analytical 
Considerations on the Art of Singing," 
London, 1838 ; taught Mme. Borgondio 
and ]\Ime. Albertazzi. B. Brescia, 
settled in London. 1825. 

Costa (Sir Michael Andrew Ag- 
nus) composed the oratorios " Eli," 
Birmingham Festival, 1855; " Naa- 
raan," Birmingham Festival, 1864; 
the ballets " Sir Huon " for Taglioni, 
1883, "Alma" for Cerito, 1842; the 
operas "Don Carlos," London, 1844; 
and "Malek Adhel"; conducted admir- 
ably the London Philharmonic orches- 
tra. Sacred Harmonic Society, Italian 
opera at Covent Garden; the Birming- 
ham, Bradford, Leeds, and Handel 
Festivals; became in 1871 " director of 
the music, composer and conductor " 
of Her Majesty's Opera; received dec- 
orations from many countries, and 
knighthood (1869) from Queen Vic- 
toria. Son of the Cavaliere Pasquale 
Costa, of an ancient Spanish ftimily, 
and himself a gifted amateur; young 
Costa gained a free scholarship in the 
Royal College of Music, Naples; at 
15 composed a cantata, "L'Immagine," 
which was ])erf()rmed in the college 
theatre; and at 18 the opera "11 
Delitto punito." A grand mass for 
four voices, an oratorio, three sym- 
phonies, and other operas also date 
from this period. In 1829 he composed 
" Malvina " for the San Carlo opera 
house, then directed by Barbaja. and 
the following year he was sent to Bir- 

mingham by his master, Zingarelli, to 
conduct a cantata, but, tlirougli error, 
was compelled to sing tiie tenor part 
instead. Maestro al piano at tho 
King's Theatre in 1829, he composed 
the grand ballet " Kenilworth," and 
in 1832 became conductor at the 
Italian opera. "Malek Ailliel," per- 
formed at the Itiilian opera, Paris, 
1837, was presented with greater suc- 
cess in London, but Costa's arduous 
duties as conductor doubtless com- 
pelled him to give less time to composi- 
tion than he would have preferred. 
B. Feb. 4, 1808, Naples; d. April 29, 
1884, London. 

Costantini (Fabio) composed 
church music and songs ; chapelmaster 
at Orvieto Cathedral. B. Rome about 
1570. Alessandro composed; played 
organ at St. Peter's, Rome, in succes- 
sion to Frescobaldi, 1643; brother of 

Costanzi (Juan) composed the opera 
" Carlo Magno," Rome, 1729; the ora- 
torio " S. Pietro Alessandrino "; IG 
part motets for four choirs; a "Mis- 
erere"; chapelmaster at St. Peter's, 
Rome, 1754; called " Gioannino di 
Roma." B. Rome; d. Rome, Mar. 5, 

Coste (Gaspard) composed "Trente- 
cinq livres des chansons a quatre 
parties," Paris, 1539-49; " Ghirlanda 
di Fioretti Musicale," Rome, 1589; 
chorister, 1530, Avignon Cathedral. 

Costeley CWilliam) composed 
" Chansons a 4 et 5 parties," Paris, 
1567, a founder and first president of 
a St. Cecilia society which gave con- 
tests, Orlando di Lasso winning first 
prize in 1575; played organ at courts 
of Henri II and Charles IX. of France. 
B. Scotland, 1531; d. Evreux, Feb. 1, 

Cosyn (Benjamin) collected vir- 
ginal music; played organ Dulwicli 
College and Charterhouse, 1622-44. 

Cotillon. Fr. "Under petticoat." 
Name given in the reign of Louis XIV 
to a variation of COUNTRY DANCE 
originally for one man and woman, 
then for four couples and now for any 
number of dancers, with a constant 
variety of figures, which are danced to 
waltz, polka, mazourka, and galop 




tunes; led by one, two, or more 
couples, depending upon the number 
of dancers. 

Cotta (Johannes) composed the 
popuhir quartet setting for four male 
voices of Arndt's patriotic song " Was 
ist des Deutschen Vaterland." B. 
Ruhla, Thuringia, May 24, 1794; d. 
Mar. 18, 1868, Willerstedt. 

Cottage Piano. Small upright 

Cotton or Cottonius (John) wrote 
a treatise on music, 12th century, 
valuable for its portrayal of musical 
systems of that period. 

Cotumacci or Contumacci (Carlo) 
composed a Requiem, " Partimenti " 
and for harpsichord; played organ at 
S. Onofrio, Naples; pupil of Scarlatti. 
B. 1698, Naples; d. 1775. 

Couac. Fr. " Quack." Goosenote 
or disagreeable noise to which instru- 
ments of the clarinet and oboe type 
are subject if not correctly blown. 

Couched Harp. Obsolete name for 

Coule. Fr. Glide; slurred notes; 
harpsichord ornament. 

Counterpoint is the art of combin- 
ing with a melody one or more melo- 
dious parts, as contrasted with har- 
mony, which accompanies a melody 
with chords. It is so called because 
the notes or points are written counter 
to each other or " nota contra notam." 
The chief melody or theme or subject 
or CANTUS FIRMUS, the latter of 
the nearly synonymous terms being 
best, may pass from one part to an- 
other without losing its predominant 
character, from which it may readily 
be seen that the composer's aim is to 
give a singing quality to each part. 
The art may have originated from the 
difficulty presented in chanting church 
music in unison by singers with voices 
of varying range. The cantus firmi to 
which the Latin liturgy was so chanted 
in the earlier stages of Christianity 
were found to have a more agreeable 
effect when the low voices, instead of 
taking the melody an octave below, 
used intervals of a fifth or third, im- 
provising a part which was neither 
harmonic nor contrapuntal, strictly 
speaking, but partook the nature of 

harmony and counterpoint, giving rise 
to both. The development of counter- 
point was marked by the growth of 
strict rules forming a kind of gram- 
mar, but with many exceptions, since 
music continued to be a living and 
growing language. Music constructed 
according to these rules was called 
" polyphonic " ( many voiced ) as dis- 
tinguished from "homophonic" or one 
voiced. It has become the fashion to 
sneer at the laws laid down by the 
older contrapuntists as we do at the 
pedanticism of the Meistersingers, yet 
they were, for the most part, based 
on simple common sense. Counter- 
point is either simple or double, and 
of simple counterpoint there are five 
varieties : 1. Note against note. 2. 
Two notes against one in the cantus 
firmus. 3. Four notes to one in the 
cantus firmus. 4. When the added 
part is in syncopation. 5. When there 
is free or florid accompaniment to 
each note of the cantus firmus. Some 
of the rules governing the first vari- 
ety : " No discords are allowed." It 
may be observed that toleration of dis- 
cord unless instantly followed by reso- 
lution is purely a matter of educa- 
tion, which such masters as Palestrina 
were born too early to have enjoyed. 
'• jVIore than three consecutive thirds or 
sixths are forbidden." Otherwise har- 
mony would result instead of two in- 
dividual melodies. " Consecutive fifths 
and oct-aves are forbidden." Consecu- 
tive fifths are not merely ugly but 
would throw the two parts into dif- 
ferent keys, and consecutive octaves 
would merge two parts into one. 
" The fourth is to be considered a dis- 
cord." It is, when combined with a 
third or fifth. To object to the rules 
of counterpoint would seem no more 
rational than to object to regular con- 
jugation of verbs because there are 
irregular verbs. From the examples 
already shown it may be inferred that 
there are reasons for forbidding all 
dissonances other than passing notes, 
chromatics, and chords of more than 
three tones. Besides simple counter- 
point, there is double counterpoint in 
wliich the parts must be interchange- 
able or invertible; usually at the 




octave, tentli, or twolftli. Rarer forms 
are triple or quadruple counterpoint, 
where there are tliroe or four inter- 
cliangeable parts; and still rarer, 
quintuple counterpoint, with five in- 
tercliangeable parts. \Vith Palestrina 
and his followers counterpoint reached 
its highest development in ecclesias- 
tical music, and since further progress 
seemed impossible, musicians turned 
their attention to harmony, the evolu- 
tion of which had been checked by the 
over stimulation of the sister growth. 
Up to the close of the IGth century 
the rules of counterpoint were the sole 
guidance of composers, but in 1605 
MONTEVERDE, destined to become 
the most popular composer of his day, 
published a volume of madrigals at 
variance with the polyphonic method, 
and suggesting the harmonic style of 
treatment. It remained to a few mu- 
sicians such as Porpora to carry on 
the traditions of the contrapuntists, 
whose principles had been elucidated 
in FUX'S "Gradus ad Parnassum " 
(Vienna, 1725), and through Haydn, 
pupil of Porpora. and Albrechtsberger, 
they were thoroughly grounded in 
Beeth'oven, however little he may have 
regarded them. A second culminating 
point in the history of contrapuntal 
music was reached in the works of 
Johann Sebastian Bach, who applied 
to instrumental music a complete 
knowledge of counterpoint as well as 
of harmony, and whose fugues are a 
most perfect illustration of the prin- 
ciples of counterpoint. Cherubini and 
Brahms were perhaps the most skill- 
iul contrapuntists of modern times, 
but counterpoint and harmony go 
hand in hand in the works of the 
latest composers, and in wliat is called 
free counterpoint is an intimate blend 
of both. See works of Fux (Eng. 
trans.); E. F. Richter, Macfarren; 
"Counterpoint Strict and Free," Prout, 
London ; and " Cours de Countre- 
point et de la Fugue," Cherubini, 
Eng. trans., Novello & Co., London. 

Counter Subject. Answer or sec- 
ond tlieiue in a fugue. 

Counter Tenor Clef. C clef on 
third line of stave for the viola and 
alto or counter tenor. 

Counter Tenor Voice. ALTO. 

Country Dance. Dance once popu- 
lar in rural England, whence it spread 
to France and Italy as CONTRE- 
sisted of four or eight measure phrases 
which might be in either triple or 
duple time. It still survives as the 
" Sir Roger de Coverly" or " Virginia 

Coupart (Antoine Marie) founded 
and edited the '" Almanach des Spec- 
tacles," Paris, 1822-30; edited collec- 
tions of songs. B. 1780, Paris; d. 

Coup d'Archet. Fr. Bow stroke. 

Couperin (Charles) founded a 
family of distinguished French musi- 
cians; m. IMarie Andry, of Chaume, 
in La Brie. Liouis played organ at 
St. Gervais, Paris; composed three 
harpsichord suites; played violin in 
royal band. B. 1630: eldest son of 
CHARLES; d. 1665. Frangois played 
organ at St. Gervais ; pupil of Cham- 
bonnieres. B. 1631; second son of 
CHARLES; d. 1698. Charles played 
organ at St. Gervais; m. IMarie 
Guerin, 1662; father of Frangois 
" Le Grand"; b. 1638; third son of 
CHARLES; d. 1669. Frangois, called 
"LE GRAND" is the subject of a 
separate article. His daughter. Mar- 
guerite Antoinette, assisted him dur- 
ing the last three years of his life, and 
became organist to the king on his 
decease. B. Sept. 19, 1705. Nicholas 
plaved organ at St. Gervais. B. 1680; 
son of the earlier FRANCOIS; d. 
1748. Armand Louis played organ 
at St. Gervais and Notre Dame; com- 
posed for harpsichord and violin. B. 
1725; son of NICHOLAS; d. 1789. 
Pierre Louis acted as the deputv of 
his father ARMAND LOUIS, d. 1789, 
and was succeeded at St. Gervais by 
his brotlier Frangois. 

Couperin (Frangois) composed 
harpsichord suites and wrote a " M6- 
thode " which influenced the style of 
Johann Sebastian Bach both as per- 
former and composer; played organ 
at St. Gervais, like many otliers of his 
family; organist to the king and to 
liis private chapel at Versailles, and 
sulliciently great as a musician to 




deserve his title of " Le Grand Cou- 
perin." Brahms edited his suites for 
harpsichord which liave been reprinted 
by Augener & Co. B. Nov. 10, 1668, 



Couper le Sujet. Fr. To shorten 
a subject or theme. 

Coupler. Organ mechanism con- 
necting the pedals with manuals or 
difierent manuals. 

Couplet. Two notes occupying the 
time of three; stanza; two line verse. 

Courante. Fr. "Running." French 
dance in fast 3-2 time, usually with 
many dotted notes, aiul in two parts, 
which are repeated, the last measure of 
each being in G^ time. The Italian 
form called corrente is in 3-8 or 3-4 
time, played fast and usually con- 
taining many running passages. A 
third variety of courante attempted to 
combine features of the two already 

Couronne. Fr. The pause char- 

Courtant. Obsolete variety of 

Courteville (Raphael) sang in 
Eng. Chapel Royal. ID. London, Dec. 
28, 1G75. Ralph composed sonatas for 
two flutes, hymns, songs and dramatic 
music ; sang in Eng. Chapel Royal 
and played organ at St. James, West- 
minster. Son of RAPHAEL; d. about 
1735. Raphael wrote political pam- 
phlets; played organ. Probably son 
of the second RAPHAEL above men- 
tioned. D. 1772. 

Courtois (Jean) composed church 
music and songs; chapelmaster to 
Archbishop of Chambray; 16th cen- 

Coussemaker, de (Charles Ed- 
mond Henri) edited works of Adam 
de la Hale. Paris, 1872; wrote '' Me- 
moire sur Hucbald " and many impor- 
tant works on mediaeval music and in- 
struments; Chevalier of tlie Legion of 
Honor and of the Order of Leopold, 
member of the Institute; judicial 
officer by profession but an amateur 
of great skill. B. April 19, 1805, 
Bailleul, Nord : d. Jan. 7, 1876. 

Cousser or Kiisser (Joliann Sigis- 
mund) composed the operas "Kriiuio." 
1693; "Pyramua and Thisbe," 1694; 

"Scipio Africanus," 1694; "Jason," 
1697, overtures and songs; chapel- 
master at Stuttgart, 1700-4; Master 
of Music at Anglican Cathedral, Dub- 
lin. 1710. B. Presburg, about 1657; 
d. Dublin, 1727. 

Covent Garden Theatre has been 
the princijjal home of opera in Eng- 
land for many years. The original 
building was opened under Rich's 
management, Dec. 7, 1732, but the 
present structure only dates from 
1S58, five others having been destroyed 
by tires. Fifty musical productions 
were made during the administration 
of Sir Henry Bishop, 1810-24, and von 
Weber's " Oberon," written for the 
house, was produced there 1826. Occa- 
sional musical productions followed, 
but in 1846 it was remodelled for opera 
exclusively. For a time Costa directed 
and Mario and Grisi were members of 
the company, as well as Alboni, Tam- 
bourini, Persiani, and Ronconi. In 
1861 Patti made her first European 
appearance there. Tamberlik, Lucca, 
Graziani, and Albani came next, and 
for a time there were performances of 
English opera, notably those of Balfe. 
Then came a period of depression, with 
a revival of interest which continued 
throughout the administration of Sir 
Augustus Harris, dating from 1888 to 
his death in 1896, since which time 
the opera has been managed by the 
Opera Syndicate as lessees of the 

Covered Consecutives. Hidden 

Covered Strings for the piano, 
viols, or guitar, are made by spinning 
fine wire over silk wire or gut strings, 
the eflect being to make tlie string so 
covered vibrate more slowly. 

Coward (Dr. Henry) trained the 
Slieffield Festival and other choruses; 
composed cantatas, anthems, and songs. 
B. Nov. 26, 1849, Liverpool; add. 
Slipllield, Eng. 

Coward (James) composed church 
music and glees; played organs in 
London churches and to Grand Lodge 
of Freemasons and the Sacred Har- 
monic Society. B. Jan. 25, 1824, Lon- 
don ; d. .Tan. 22. ISSO. 

Cowen (Frederic Hymen) com- 




posod a waltz at six, an operetta at 12, 
and in after life hocanie one of the 
most distinguished of English com- 
posers and conductors. Pupil of Goss 
and Benedict, his first public appear- 
ance was at a piano recital in London, 
1863. Two years later he won the 
Mendelssohn scholarship, but relin- 
quished it, and his parents themselves 
took him to Leipsic, where he became 
a pupil of Plaidy, Moscheles, Rein- 
ecke, Richter, and Jlauptmann at the 
Conservatory. After occasional con- 
cert performances he studied conduct- 
ing with Kiel at the Berlin Stern Con- 
servatory, and in 18(i9 produced his 
C minor symphony and a piano con- 
certo in A at St. James's Hall, London. 
Costa, whose assistant he had become, 
got him the commission for " The Cor- 
sair," which was given at the Bir- 
mingham Festival of 1876, and the 
same year the Carl Rosa company pro- 
duced his opera "' Pauline." His rec- 
ognition as one of the foremost of 
English composers followed the per- 
formance of his " Scandinavian Sym- 
phony," London, 18S0. Thereafter he 
conducted the Philharmonic concerts, 
at the Melbourne Centennial, receiv- 
ing $25,000 for a six months' engage- 
ment, and on returning to England 
conducted the Halle orchestra at Man- 
chester, the Liverpool Philharmonic 
concerts, the Bradford Festival, the 
Scottish orchestra and the Cardiff 
Festival, 1902, and the Handel Festi- 
val, 1903. Other compositions to be 
noted are : four symphonies, concert 
overtures and suites, chamber music, 
the operas " Signa," Milan, 1893; 
"Harold," Covent Garden, 1895, sev- 
eral operettas, the oratorios '" The 
Deluge," "St. Ursula." "Ruth," "Song 
of Thanksgiving," "The Transfigura- 
tion," 1895; the cantatas "Rose 
Maiden," 1870, "Corsair," "Sleeping 
Beauty," "St. John's Eve," "The 
Water Lily," " All hail the glorious 
reign," jubilee ode, 1897; "Ode to the 
Passions," "Coronation Ode," 1902, 
songs, anthems, etc. B. Jan. 29, 1852, 
Kingston, Jamaica.; add. London. 

Cownterynge yn Songe. Old Eng. 
for descant or singing a tune's accom- 

Cox and Box. Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van's music to the farce by F. C. 
Burnand was first perfonncd in pub- 
lic May 11, 1867, at the Adclphi Thea- 
tre, London. 

Cracovienne. Polacca or KRAK- 

Cramer (Jacob) played violin and 
founded a well known family of musi- 
cians. B. 1705, Sachau, Silesia; d. 
1770, Mannheim. Johann played 
drum in JMannheim court band. B. 
1743; son of JACOB. Wilhelm com- 
posed and played violin, ranking with 
the best performers of his day; immi- 
grated to London, headed the king's 
band and led at the Opera, the Pan- 
theon, the Ancient Concerts, and the 
Professional Concerts, and at the 
Handel Festivals. B. Mannheim about 
1744; son of JACOB; d. London, Oct. 
5, 1799. Franz became master of the 
king's music, 1834. B. 1772; son of 
WILHELM; d. Aug. 1, 184S. Johann 
Baptist composed 84 studies, wliich 
formed the fifth part of his " Grosse 
praktische Pianoforte-Schule," and 
which have been more serviceable to 
pianists than any work other than 
dementi's " Gradus ad Parnassum " ; 
and 100 studies published as " Schule 
der Gelaiifigkeit," and 105 sonatas; 
ranked with the greatest teachers and 
performers of his age; established the 
firm of CRAMER & CO.; pupil of 
Benser, Schroeter, and MUZIO CLE- 
MENTI. B. Feb. 24, 1771, Mann- 
heim; son of WILHELM; d. April 
16, 1858, London. Carl taught music 
and played piano in London. B. 1780, 
London ; younger brother of JOHANN 

Cramer & Co. publish music in 
London. The house was founded in 
with Robert Addison and T. Frederick 
Beale. In 1861, Beale, the sole surviv- 
ing partner, took in George Wood as 
a member of the firm. On Mr. Wood's 
death in 1893 his two nephews suc- 
ceeded to the business, which was 
transferred to a stock company in 

Crang & Hancock built organs in 
England, ISth century. 

Cranz (A. H.) founded music pub- 




lishing house in Hamburg, 1813. B. 
1789; d. 1870, when his son Alwin 
succeeded to the business. 13. 1834. 

Creation. Joseph Haydn's first 
oratorio was composed between 1796 
and 1798, and was first performed in 
private, April 2, 1798 at the Schwartz- 
enberg Palace, Vienna. The book was 
originally prepared for Handel by 
Lidley or Liddell from text in Genesis 
and in " Paradise Lost," and waa 
translated and adapted by Baron van 
Swieten as " Die Schcipfung." Salo- 
mon is said to have suggested the sub- 
ject to the composer. The first publi- 
cation, with German and English 
words, took place in Vienna, 1800, and 
the work lias been sung in all parts 
of the world. 

Credo. The first word of the Nicene 
Creed in the Latin ritual ; an integral 
part of the MASS, upon which the 
world's greatest composers have lav- 
ished their best music. 

Creed. In the early Anglican 
Churcli the Nicene Creed was chanted 
in the ancient manner, and Marbeck's 
setting strictly follows the Roman 
original. That of Tallis is likewise 
of Gregorian origin. The Apostles' 
Creed is either said or intoned. The 
Athanasian Creed, which is the " QuI- 
cimque Vult " of the Latin ritual, 
where it is chanted as a Psalm, is 
usually chanted in the Anglican 
Church to what is known as " The 
Canterbury Tune," and is a corrup- 
tion of the Eighth Gregorian. 

Crenibalum. Jew's Harp. 

Cremona. Viols made by the cele- 
brated makers who lived in Cremona, 
Lombardy, such as the AMATIS, 
and TESTORE. The name as applied 
to an 8 ft. reed organ stop is a corrup- 
tion of Krummhorn. 

Cremorne. Fr. KRUMMHORN. 

Crepitaculum or Crepundia. L. 
Obsojcie frictioTial castanets. 

Crequillon or Crecquillon 
(Thomas) composed churcii music 
iiiul songs; Netherlander attached to 
court of Emperor Charles V at Madrid, 
16th century. 

Crescendo. It. Directs that the 
volume of tone be increased or made 

Crescendo Pedal. The organ's 
swell pedal. 

Crescendo Zug. Ger. Swell box 
of an organ. 

Crescentini (Girolamo) was the 
last of great sopranists, and sang the 
air " Ombra adorata," which he had 
composed and interpolated in Zinga- 
relli's " Romeo e Giulietta " with so 
much feeling as to move Napoleon 
and his court to tears. After his 
debut in Rome, 1783, Crescentini sang 
in opera in London, Vienna, Lisbon, 
and throughout Italy. In 1805 he be- 
came singing master to the Imperial 
family at Vienna, where Napoleon 
heard him, engaged him at a handsome 
salary, took him back to Paris, and 
decorated him with the Iron Cross. 
The climate injured his throat, and in 
1812 he obtained a reluctant permis- 
sion to return to Italy. After a four 
years' sojourn in Rome he taught at 
the Royal College of Music in Naples, 
wrote a treatise on singing, which was 
published in French and Italian, and 
composed. B. Feb. 2, 1766, Urbania, 
near Urbino; d. Naples, April 24, 

Creser (Dr. William) composed 
" Eudora," cantata, Leeds, 1882; " The 
Sacrifice of Freia," Leeds Festival, 
1889; "The Golden Legend," " Nax- 
ine," an operetta ; " Old English 
Suite" for orchestra, chamber music; 
played organ and conducted; oi"p;anist 
and composer, Eng. Chapel Royal, 
1891-1902. B. Sept. 9, 1844, York; 
m. Amelia Clarke, mez. sop. ; add. 

Creticus. L. Metrical foot con- 
sisting of one short between two long 

Creyghton (Rev. Robert, D.D.) 
composed services in E flat, B flat, and 
C, and the anthem "I Will Arise"; 
taught Greek at Cambridge; precentor 
at Wells Cathedral. B. 1639; d. Feb. 
17, 1733. 

Cricket on the Hearth. Carl 
Goldmark's opera to book by M. Will- 
ner, founded on Dickens's tale, Mas 
produced at Berlin, June 27, 1890, 




as "Das TTeimclien am Herd," but the 
English version of 1!)00 carries the 
title as above. The story need not be 
repeated, since it is doubtless familiar 
to every reader, and is followeil with 
reasonable fidelity by the librettist. 
The scene is laid, of course, in an Eng- 
lish village. The best musical numbers 
are Dot's dancing song in the second 
act, the quintet with which it con- 
cludes, and the prelude to tlie third 
act, in which Goldmark introduces the 
song " Weisst Du, wie viel Sternlein 
stehen." The work is characterized 
by great beauty of melody and a total 
absence of sensationalism. 

Crispino. Luigi Ricci's three-act 
opera butia to text by Piave was first 
performed 1850, Venice. Crispino the 
cobbler is unhappy because of his pov- 
erty, although blessed with a beautiful 
wife, Annetta, who adds to the family 
purse hy singing ballads, and is ad- 
mired b}' a wealtliy count. Resolved 
to throw himself into a well, Crispino 
meets a fairy wlio persuades him to 
turn physician, declaring he will al- 
ways be successful in his operations 
unless she is present. Great pros- 
perity follows, which turns Crispino's 
head, and he forgets old friends and 
becomes cruel to Annetta. One day 
when he is about to strike his wife 
the fairy appears and takes him to 
a cave where many lamps are burning, 
each representing a human life. Find- 
ing the oil low in his own lamp, he 
suggests that some be poured in from 
Annetta's, whereupon the fairy reveals 
herself as Death, and tells him to make 
a last request before dying. Crispino 
asks for another opportunity to see 
his wife and children, and the scene 
shifts again to his little home. For- 
tunately he has only had the night- 
mare, but he is filled with joy on 
awakening, and is content with his 
lot. Federico Ricci collaborated with 
his brother in this work. 

Cristofori (Bartolommeo di Fran- 
cesco) invented the piano, wiiieh he 
called " gravicembalo col piano e 
forte." A perfect specimen of his 
work was presented to the Metropoli- 
tan Museum, New York, by Mrs. J. 
Crosby Brown. It is a bichord instru- 


raent with a compass of four octaves, 
with hammer action complete, and 
bears the inscription: " Bartholomaeus 
de Christoforis Patavinus Inventor 
faciebat Florentia; MDCCXX." Born 
in Padua, Cristofori became in early 
manhood the best harpsichord maker 
in that city, and as such was called 
to Florence by Prince Ferdinand, son 
of Cosmo III. The precise date of his 
invention of the piano is not known, 
but the instrument is described in 
vol. v of Maft'ei's " Giornale dei Let- 
terati d'ltalia," and he must have 
seen it during his visit to Florence 
in 170!). A later specimen of the Cris- 
tofori grand piano owned by the Kraus 
family is shown at the Museum in 
Florence, and a beautiful specimen of 
his liarpsichords, one having three 
manuals, was presented by Frederick 
Stearns of Detroit to the University 
of Michigan. It is dated 1702. B. 
about K).}."); d. Jan. 27, 1731. 

Crivelli (Gaetano) composed songs, 
taught, sang ten. in opera. B. 1774, 
Bergamo; d. Brescia, July 10, 1836. 
Domenico wrote " The Art of Sing- 
ing," taught in Naples and London, 
composed the opera buffa " La Fiera 
di Salerno." B. June 7, 1793, Brescia; 
son of GAETANO; d. Feb. 11, 1857, 

Croce (Giovanni) composed church 
music, songs, and motets, some of 
which were republished in England; 
pupil of Zarlino; priest and chapel- 
master at St. Mark's, Venice. B. 
about 1557, Chioggia; d. May 15, 1609. 

Croche. Fr. Quaver. 

Crociato in Egitto. Giacomo 
Meyerbeer's two-act opera to book by 
Rossi was produced in 1824 at La 
Feniee, Venice. 

Croft (Dr. William) composed a 
chant in B minor, occasional anthems 
and other music for the Anglican ser- 
vice; played at Westminster Abbey 
and was master of the children, Eng. 
Chapel Royal, of whom he had been 
one in boyhood. B. 1678, Warwick- 
shire, Eng.; d. Aug. 14, 1727, Bath. 

Croma. It. Quaver. 

Cromatico. It. Chromatic. 

Cromatisch. Ger. CHROMATIC. 

Crooks. Tubes inserted between the 




body of brass instruments and the 
mouth-piece, thus extending or lower- 
ing the pitch and altering the scale. 

Crosdill (John) played 'cello ad- 
mirably ; chamber musician to Queen 
Charlotte, 1782, and teacher of George 
IV; m. woman of wealth and retired. 
B. about 1751, London; d. 1825. 

Cross (Thomas) engraved music in 
London, 1G8.3-1732. 

Crosse (John) wrote a sketch of 
English music festivals in connection 
with his " Accoimt of the Grand Mu- 
sical Festival held in 1823 in the 
Cathedral Church of York." E. July 
7, 17SG, Hull; d. Oct. 20, 1833, York. 

Crossley (Ada) sang con. in Eng- 
lisli concerts and festivals, London 
debut, May 18, 1895, Queen's Hall. 
B. Tarraville, Gippsland, Austi'alia, 
Mar. 3, 1874. Add. London. 

Crotaluni. L. Rattle formed of a 
slab of wood to which another is 
hinged. Anciently used in the wor- 
ship of Cybele to mark the dance 
rhythm ; a variety has survived in the 
" slap-stick " of tlie low comedian. 

Crotch (Dr, William) composed 
the oratorios " Captivity of Judah," 
" Palestine," ten anthems, ode on the 
accession of George IV; edited and 
lectured on music; wrote on theory; 
played on an organ built by his father 
at two, and at London concerts at 
four; organist and professor at Ox- 
ford, 1797. B. July 5, 1775, Norwich; 
d. Dec. 29, 1847. 

Crotchet. Quarter note. 

Crouch (Mrs. Anna Maria) sang 
sop. in opera and concert, debut in 
Ame's "Artaserse" 1780, Drury Lane, 
London; retired 1801. B. April 20, 
1703, London ; daughter of P. Philips ; 
m. Lieut. Crouch, R. N. ; d. Oct. 2, 
'1805, Brighton. 

Crouch (Frederick Nicholls) com- 
posed " Kathleen Mavourneen " and 
the operas " Sir Roger de Coverly " 
and " The Fifth of November " ; played 
'cello at Astor Place Opera House, 
New York, 1849; taught and con- 
ducted in Boston, Portland, Me., Pliil- 
adclphia (1850), Washington, Rich- 
mond, Baltimore; 'cello pupil of his 
fatlier, grandfather, and of Royal 
Academy of Music. B. July 31, 1808, 

London; d. Aug. 18, 1890, Port- 
land, Me. 

Crowd. CRWTH. 

Crliger (Johann) composed " Jesu 
meine Freude," '• Nun danket alle 
Gott," '* Jesu meine Zuversicht," and 
other famous chorales; cantor at 
Nicolaiikirche, Berlin, 1622-62. B. 
April 9, 1598, Gross-Breese, Prussia; 
d. Feb. -23, 1002, Berlin. 

Cruvelli (Jeanne Sophie Char- 
lotte) sang sop. in opera ; debut, 
Venice, 1847; retired 1850; m. Comte 
Vigier, real name Criiwell. B. Mar. 
12, 1820, Westphalia. Friederike 
Marie sang con. in opera ; died of 
grief on losing her voice. B. Aug. 29, 
1824; sister of J. S. C; d. July 20, 

Crwth or Crowd. Obsolete lyre 
shaped instrument with six strings, 
four played with the bow and two 
plucked. Bow instruments probably 
originated in India, but the crwth, 
which was highly popular in Wales, 
appears to have been the first of the 
viol family in Europe. 

Csardas. Hungarian dance in 2-A 
or 4-4 time, generally opening with a 
slow movement called Lassu, followed 
by the Fris or Friska, which is the 
dance proper. The Csardas is oriental 
in character, like most Magyar music. 

C Schliissel. Ger. C clef. 

Cudmore (Richard) composed the 
oratorio " JMartyr of Antioch " and 
violin and piano concertos; led Gen- 
tlemen's Concerts in Manchester. B. 
1787, Chichester, Eng.; d. Manches- 
ter, Dec. 29, 1840. 

Cue. Catch words or notes em- 
ployed to indicate the entrance of a 
voice or instrument. 

Cui (Cesar Antonovich) composed 
operas, songs, chamber music, and 
for orchestra, ranking with the best 
of modern Russian musicians, al- 
though by profession a military en- 
gineer, recognized authority on forti- 
fications, and a Lieutenant General of 
the array. Pupil of Moniuszko in 
boyhood, Cui's early enthusiasm for 
music was revived by Balakirev, 1857, 
and in the following year he married 
j\llle. Bamberg (pupil of Dargomij- 
sky), in wiiose honor his first pub- 




lislied composition, a scherzo for two 
pianos, was written. " The Manda- 
rin's tSon," operetta, was composed the 
following year, as well as the opera 
"The Captive in tlie Caucasus," other 
operas being " William KatclilT," 
"Angelo," "Le Filibustier," "A 
Feast in Time of Plague," 1900, 
"Mam'zelle Fifi," and "The Saracen," 
wliich proved the most successful of 
all. His compositions for orchestra 
include four suites, two scherzos, a 
tarantella, and a marche solonnelle. 
Cui's contributions to French and 
Belgian publications were first to 
awaken an outside interest in the 
" New Russian " school, and he also 
wrote criticism for the leading Rus- 
sian newspapers. B. Jan. 18, 1835, 
\'ilna; add. St. Petersburg. 

Cullen (John) published music in 
London, 1705-10. 

Cumbei'lands. London change- 
ringing society, originally called the 
Society of London Scholars, but re- 
named Cumberland Youths or Royal 
Cumberlands in honor of the Duke of 

Cummings (William. Hayman) 
composed the cantata " The Fairy 
Ring," a Morning Service and an 
Anthem and many songs; founded the 
Purcell Society and wrote a biog- 
raphy of that composer, a biographi- 
cal dictionary of musicians, and a 
" Primer of the Rudiments of Music "; 
sang ten. at American and English 
festivals; taught vocal in Royal 
Academy of Music, London; played 
organ Waltham Abbey. B. Aug. 22, 
IS.'il, Devonshire, Eng.; add. London. 

Cum Sancto. L. Part of the 
Gloria in the MASS. 

Cupo. It. Darkly, mysteriously. 

Curioni sang sop. King's Theatre, 
London, 1754. Alberico sang ten., 
London debut, 1821 to 1834. B. about 
1790; probably son of the soprano 

Curioso Indiscrete. Anfossi's 
opera was produced 1778, IVIilan, and 
17 S3, Vienna, with two interpolated 
songs composed by Mozart. 

Currende. Vtcr. Juvenile carol 

Curschmann (Karl) composed " In 

every opening flower," and in all 83 
songs for solo voice and nine part 
songs and the opera " Abdul und Erin- 
nieli." B. June 21, 1804, Berlin; d. 
Langfuhr, near Dantzig, Aug. 24, 1841. 

Curtal. Obsolete instrument of the 
bassoon family. 

Curwen (John) founded the TONIC 
SOI^FA system and college (ISHO), 
and devoted his life to writing text 
books and propaganda; in early life 
a Nonconformist minister. B. Ileck- 
mondwike, Yorkshire, Eng., Nov. 14, 
I81G; d. May 26, 1880, Manchester. 
John Spencer wrote " Memorials of 
John Curwen," his father, and con- 
tinued his work on behalf of the Tonic 
Sol-fa as principal of the college, and 
as editor. B. Sejjt. 13, 1847; add. 

Curzon, de (Emmanuel Henri 
Parent) wrote historical and critical 
works on music; music critic the 
" Gazette de France," 1889. B. Havre, 
July 6, 1861; add. Paris. 

Cusanino (Giovanni). Professional 
name of the sopranist' CARESTINI. 

Cushion Dance. Old English kiss- 
ing dance in 3-4 time. The dancer 
placed a cushion before another of the 
opposite sex, upon which both dancers 
knelt and kissed. 

Cusins (Sir "William George) com- 
posed " Royal Wedding Serenata," 
1863; the overtures " Les Travail- 
leurs de la j\Ier," and " Love's Labor 
Lost"; piano concerto in A minor; 
the oratorio " Gideon " ; conducted ; 
taught Royal Academy of Music, Lon- 
don ; master of music to the Queen, 
1870; knighted, 1892. B. Oct. 14, 
1833, London; d. Aug. 31, 1893. 

Gustos. L. A direct. 

Cutell (Richard) wrote on counter- 
point. England, loth century. 

Cutler (William Henry) composed 
a service, anthems, and songs ; sang 
and played organ. B. 1792, London; 
retired July 5, 1824. 

Cuzzoni (Francesca) sang mez. 
sop.; debut at Venice with Faustina, 
1719; became that singer's great rival 
in London, and retired to .Vienna, 
1728, because Faustina was allowed 
one guinea per annum beyond her 
salary; spent some time in Dutch 

CYCLE 148 D 

debtors' prison, and supported her- Czardasch. CSARDAS. 

self in old age by making buttons. Czernohorsky (Bohuslav) played 

B. Parma or Modena about 1700; m. organ in churches, Minorite monk; 

Sandoni, a harpsichordist, London, taught Gluck and Tartini. B. Niem- 

1722; d. 1770, Bologna. burg, Bohemia, 1690; d. 1740. 

Cycle. Set of songs with related Czerny (Karl) was the favourite 

subjects. pupil of Beethoven and teacher of 

Cyclische Formen. Ger. Rondo Liszt; composed a "Complete Theo- 

form. retical and Practical Pianoforte 

Cymbals. Percussion instrument School," and in all nearly 1000 pub- 
consisting of two circular bronze plates lications, some of which contain more 
with straps, through the centres by than 50 compositions; pupil also of 
which they may be held in either hand Hummel and Clementi ; rarely played 
and clashed, or rather rubbed together, in public, owing to timidity; wrote 
In small orchestras one plate is com- "Umriss der ganzen Musikgeschichte," 
monly fastened to the bass drum to " School of Practical Composition," 
permit the drummer to play it with and an autobiography; left posthu- 
one hand while wielding the drum- mous works to the Gesellschaft der 
stick with the other. The instrument Musikfreunde, Vienna, including 24 
is of oriental origin and was in use masses, 300 graduales, otTertories, 
in Assyria and Egypt. Two varieties symphonies, chamber music, and vocal 
are referred to in the Bible. Small and dramatic pieces, and four re- 
cymbals tuned a fifth apart were em- quiems. B. Feb. 20, 1791, Vienna; 
ployed by Berlioz. son of Wenzel, a gifted musician, who 

Cypher System. Variety of NO- was his first teacher; d. July 15, 

TATIOX. 1857, Vienna. 

Czaar und Zimmermann. Albert Czerwenka (Joseph) played oboe 

Lortzing's most popular opera was with Haydn, then in Vienna Imperial 

composed to his own libretto based Band, and taught in Vienna Conser- 

upon an old comedy, and first per- vatory. B. 1759, Benadek, Bohemia; 

formed at Leipsic, Dec. 22, 1837. d. 1835, Vienna. 

Peter the Great, while learning the Czibulka (Alphons) composed 

ship builders' craft at Saardam, is " Der Bajazzo," Vienna, 1892, and 

eagerly sought by the ambassadors other operettas and waltzes ; played 

of England and France, but has con- piano and conducted. B. May 14, 

cealed his identity under the name J842, Szepes-Varallya, Hungaria; d. 

Peter Michaelow. A Russian rene- Oct. 27. 1894, Vienna, 

gade, Peter Ivanow, is employed in Czimken. Polish dance, similar to 

the same shipyard, and the comedy the country dance, 

scenes are based upon mistaken iden- Czym.baluin. Hungarian DULCI- 

tity. Both Peters have been making MER. 
love to Mary, niece of the Burgo- 
master Van Vett, but in the end the 

Czar sails away leaving his rival a D is the second note of the natural 

pardon and a sum of money and the scale of C ; the name of the major 

prospect of a bride. Although the key having F and C sharpened, the 

opera was performed in nearly all relative minor of which is B ; of the 

music centres, Lortzing is said to minor key having B flat, the relative 

have received only between 30 and major of which is F; of an obsolete 

50 thalers for it, of which he paid 25 clef indicating d"; of the third string 

to have it copied. Donizetti, T. S. of the violin; the second string of 

Cooke, and L. A. Jullien composed the viola and of the 'cello. D serves 

operas on the same episode of the as an abbreviation for diseantus, 

great Czar's life. dessus. destra, droit, de, da, dal. It 

Czakan. Obsolete Bohemian flute was the first note of the ancient 

or flageolet, usually in A. Phrygian and Dorian modes. 




Daase (Budoph) composed for 
chorus and orchestra ; conducted; pupil 
of W. A. Bach, Marx, and Wilsing. 
B. Feb. 21, 1822, Berlin; add. Berlin. 

Da Ballo. It. In dance style. 

Dabbuda. It. PSALTERY. 

Da Camera. It. For the chamber. 

Da Cappella. It. Tn church style. 

Da Capo. It. " From the begin- 

Da Capo al Fine. It. From the 
beginning to the double bar, which 
indicates Fine. 

Da Capo al Segno. It. From the 
beginning to the sign. 

D'Accord. Fr. In tune. 

Dach. Ger. Sound board or reso- 
nance box. 

Da Chiesa. It. In church style. 

Dachschweller. Ger. Swell box. 

Dachstein (Wolfgang) composed 
" An Wasserfliissen Babylon " and 
other chorales ; priest and organist 
Strasburg Cathedral, 1520; joined Re- 
formed faith and married; vicar and 
organist St. Thomaskirche ; d. 1561. 

Dactylion. Gr. Instmnient in- 
vented by Henri Herz to sbiengthen 
the fingers. 

Dactyl. Metrical foot composed of 
one long and two short syllables. 

Daina or Dainos. Love song of 

Daire. Turkish tambourine. 

Dalayrac (Nicholas) composed 
" La Famille Americaine " and Am- 
brose," 1793; "Le Corsaire," "Nina," 
" Maison a vendre," and in all 56 
operas; Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor, 1800. B. June 13, 1753, 
Muret; d. Nov. 27, 1809, Paris. 

Dalberg, Baron von (Johann 
Friedrich Hugo) composed the can- 
tatas " Jesua auf Golgotha," " Eva's 
Klagen," "An die Freude" (Schiller) ; 
wrote and translated works on music. 
B. May 17, 1752, AschafTenbuig; d. 
July 26, 1812. , 

Dalcroze (Emile Jacques) com- 
posed " Janie," lyric comedy, Geneva, 
1893; "Poem Alpestre," for soli, 
chorus, and orchestra, Geneva Expo- 
sition, 1896; "Sancho Panza," lyric 
comedy, Geneva, 1897; " Festival Vau- 
dois," soli, chorus, and orchestra, 
Lausanne, 1903; chamber music, 

songs; taught harmony and singing, 
Geneva Conservatory; lectured, wrote 
criticism; pupil of Fuchs and Bruck- 
ner, Vienna, and Delibes, Paris. B. 
July 6, 1865, Vienna; add. Geneva. 

Dale (Joseph) published music 
in London, 1778, business continued by 
his sons to 1835. 

Dallam built organs in England, 
1605-37; also called Dalharn, Dal- 
lum, Dallans. Bobert, Balph, and 
George, also organ builders, were 
probably his sons. 

Dallery (Charles) built organs in 
France. B. about 1710, Amiens. 
Pierre built organs in partnership 
with CLICQUOT for Notre Dame, 
Paris, the Ste. Chapelle, and Ver- 
sailles. B. 1735; nephew of CHARLES, 
Pierre FranQois assisted his father 
PIERRE and continued the business. 
B. 1764, Paris; d. 1833. Louis Paul 
continued the business. B. 1797; son 

Dalmores (Charles) sang ten. in 
opera, becoming a favourite at the 
Manhattan Opera House, New York, 
where he made his debut in 1906, when 
that theatre was opened; prize pupil 
of the Paris Conservatoire, and later 
prof, of the Lyons Conservatory. B. 
Nancy, Meurthe and Moselle, France, 
Jan. 1, 1872; add. New York. 

Dal Segno. It. " From the sign." 
Sign usually modified from letter S. 

Daman or Damon (William) har- 
monized 40 psahn tunes published in 
London by Este; musician to Queen 

Damascene (Alexander) composed 
songs; sang in Eng. Chapel Royal. 
Probably b. Italy; naturalized in 
Eng., 1682; d. July 14, 1719. 

Dame Blanche. Frangois Adrien 
Boieldieu's opera comique, to book by 
Scribe, based on Walter Scott's novels 
" The Monastery and Guy Manner- 
ing," proved the most popular work 
of its kind in French, having been 
performed at the Opera Comique alone 
1340 times up to June, 1875. The 
English version is called " The White 
]\Iaid." Tlie Laird of Avenel, Scot- 
land, follows the Stuarts into exile, 
having entrusted the care of the es- 
tate to Gaveston, his steward. Oaves- 


ton does not share the common super- lioz's dramatic legend in four parts, 
stition of the White Lady who pro- to book based on de Nerval's version 
tects the Avenela, and whose statue of Goethe's poem, partly by Gandon- 
is shown in the castle, and believing niere, but completed by Berlioz him- 
the Laird to have died without heirs, self, was first performed Dec. G, 184G, 
offers the estate for sale, hoiking to at the Opera Comique, Paris, in con- 
bid it in at a low price for himself, cert form. It was performed at Monte 
Anna, ward of Gaveston and pro- Carlo as opera, 1903, and New York, 
tegee of the Laird, determines to pre- 1908, but while the music is highly 
vent this rascality, and disguised as dramatic, and the work is one of mas- 
tlie White Lady, appears in the vil- sive proportions, embodying the com- 
lage, and writes Dickson, a farmer, poser's best efforts, it is doubtless 
appointing a midnight meeting at heard to better advantage in concert. 
Avenel. Dickson is afraid to go to Damoreau (Laure Cinthie Mon- 
the haunted castle, but George Brown, talant) sang sop. with great success; 
a young English officer who is his debut as Cherubino, Theatre Italien, 
guest, offers to do so. Anna, who rec- Paris, at 18; toured Europe and 
ognizes in Brown the young officer America, 1843; taught singing at 
she has nursed back to health after Paris Conservatoire, where she had 
a dangerous wound, tells him there been a pupil; composed "Album de 
is an heir to the Avenel property, and romances " and wrote " Methode de 
implores his aid in circumventing chant." B. Feb. 0, 1801, Paris; d, 
Gaveston. When the sale comes on, Feb. 25, 1863. 

Dickson has been authorized by the Damp. To stop the vibration of 

neighbouring farmers to bid for the strings of the harp and guitar by 

property so as to prevent Gaveston touching them with the hand; to 

from securing it, but Gaveston outbids apply mechanical dampers or mutes, 

him. Brown, prompted by Anna, bids Damper. Cloth-covered wooden 

higher, and when payment is de- mechanism which checks the vibra- 

manded, Anna produces a treasure tions of a piano's string on the rising 

which had been hidden by the old of the key; mute employed with horn 

Laird in the statue of the White and other brass instruments. 

Lady, and tells Brown that he is Dampfer. Ger. Damper; violin 

Avenel's heir. Gaveston tears off her mule. 

veil, revealing the fact that Anna and Damrosch (Dr. Leopold) placed 
tlie White Lady are one and the same, German opera on a profitable perma- 
and of course the engagement of the nent basis at the Metropolitan Opera 
heir and his young protectress fol- House, New York, 1884-5; founded 
lows. The principal musical numbers the Oratorio Society, New York, 1874, 
are : Act I : " Ah, what pleasure to the New Y'ork Symjjhony Society, 
be a Soldier," George; "Where yon 1878; conducted the Arion Singing 
Trees your Eye discov^ers," the White Society, New York, 1871, Philhar- 
Lady and chorus; "Heavens! what monic concerts, 1870-7; New York 
do I hear?" trio finale. Act II: Music Festival of 1881; composed 
"Poor Margaret, spin away!" spin- " Sulamith," sacred cantata, sop., ten., 
ning song, Margaret (Anna's nurse) ; chorus, and orchestra; " Paith and 
" Come gentle Lady," George ; Naomi," oratorio ; church music pub- 
" From these Halls," duet; septet lished as "Saint Cecilia"; "Thou, 
with chorus, finale. Act III: "With Who art God alone" (Masonic), bar., 
what delight I behold," Anna; and male chorus, and orchestra; Lexing- 
the chorus "Robin Adair," slightly ton Battle Hymn, mixed chorus; 
unfamiliar but very graceful as " Cherry Ripe," part song, all pub- 
treated by Boieldieu. lished in tlie United States, and songs, 

Damenisation. Graun's system of concertstiicke, violin pieces, etc., pub- 

Solmisation. lished in Germany. A physician in 

Damnation de Faust. Hector Ber- early life, Damrosch abandoned medi- 




cine for the violin, became concert- 
meiater at Weimar under Liszt, 
formed friendship with Wagner, and 
later as conductor of the Breslau 
Philharmonic Society, presented the 
music of Liszt, Wagner, and Berlioz. 
After extensive concert tours he or- 
ganized the Breslau Orchesterverein, 
18G2, where he remained imtil sailing 
for New York, 1871. Columbia Col- 
lege conferred the degree doctor of 
music upon him, 1880. B. Fosen, 
Prussia, Oct. 22, 1832; m. Helene von 
Heimburg; d. Feb. 15, 1885. Frank 
Heino founded the Musical Art So- 
ciety, the People's Sight Singing 
Classes, and People's Choral Union, 
wrote a " Popular Method of Sight 
Singing," 1894; conducted the Ora- 
torio Society, 1898, the Musurgia, 
Bridgeport Oratorio Society, Orpheus 
and Eurydice societies of Philadel- 
CLUB; became supervisor to New 
York Public Schools, 1897. In early 
life JNIr. Damrosch engaged in business 
in Denver, but eventually became su- 
pervisor of music in the schools there, 
a church organist, and conductor of 
the Denver Chorus Club. During the 
administration of Dr. Damrosch at the 
Metropolitan Opera House, and for a 
time thereafter, he was chorusmaster. 
B. Breslau, June 22, 1859; son of 
LEOPOLD ; add. New York. Walter 
Johannes composed the opera " Scar- 
let Letter," to book by G. P. Lathrop, 
based on Hawthorne's romance. Boa- 
ton, Feb. 11, 1896; "Manila Te 
Deum," 1898; "Cyrano," to book by 
Flenderson, based on Rostand's play, 
1903 ; conducted German opera at 
Metropolitan Opera House as assistant 
to his father, whom he succeeded as 
conductor of the Oratorio and Sym- 
phony societies ; later was assistant 
conductor to Seidl ; founded the Dam- 
rosch Opera Company, 1894; played 
New York and other cities five years; 
retired to compose; became conduc- 
tor of German operas under the Grau 
regime at the Metropolitan Opera 
House; of the New York Philhar- 
monic Society, 1902-3; and then es- 
tablished the Damrosch Symphony 

Orchestra, later known as the New 
York Symphony Orchestra, which gave 
concerts at Carnegie Hall, New York. 
B. Jan. 30, 1802, Breslau; son of 
LEOPOLD; m. Margaret, daughter 
of James G. Blaine, ex-Secretary of 
State, etc. ; add. New York. 

Danby (John) composed the glee 
"Awake Aeolian lyre!" secured 10 
prizes at the Catch Club; published 
four books of compositions; wrote 
" Guida alia Musica Vocale," 1787. 
B. England, 1757; d. London, May 
10, 1798. 

Dance (William) with Cramer and 
Corri founded tlu; London Philhar- 
monic Society, 1813; played violin 
and led orchestras. B. 1755, London; 
d. June 5, 1840. Henry, son of WIL^ 
LIAM, was the Philharmonic Society's 
first secretar}'. 

Dance Music has played a most 
important part in the origin of FORM, 
if it be not the original form, of all 
music in all countries. It is quite 
conceivable that the first idea of 
rhythm, whether in poetry or music, 
was suggested by the dance ; it is cer- 
tain that all instruments of percus- 
sion were invented and employed to 
mark the steps in dancing; and since 
dancing was a religious rite as well as 
a social diversion with all primitive 
peoples, the first attempts at singing 
w^ere probably guttural grunts, rising 
or falling in tone as the dancers be- 
came more excited and more rapid in 
movement, or slackening as their vigour 
relaxed. Of such a type is the dance 
of the American Indian and of the 
savage tribes in Africa. Dancing 
formed part of the religious ritual of 
the Jews and of Greeks, and of the Ro- 
mans, but there soon came to be a dis- 
tinction between the religious dances 
and those meant for social entertain- 
ment. The ancient secular dances were 
largely gymnastic, that is, intended for 
exercise ; or mimetic, that is. convey- 
ing emotion by gesture, and the various 
dances in Greece were so highly spe- 
cinlizod that there is reason to believe 
they included a form of entertainment 
closely corresponding to the modern 
ballet d'action. which developed in 
Italy in the 16th century. During 




the early ages of Christianity dancing 
was not wholly discouraged, but it is 
probably because of the pagan origin 
of the dance and its connection with 
pagan worship that rhythm was ig- 
nored in the songs used in Christian 
worship. At any rate secular music 
came to be noted as to rhythm long 
before church music, which had reached 
its final perfection in form in the 
IGth century, was so divided; and as 
the secular songs were nearly always 
composed in some dance rhythm, the 
practice of the leaders of rebellion 
against the authority of Rome in reli- 
gious matters of having the hymns 
and chorales adapted to popular music, 
soon reacted on the older church music 
itself. There is a remarkable similar- 
ity in the dance rhytlims of all Euro- 
pean races, however different they may 
be in name. In various forms, these 
rhythms have perpetuated themselves 
from the earlier orchestral suites, 
which were merely various dances so 
brought together as to give an agree- 
able sense of variety. Modern com- 
posers, even more than those of the 
classic period, borrow freely of the 
dance tunes of every nation, and the 
waltz is taking its place along with 
the gavotte, sarabande, scherzo, con- 
tredanse, and minuet in the severest 
forms of music. 

Dancla (Jean Baptiste Charles) 
composed etudes for violin which are 
still valuable; played that instriunent 
with distinction and taught at the 
Paris Conservatoire, where he had 
been a pupil of Baillot. B. 1818, 
Bagn&res; d. 1907. Arnaud playea 
'cello and wrote on musical topics. B. 
1820; brother of J. B. C. ; d. 1862. 
liGopold composed. B. 1825; brother 
of J. B. C; d. 1895, Paris. 

Dando (Joseph Haydn Bourne) 
played violin in Philharmonic and 
other London orchestras ; founded 
string quartet; taught at Charter- 
house; pupil of his uncle Gactano 
Brandi and of Mori. B. Mav 11, 1806, 
Somers Town; d. May 9. 1894. 

Danican. Name of French family 
of musicians better known as PHILI- 

Daniel (Hermann Adalbert) wrote 

"Tliesaurus lljmnologicus," which con- 
tains a valuable collection of hjonns 
and their history. B. 1812, Cothen 
near Dessau; taught Halle University. 

Dankerts (Ghiselin) composed 
church music and songs; sang in 
Papal Chapel, 1538-65. B. Tholen in 

Danneley (John Feltham) wrote 
" Elementary Principles of Thorough 
Bass," 1820; "An Encyclopaedia or 
Dictionary of Music," 1825; "A Mu- 
sical Grammar," 1826; played organ 
and taught. B. 1786, Berkshire, Eng.; 
d. 1836, London. 

Dannreuther (Edward George) 
composed songs and duets; wrote 
" Musical Ornamentation," " Wagner 
and the Reform of the Opera," 1904; 
translated Wagner's books; played 
piano in concert and taught that in- 
strument. Royal College of Music, 
1895; lectured and contributed to 
magazines; pupil of F. L. Ritter, Cin- 
cinnati ; of Moscheles, Hauptmann, 
and Richter, Leipsic Conservatory; 
London debut at Crystal Palace, April 

11, 1863. B. Nov. 4, 1844, Strasburg; 
d. Feb. 12, 1905, London. Gustav 
wrote " Chord and Scale Studies for 
Young Players " ; founded Dannreu- 
ther string quartet, New York; led 
Symphony and Oratorio societies; 
pupil of de Ahna and Joachim and 
Heitel, Berlin ; joined Mendelssohn 
Quintet Club, Boston, 1877; played in 
Boston Symphony Orchestra, 1882-84; 
directed Buffalo Philharmonic Society. 
B. Julv 21, 1853, Cincinnati; d. Feb. 

12, 1905. 

Danzi (Francesca) was the maiden 
name of MME. LEBRUN. 

Danzi (Franz) composed 11 operas, 
including " Die JMitternachtsstunde," 
" Der Kuss," " Cleopatra," " Ijihi- 
genia"; vice chapelmaster at Munich; 
chapelmaster at Stuttgart and Carls- 
ruhe ; m. the singer Marguerite Mar- 
chand, and conducted opera companies 
in Avhich she sang; taught singing 
and wrote " Sinking Exercises." B. 
Mav 15, 1763. Mannheim; d. April 13, 
1826. Cnrlsruhe. 

Da Ponte (Lorenzo) wrote books 
of " Don Giovanni " and " Cosi Fan 




Tutto," for Mozart; poet laureate to 
Emperor Joseph II at Vienna until 
1792; librettist to Italian opera in 
London, 1803; taught Italian at Co- 
lumbia University, New York; wrote 
'■ Memorie." B. Ceneda, near Venice, 
Mar. 10, 1749; d. New York, Aug. 17, 

Daquin (Louis Claude) composed 
" Coucou " and other harpsichord mu- 
sic; organist at St. Antoine's, Paris, 
at 12, and at St. Paul's from 1727. 
B. July 4, 1694, Paris; son of L. C, a 
harpsichordist; d. Paris, June 15, 

Darabooka. Arabian drum. 

Dargomijsky (Alexander Sergei- 
vich) composed the " Stone Guest," 
whicli was completed by Rimsky Kor- 
sakoff and expressed in opera the latest 
ideas of the New Russian school in 
dramatic reform, the text being 
adapted from Poushkin's drama which 
follows in the main the story of Mo- 
zart's "Don Giovanni," 1872; "Esmer- 
alda," from Hugo's " Notre Dame de 
Paris"; "The Triumph of Bacchus," 
to book by Poushkin ; " Roussalka," 
to book adapted from Poushkin's 
poem ; " Rogdane," unfinished fairy 
opera; and for orchestra, piano, and 
voice. An official in early life, a meet- 
ing with Glinka determined Dargo- 
mijsky to devote himself to music. 
His songs rank as the best of the 
Russian school and display great va- 
riety in treatment, those in oriental 
style, " An Eastern Song," " I Think 
that thou wert born for this," and 
" O maid my rose," bein{; especially 
noteworthy. His "Kazachok," "Dance 
of the Mummers," and " Russian Le- 
gend," orchestral fantasias, first ob- 
tained recognition in Belgium during 
a tour of Europe made by the com- 
poser, 1864, and on his return to Rus- 
sia he formed a close connection with 
Balakirev. B. Feb. 14, 1813, on an 
estate in Toula; d. Jan. 1869, St. 

Darmsaiten. Oer. Catgut strings. 

Dash. Indicates a more pronounced 
staccato than a dot ; in harpsichord 
music a slur or coul€; sharpens the 
interval a semitone when drawn 
through a figure in Thorough Bass. 

Da Teatro. It. In theatrical style. 

Daublaine & Callinet built organs 
in Paris, 1838 to 1855, when the firm 
became a corporation, to which Merk- 
lin, Schiitze & Co. are successors. 

Dauer. Ger. Duration of vibra- 

Daughter of St. Mark. Michael 
William Balfe's opera to book by 
Bunn, founded on " La reine de 
Chypre," was first performed Nov. 27, 
1844, at Drury Lane, London. 

Daumen. Gcr. Thumb. 

Dauney (William) wrote " Disser- 
tation illustrative of the history of 
music in Scotland," 1838, in connec- 
tion with tablature music which he 
collected and deciphered; lawj^r and 
government official. B. Oct. 27, 1800, 
Aberdeen, Scotland; d. July 28, 1843, 
Georgetown, Demerara. 

Dauvergne (Antoine) composed 
" Les Troqueurs,"' 1753, and in all 15 
operas, the ballet " Les Amours de 
Tempe " ; managed Paris Opera, con- 
ducted opera and concerts spirituel, 
played violin; surintendant de mu- 
sique, 1769-76. B. Oct. 4, 1713, Cler- 
mont-Ferrand; d. Lyons, Feb. 12, 

Davenport (Francis "William) 
composed symphonies in D minor ( 1st 
prize at Alexandra Palace competition, 
1876) and in C; overture "Twelfth 
Night," 1879; "Prelude and fugue" 
for orchestra, 1879; chamber music; 
wrote "Elements of Music," 1884; 
" Elements of Harmony and Counter- 
point," 1886; "Guide for Pianoforte 
Students," 1891; taught Royal Acad- 
emy and Guildhall School of Music; 
pupil of Sir George Macfarren, whose 
daughter he married. B. Wilderslowe, 
near Derby, 1847; add. London. 

David (Felicien Cesar) composed 
the op^ra comique " La Perle du Br^- 
sil," 1851; "Lalla Rookh," 1862; and 
the symphonic ode " Le Desert," 1844; 
the oratorio " MoTse au Sinai," 1846; 
the descriptive symphony " Christophe 
Colomb," 1847, and with " Hercu- 
laneiun," produced at the Grand 
Opera, Paris, 1859, largely built up 
of the earlier work " La Fin du 
Monde," which was never performed, 
won the state prize of 20,000 francs. 


Son of a gifted amateur musician, from his C minor unfinished mass to 

David became a chorister at Aix Ca- Italian words by an unnamed author 

thedral, composed liymns and a quartet and produced ]\Iar. 13 and 15, 1785, 

for strings at 13; conducted at the at the Burg Theatre, Vienna, at the 

Aix theatre and later at St. Sauveur; benefit of the Tonktinstler Societtit. 

entered tlie Paris Conservatoire, 1830; Davide (Giacomo) sang ten. Avith 

joined the St. Simoniens, 1831, and great success in opera and church, 

composed for them, and on the disso- 1785-1820, Naples, London, Florence, 

lution of the society three years later, and Bergamo. B. 1750, Presezzo, near 

went to Marseilles, and thence to Con- Bergamo; d. Dec. 31, 1830, Bergamo, 

stantinople, Smjana, Egj^pt, and Pal- Giovanni sang ten. in opera, with 

estine. In 1835 he returned with range of three octaves; founded vocal 

collections of " Melodies orientales " school in Naples, 1841 ; became man- 

for piano, which failed of success, ager of St. Petersburg Opera; pupil 

whereupon he withdrew from Paris of his father GIACOAIO. B. 1789; 

to Igny, composed two symphonies, d. 1851, St. Petersburg, 

chamber music, and "Les Hirondelles," Davidolf (Charles) composed sym- 

and other song.s. " Le Desert " proved phonic sketch for orchestra. Op. 27 ; 

his first great success, and thereafter Russian Fantasia, Op. 7 ; Orchestral 

David lived in Paris, was elected to suite. Op. 37 ; popular songs and 

the Academic, and for the last seven chamber music; four concertos for 

years of his life served as librarian 'cello, which instrument he played at 

to the Conservatoire. Other works to the St. Petersburg Opera and taught 

be noted are : " Eden, a mystery," in the Conservatoire ; he wrote an 

1848 ; " Le Saphir," Opera Comique, excellent " School for Violoncello." B. 

1865, and the " Beatus Vir " and Mar. 17, 1838, Goldingen, Courland; 

"Ave Verum," composed in early life. d. Feb. 15, 1889, Moscow. 

B. April 13, 1810, Cadenet, Vaucluse; Davidsbiindler. Schumann's imag- 

d. Aug. 29, 1876, St. Germain en Laye. inary society for fighting the battles 

David (Ferdinand) wrote a valu- of the New ilusic against the Phil- 
able "Violin School"; collected the istines. 

works of early violinists in " Hohe Davidson (G. H.) published music 

Schule des Violinspiels ": composed in London, 1842-59. 

the opera " Hans Wacht " and much Davies (Ben) sang ten. in English 

music for violin and string combina- opera and concert, in Welsh choirs, as 

tions; revised and was first to per- a boy, and at the Crystal Palace; 

form the Mendelssohn concerto for pupil Royal Academy of Music ; joined 

violin; taught violin in Leipsic Con- Carl Rosa Company, 1881; debut in 

servatory, numbering Joachim and oratorio at Norv.ich, 1890; since then 

Wilhelmj among his pupils; was Men- a favourite in England and America. 

delssohn's concertmeister at the Ge- B. Jan. 6, 1858, near Swan-sea; m. 

wandhaus concerts, Leipsic, 1836 to Clara Perry, 1885; add. London, 

his death; highly esteemed through- Davies (Fanny) played piano in 

out Europe as solo violinist, editor concert; noted for interpretations of 

and teacher. B. July 19, 1810, Ham- Brahms and Schumann ; pupil of Mme. 

burg; pupil of Spohr and Haupt- Schumann. B. June 27, 1861, Guem- 

mann; brother of Mme. DULCKEN; sey; add. London. 

d. while on an excursion to the Gri- Davies (Ffrangcon) sang bar. in 

sons, July 18, 1873. Peter Paul led English and American festivals, and 

Carlsrulie orchestra, 1862-65; taught in opera, debut with Carl Rosa Com- 

in England; pupil of his father, FER- pany, 1890, as the herald in " Lohen- 

DINAND. B.Dec. 1,1840; add. Up- grin"; sang ballads admirably, be- 

pingham, Eng. came vocal teacher at Royal Academy 

Davidde Penitente. W. A. Mo- of I\Iusic, 1903, and wrote on voice 

zart's cantata for three solo voices, training; was graduated from Jesus 

chorus, and orchestra, was adapted College, Oxford, where he gained a 




classical exhibition, and took orders, 
but witlulrew from tlie priesthood be- 
cause of doctrinal convictions. B. 
13ethesda, Carnarvon, Dec. 11, 1860; 
add London. 

Davies (Dr. Henry Walford) com- 
posed the cantata " Herv6 Riel," 1895; 
setting of the mystery play " Every- 
man," Leeds Festival, 1904; "The 
Temple," oratorio, Worcester Festival, 
1902; Dedication overture, symphony 
in D; Cathedral Service; anthems; 
part songs; a quartet in E flat for 
piano and strings, and other chamber 
music; played organ; taught counter- 
point Royal College of Music, 1895- 
1903, and in that year became director 
Bach Choir. B. Sept. 6, 1809, Os- 
westry; add. London. 

Davies (Marianne and Cecilia) 
taught music to the daughters of 
Empress Maria Tlieresa in Vienna and 
won celebrity as singers and instru- 
mentalists. Marianne at her London 
debut, 1751, played flute and harpsi- 
chord, and sang; later became per- 
former on " the musical glasses." B. 
1744; d. 1792. Cecilia was the first 
woman of English birth to be accepted 
as an opera singer in Italy; sufl"ered 
from extreme poverty in old age. B. 
about 1750; d. July 3, 1836. 

Davies (Mary) sang mez. sop. at 
English festivals; debut at eight in a 
chapel in London, of which her father 
was precentor; won scholarship at 
Royal Academy of Music, and (ijained 
Parepa-Rosa gold medal and Nilsson 
prize; m. W. C. Davies, 1888; re- 
tired 1900. B. Feb. 27, 1855, London; 
add. Wortliing. 

Davis (Thomas) composed six solos 
for flute or violin with bass or harpsi- 
chord, country dances, and " Twenty 
English and Scotch airs " ; one publi- 
cation dated London, 1751. 

Davison (James William) wrote 
music criticism for London " Times," 
1846-1879, continually attacking Schu- 
mann, Gounod, Liszt, and Wagner, and 
upholding the classicists; edited harp- 
sichord music for piano; composed 
songs. B. Oct. 5, 1813, London; m. the 
pianist, Arabella Goddard; d. Mar. 24, 

Davy (John) composed " The Bay 

of Biscay " and many other songs once 
highly popular; "Rob Roy," 1803; 
" Woman's Will, a Riddle," 1820, and 
other forgotten dramatic pieces; 
played in Covent Garden Theatre and 
taught. B. Dec. 23, 1763, near Exeter, 
Eni,'.; d. Feb. 24, 1824, London. 

Davy or Davys (Bichard) com- 
posed for virginal, motets, and secu- 
lar songs; choirman and organist 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1490-92. 

Day (Alfred, M.D.) wrote a 
" Treatise on Harmony " designed to 
replace the existing rules by proposing 
sucli as would harmonize with the nu- 
merous exceptions occurring in the 
works of the great masters ; propos- 
ing a new nomenclature for figured 
bass and a simplified system of chords. 
B. 1810, London; d. Feb. 11, 1849. 

Day (Maj. Charles Russell) 
wrote " The Music and Musical Instru- 
ments of Southern India and the Dec- 
can," Novello & Co., 1889, the only 
authority on that subject; served in 
India with British army, 1882-87; 
mortally wounded in attack on Cronje, 
Paardeberg, South Africa, Feb. 18, 
1900. B. 1860, Norwich; d. Feb. 18, 

Day (John) published music in 
London, 1547, to his death, 1584, when 
the business was continued by his son 

D. C. Abbreviation for DA CAPO. 

D Dur. Oer. D major. 

Deane (Dr. Thomas) composed 
music for the play " Governor of Cy- 
prus," a service, and other church 
music; played organ and violin and is 
.said to have performed a Corelli so- 
nata in England for the first time, 

Debain (Alexander Frangois) in- 
vented the IIARMOISrimi, patented, 
1840, and founded a piano factory in 
Paris. B. 1809, Paris; d. Dec. 3, 

Deborah. George Frederick Handel's 
oratorio, largely adapted from his 
earlier works, to book by Humphreys, 
was completed Feb. 21, 1733, and pro- 
duced Mar. 17, 1733, at the Hay- 
market, London. 

Debussy (Claude Achille) won the 
Prix de Rome at the Paris Conserva- 




toire, 1884, with his cantata " L'En- 
fant Prodigne," and while in Rome 
composed the setting of Rossetti's 
"Blessed Damosel " ("La Demoiselle 
filu"), which was rejected by the 
French authorities; an orchestral 
suite, string quartet, prelude sym- 
phonique to " Apres midi d'un faune," 
ariettes to poems of Paul Verlaine, five 
" Poemes de Baudelaire," " Chansons 
de Bililis," " Chimene," opera to book 
by Catulle Mendes ; " Nuages " and 
"Fetes" for orchestra, a suite ^ for 
piano, and Maeterlinck's " PELLEAS 
et MELISANDE," Opera Comique, 
Paris, 1902. B. Aug. 22, 1862, St. 
Germain en Laye; add. Paris. 

Debut. Fr. First appearance. 

Debutant. Fr. One appearing for 
the first time. The feminine is 

Dec. Abreviation of DECANI and 

Decachordon. Or. Ten stringed 

Decani. L. The division of a choir 
sitting on the dean's or south side 
of tlie cathedral as opposed to the 

Deceptive Cadence. One in which 
the last chord is other than the 

Decide. Fr. Decidedly; firmly. 

Decima. L. " A tenth " ; Plena 
de Tonis, major tenth; Non Plena 
de Tonis, minor tenth; Quarta, a 
fourteenth; Quinta, fifteenth; Tertia, 

Decimole. DECUPLET. 

JUecisio. Major semitone or apo- 

Deciso. It. Determined. 

Decke. Ger. Cover or back or 
belly of resonance box; cover of 
stopped metal organ pipes. 

Declamando. It. In declamatory 

Declamation. Recitative as op- 
posed to song. " Declamation music " 
stich as the Strauss musical setting 
of Tennyson's " Enoch Arden " is 
merely incidental music played while 
the poem is being read in speaking 

Decompose. Fr. Disconnected. 

Decoration. Fr, A signature. 

Decres. Abbreviation of DECRES- 

Decrescendo. It. To gradually 

decrease the volume of tone. 

Dedekind (Constantin Christian) 
wrote and composed poetic dramas on 
sacred subjects and church music; 
court chapelmaster and poet at Dres- 
den. B. Reinsdorf, Anhalt-Cothen, 
where his father was pastor, April 2, 
1628; d. Sept. 7, 1697. 

Dedekind (Euricius) composed 
church music; cantor Johanniskirche, 
Liineberg. B. Neustadt, Saxe-Weimar, 
1585; d. 1619. Henning composed; 
officiated in Thuringia as cantor and 
pastor, B. Liineberg, son of Fried- 
rich, pastor of St. Michaels, brother 
of EURICIUS; d. 1630. 

Dedicate. It. Dedicated. 

Dedie. Fr. Dedicated. 

Deduction. L. Succession of notes 
in hexachords. 

Defesch (William) composed the 
oratorios " Judith " and " Joseph," 
songs and chamber music; played or- 
gan in Antwerp. B. Flanders; d. 
about 1758. 

Deficiendo. It. Slowly diminish- 

Degre. Fr. Degree of a scale. 

Degree of a Scale. Intervals of a 
tone, semitone, or augmented tone. 

Degrees in Music are conferred by 
various universities either after pre- 
scribed courses of study and examina- 
tion or honoris causa. They are Bach- 
elor, Master, and Doctor of Music. 

Dehn (Siegfried "Wilhelm) wrote 
on theory; edited and collected music 
and biographical material; was given 
charge of the musical portion of the 
Berlin Royal Library on Meyerbeer's 
recommendation. B. Feb. 25, 1799; d. 
Berlin, April 12, 1858. 

Dehnung. Oer. Expansion or 

Dehnungstriche. Oer. Long bow 

Deiss (Michael) composed " Misit 
Horodes rex " and other motets ; mu- 
sician to Emperor Ferdinand I, 16th 

Deiters (Hermann) revised and 
translated into German Thayer's " Life 
of Beethoven," which he completed; 




published biograpliy of Brahms, 1880 
(Eng. version by Mrs, Newniareh, 
1888) ; wrote for various musical pub- 
lications. B. June 27, 1833, Bonn; Dr. 
Juris et Lit. Bonn; d. May 11, 1907. 

Del, Delia, Delle, Dello. It. " Of 

Delaborde (E. M.) composed tlie 
opera comique "La Reine dort"; the 
overture '* Attila," chamber music; 
played piano, pupil of Alkan and 
Moscheles; taught Paris Conserva- 
toire, 1872. B. Feb. 7, 1839, Paris; 
add. Paris. 

Delassement. Fr. Light enter- 

Deldevez (Eduard Marie Ernst) 
compiled an " Anthology of violinists " 
in 4 vols. ; composed a requiem, three 
symphonies, songs, chamber music, the 
ballets " Lady Henriette," " Eucharis," 
" Paquita," "Vertvert"; second con- 
ductor at Paris Opera, 1859, and at 
Concerts du Conservatoire ; chief con- 
ductor, 1873; retired 1877 and 1885. B. 
May 31, 1817, Paris; d. Nov. 6, 1897. 

Deliberatamente. It, Deliber- 

Deliberate. It. Deliberate. 

Delibes (Clement Philibert Leo) 
composed the ballets " Coppelia " and 
" Sylvia," which are among the most 
beautiful in modern repertoire, the 
opera " LAKME," and many other less 
successful dramatic works, choruses, 
songs; taught in the Paris Conserva- 
toire; Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor and Member of the Institut. 
In 1848 Delibes was admitted to the 
solfege class at the Conservatoire, and 
sang in the Madeleine and other 
churches; won first prize in solfege, 
1850; and studied under Le Couppey, 
Benoist, and Adolphe Adam. In 1853 
he was appointed accompanist at the 
Theatre Lyrique and organist at Pierre 
de Chaillot upon Adam's recommenda- 
tion, and from 1862 to 1871 was or- 
ganist at St. Jean St. Francois, and 
in 1865 became accompanist and later 
second chorusmaster at the Opera. 
" Deux sous de Charbon " was his first 
dramatic piece, 1855, and the later 
operas followed in the order given : 
" Maltre Griffard," " Le Jardinier et 
son Seigneur," " Deux veilles Gardes," 

"L'Omelette a la FollembQche," " Lc 
Serpent a plumes," " L'Eccosais de 
Chatou." His more pretentious operas 
include " Le Roi I'a dit," " Jean de 
Nivelle," and " Kassya," completed 
after the composer's death by E. Guir- 
raud, " Le Don Juan Suisse " and " La 
princess Ravigotte," which have not 
been performed. B. Feb. 21, 1836, St. 
Germain du Val; d. Paris, Jan. 10, 

Delicatesse. Fr. Delicately. 

Delicatezza, con. It. With deli- 

Delicatissimo. It. Very deli- 

Delicate. It. Delicately. 

Delirio, con. It. With frenzy. 

Delia Sedie (Enrico) wrote books 
which have been combined in Eng- 
lish trans, as " Complete Method of 
Singing"; sang bar. in opera ; taught 
in Paris Conservatoire. B. June 17, 
1826, Leghorn. 

Delmotte (Henri Florent) wrote 
a biography of Orlando di Lasso, based 
on Vinchant's chronicle. B. 1799, 
Mons; d. Mar. 9, 1836. 

Delyn. Welsh harp. 

Demancher. Fr. To cross hands 
in playing piano or shift position on 
the violin. 

Demande. Fr. Fugue subject. 

Demantius (Johann Christoph) 
composed church music and songs and 
wrote on music; cantor at Zittau and 
Freiberg. B. Dec. 15, 1567, Reichen- 
berg; d. Freiberg, April 20, 1643. 

Demeur (Anne Arsene) sang sop. 
in opera with great success, much ad- 
mired by Berlioz for whom she created 
Dido in " Les Troyens a Carthage." 
B. Mar. 5, 1827, Saujon, Charente, 
maiden name Charton ; m. Demeur 
the flautist; d. Nov. 30, 1892, Paris. 

Demi Baton. Fr. Semibreve rest. 

Demi Cadence. Fr. Half cadence. 

Demi Jeu. Fr. Mezzo forte or 
half power. 

Demi mesure. Fr. Minim rest. 

Demisemiquaver. Thirty-second 

Demi Soupir. Fr. Quaver rest. 

Demi Ton. Fr. Semitone. 

Demoiselle. Fr. An organ coupler. 

Demonic. Anton Rubinstein's 




three-act opera to book by Wiskowa- 
tov, based on Lermontoff's poetic tale, 
was first performed Jan. 25, 1875, at 
St. Petersburg, and in 1881 at Covent 
Garden. The prologue portrays the 
Demon defj'ing the Angel of Light, 
but falling in love with Tamara, 
daughter of Prince Gudal and be- 
trothed of Prince Sinodu on seeing 
her with her maidens by the water. He 
first causes a band of Tartars to mur- 
der Prince Sinodu and then undertakes 
to comfort Tamara, who weeps over 
her lover's body. Tamara retires to 
a convent where she is followed by the 
Demon, who reveals himself to her in 
his proper person, and invites her to 
share his power. Tamara consents, 
provided he will reconcile himself to 
his Creator, and this he agrees to, but 
as he makes his vow the Augel of Light 
appears, accompanied by the ghost of 
the murdered prince, and the Demon 
sees Tamara carried off to heaven by 
a band of angels. The principal mu- 
sical nimibers are : Act I : " He Da- 
mon! wir warten " and " Verhasste, 
verfliichte Welt! " the Demon; " Tiig- 
lich eilen wir im Fluge," chorus of 
maidens; "Ach! liebe Miidchen," Ta- 
mara ; and " Ach ! Tamara," the 
maidens ; " Stille, Stille ! schleichet 
niiher! " the Tartars; Act II: " Ru- 
fet Heil unserm Fiirsten," and " Der 
Wein, Der Wein," chorus; ballet 
music ; " Well uns ! ein Trauerzug," 
chorus; "Susses Kind, Du weinst 
vergebens," the Demon ; " Auf ziim 
Kampfe, Riiche uns, beseele uns," 
Gudal and chorus. Act III : diio, the 
Demon and Tamara and the apotheo- 
sis music with angelic chorus. 

DemoplLon. Luigi Cherubini's 
opera to book by !Marmontel was pro- 
duced Dee. 5, 1788, at the Academic 
Royale, in Paris. 

Denefve (Jules) composed a re- 
quiem, cantata for the unveiling of 
the Orlando di Lasso statue in Ghent, 
1858, three operas, male choruses; 
taught and plaved 'cello. B. 1814, 
Chimny; d. Axig. 10, 1877. 

Dengremont (Maurice) played 
violin with great success, but killed 
himself in dissipation. B. Rio .Janeiro, 
Mar. 19, 18GG; d. Paris, 1893. 

Denis d'Or. Keyboard instru- 
ment with pedals invented by Pro- 
copius Divis, 1762, Moravia. 

Denkmaler der Tonkunst was the 
title of Dr. Clirysander'.s reprint of 
music by Palestrina, Coielli, and 

Denkmaler Deutscher Tonkunst 

were niusic reprints undertaken by a 
committee composed of Di-. Clnysander, 
Brahms, Joachim, Spitta, Helmholtz, 
and Herzogenberg, 1892, with govern- 
ment aid. 

Denza (Luigi) composed the extra- 
ordinarily popular song " Funiculi 
Funicula " which Richard Strauss 
used in his Italian suite, and more 
than 500 other songs to English, Ital- 
ian, and French texts; tauglit singing 
at Royal Academy of Music, London. 
B. Castellaiiiare di Stabia, 1846 ; pupil 
of Naples Conservatory; add. London. 

Depart, Chant du. The only 
French national song composed during 
the Terror was written by Marie 
Joseph Ch#nier to celebrate the fourth 
anniversary of the Fall of the Bastile, 
while in iiidiiig in Sairette's home, and 
was set by Meliul. 

Deppe (Ludwig) conducted musi- 
cal society in Hamburg; taught piano; 
imperial chapelmaster at Berlin. B. 
Nov. 7, 1828, Alverdissen, Lippe; d. 
Sept. 5, 1890, at Bad Pyrmont. 

Dering or Deering (Richard) com- 
posed sacred music and madrigals and 
for viol ; organist to Queen Henrietta 
Maria and musician to Charles I of 
Eng.; studied in Italy; may have been 
among the first to employ figured bass. 
Son of Henry Dering of Liss; d. 1630. 

Derivative. Root from which the 
harmonics are derived; an inversion. 

Des. Ger. D flat. 

Descant. DISCANT. 

Des Dur. Ger. Key of D flat major. 

Deserteur. P. A. Monsigny's musi- 
cal play in three acts to book by 
Sedaine, was first produced Mar. 6, 
1769, at the Theatre des Italiens, 

Desmarets (Henri) composed sa- 
cred music and the operas " Didon," 
1693; "Circ6." 1694; " Theag6ne et 
Charicl^e " and " Les Amours de 
Momus," 1G95; "Venus et Adonis"; 

Henri Marteau 

Henri Vieuxtemps 

Maud Powell 

Pablo de Sarasate 
NiCCOLO Paganini 




"Les Fetes Galantes"; fled Paris to 
escape punisliraent for secret marriage, 
became chapelmaster to Pliilip V; ob- 
tained ratilication of his marriage 
under patronage of the Duke of Lor- 
raine, while resident at Lum'ville, 
1722, and produced " Renaud, ou hi 
Suite d'Arniide " in Paris that year. 
B. ]f)02, Paris; d. Sept. 7, 1741, 

Des Moll. Ger. Key of D flat 

Despres. One form of spelling the 
name of JOSQUIN de Pres or di Prato. 

Dessauer (Josef) composed the 
song " Lockung " and the operas " Lid- 
wina," " Ein Besuch in St. Cyr," " Pa- 
quita," " Domingo," and chamber mu- 
sic. B. 1798, Prague; d. July 8, 1876, 
near Vienna. 

Dessin. Fr. Plan or design. 

Dessoff (Felix Otto) conducted 
opera at Vienna, Carlsruhe, and 
Frankfort; composed chamber music. 
B. Jan. 14, 1835, Leipsic; d. Oct. 28, 
1891, Frankfort. 

Dessus. Fr. Treble or upper part 
of a score. 

Destouclies (Andre Cardinal ) com- 
posed the successful opera " Isse " at 
25, " Les Elements," an elaborate bal- 
let in which Louis XV danced and 
which has been orchestrated, anew by 
d'Indy; the cantatas " Oenone " and 
"Sem6l€"; originally a mousquetier, 
but became " inspecteur general " of 
the Academie royale de musique and 
surintendant of music to the king. B. 
1672, Paris; d. 1749. 

Destra. It. The right; Mano, 

Destranges (Louis Augustin 
fitienne Rouille) wrote " Les Inter- 
pr&tes musicaux du Faust de Goethe " 
and other books of a critical nature; 
edited " L'Ouest-Artiste," 1890; advo- 
cated Wagner's music. B. Mar. 29, 
1863, Nantes; add. Paris. 

Desto. It. Sprightly. 

Detache. Fr. Detached; staccato 

Determinate. It. Resolutely. 

Detonation. Fr. False intonation. 

Detonner. Fr. To sing out of tune. 

Dettingen Te Teum. George Fred- 
erick Handel's work in celebration of 

the victory of Dettingen contains many 
excerpts from " Urio," and was first 
performed at the Chapel Royal, Nov. 
27, 1743, though begun in July of that 

Deus Misereatur. Psalm Ixvii is 
considered a responsory psalm in the 
Latin rituul. In the revision of the 
Anglican Book of Common Prayer, 
1552, it is given as an alternative to 
the Nunc Dimittis. 

Deutsche Elote. Ger. German 

Deutscher Bass. Ger. A viol mid- 
way in size between a doublebass and 
a. \ello. 

Deuxieme Position. Fr. Second 
position on the violin; guitar's second 

Deux Journees. M. Luigi C. Z. S. 
Cherubini's three-act comedie lyrique 
to book by Bouilly was produced Jan. 
16, 1800, at the Theatre Feydeau, 
Paris, and subsequently given in Ger- 
man, English, and Italian versions. 
Miehele, from whose occupation as 
water carrier the English version takes 
its name, is the father of Antonio, 
who is about to marry Angeline, a 
peasant girl of Genesse, and he obtains 
passes for himself, Antonio, and Mar- 
celline, his daughter, in order that 
they may go to fetch the bride. Count 
Armand, to whom Miehele is under 
obligation, falls into disfavour with 
IVIazarin, who places a guard at the 
city gates in order to prevent his es- 
cape. Miehele hides the Count in a 
water barrel, induces Marcelline to 
remain at home and thus enable the 
Count's wife Costanza to take her 
place, and gets the fugitives past the 
gate. Although the Count is obliged 
at one time to hide in a hollow tree, 
the party reaches the open country 
in apparent safety. Costanza claps 
her hands as a signal to her husband 
that they have escaped, but as she 
does so, the party is surrounded by 
soldiers. The soldiers seize Costanza, 
and the Count rushes to her rescue. 
He reveals his identity, but as the sol- 
diers are about to take him back to 
Paris, Miehele brings the news that 
Mazarin has restored the Count's lib- 
erty and estates. The principal mu- 




sical numbers are : Act I : "Da casa 
il prince mio signer," Antonio ; " Deh 
so m'ascolti," Michele; " U mio libera- 
tor," Armand, Costanza, and Michele; 
and a duo for Armand and Costanza; 
Act II: "Via! cedete all' evidenza," 
Costanza, Antonio, and soldiers; and 
a trio and march in the finale; Act 
III: "La pastorella " (wedding cho- 
rus) which merges into "Nulla pieta 
de omai " (Soldiers' chorus), and a 
brilliant quartet with double chorus 
as the finale. 

Development is the elaboration of 
a theme in accordance with the recog- 
nized rules of art. 

Devil's Opera. G. A. Macfarren's 
two-act opera to words by G. Macfar- 
ren was first performed Aug. 13, 1838, 
at the English Opera House, London. 

Devin du Village. Jean Jacques 
Kousseau's one-act opera to his own 
text was first produced at Fontaiiie- 
bleau, Oct. 18, 1752, and the following 
year at the Academic Royale. In 
1766 it was translated and adapted 
for English performance by Dr. IJur- 
ney as " The Cunning Man." " Rous- 
seau's Dream," which has been used 
as a hymn tune, is part of the di- 
vertissement of this work, which, de- 
spite its composer's tempestuous career 
in music, was so popular as to have 
reached its 400th performance before 
it was shelved in 1829. 

Devoto, Devozione, con. It. De- 
votedly; with affection. 

Dextra. L. Tlie right. 

Dextrae Tibiae. L. Pipes held in 
the right hand. 

Di. It. "By, for, with, of"; 
Grade, by degrees; Chiesa, for the 

Diabelli (Antonio) composed the 
waltz on which Beethoven wrote 33 
variations (Op. 120) ; " Landmessen," 
still sung in Austrian churches; the 
operetta " Adam in der Klemme " ; 
taught piano and guitar; joined 
Peter Cappi as music publisher, 1818; 
founded DIABELLI & CO., 1824; edu- 
cated for the priesthood, but deter- 
mined, on secularization of Bavarian 
monasteries, to devote himself to mu- 
sic, and became pupil of Haydn, 
Vienna, 1803. B, Mattsee near Salz- 

burg, Sept. 6, 1781; d. April 8, 1858, 

Diabelli & Co. published music ia 
Vienna from 1824 when the house 
was founded by ANTONIO DIA- 
BELLI, acquiring the publications of 
ARTARIA and otiier houses, is.suing 
works of Scliiiliert, Czeiny, and othiM' 
composers, in all nioie than 25,000 
publications up to L'-SO. C. A. Spina 
took charge of the business, 1852, F. 
Schreiber in 1872, in \\hose name it 
was continued after the purchase by 
A. Cranz, of Hamburg, 1876. 

Diadeste. Michael William Balfe's 
Italian opera bulla to words by Fitz- 
ball was first performed May 17, 1838, 
at Drury Lane, London. 

Dialogo. It. Dialogue; duet. 

Dialogue. Fr. Dialogue; duet. 

Diamants de la Couronne. Daniel 
F. E. Auber's three-act op6ra comique 
to book by Scribe was first produced 
at the Opera Comique, Paris, Mar. 6, 
1841, and as " The Crown Diamonds " 
in London the following year. The 
scene is laid in Portugal, 1777. Don 
Henrique, who is making a journey 
for the twofold purpose of attending 
the coronation of his queen and wed- 
ding Diana, daughter of his uncle. 
Count de Campo Mayor, minister of 
police; is captured in the mountains 
by a band of counterfeiters. Catarina, 
Avho is the leader of the gang, spares 
his life on condition that he shall not 
reveal what he has seen for a year. 
As he is about to depart they are sur- 
rounded by troops led by Don Hen- 
rique's friend, Don Sebastian, and the 
coiners and Henrique make their es- 
cape disguised as monks while Cata- 
rina and her lieutenant Rebolledo 
disappear through a subterranean pas- 
sage, taking with them a casket con- 
taining some mysterious jewels. In 
the next act Don Henrique reaches 
the home of his uncle, only to find that 
Diana is in love with his friend Don 
Sebastian, while he himself is sigh- 
ing for Catarina. Meantime a car- 
riage bearing Catarina and Rebolledo 
breaks down, and they seek shelter in 
the castle of the minister of police. 
When Diana reads an account of a 
robbery containing a description of 




Catarina and Reholledo, the latter dis- 
appears, and Don Henrique tells Cata- 
rina of her danger, confesses liis love 
for her, and urges lier to run away 
with him. Catarina, though moved 
by his generosity, declines, but gives 
him her ring as a souvenir. Just then 
Count Campo Mayor enters and an- 
nounces that the Crown Diamonds 
have been stolen and, despite the ex- 
citement of the moment, recognizes 
the ring Don Henrique is wearing as 
one of the royal jewels. Diana turns 
the situation to her own advantage by 
making Henrique promise tliat if she 
will assist Catarina to escape he will 
refuse to marry her. In the last act 
Diana, Count Campo Mayor, Don Hen- 
rique, and Don Sebastian assemble in 
an ante chamber at the royal palace, 
where Rebolledo is presently announced 
as Count Fuentes. It develops that 
the crown diamonds have been actually 
pledged for the national debt, and that 
Count Fuentes has been employed to 
procure duplicates to be used on state 
occasions until the real jewels can be 
redeemed. The scene changes, the 
Queen comes in, expresses her pleasure 
at the way in which Count Fuentes 
has performed this delicate mission, 
and makes him Minister of Secret 
Police. Count Campo Mayor is then 
admitted, and he announces the de- 
cision of the royal covmcil that her 
majesty shall marry the prince of 
Spain. The Queen declares she will 
marrj'^ a man of her own choice, and 
when the Count protests, threatens to 
confiscate his property for permitting 
the crown diamonds to be stolen, and 
orders him to arrest Diana and Don 
Henrique for harbouring the thieves. 
Diana enters, but fails to recognize 
Catarina in the Queen. Not so with 
Don Henrique. He knows Catarina at 
once, is amazed to find her in the royal 
palace, and is planning to rescue her 
by force when the Queen orders his 
arrest for high treason. Another 
change of scene reveals her majesty 
holding court. Don Henrique comes 
in to plead for Catarina to find at 
last that Catarina and the Queen are 
one and the same, and to be overjoyed 
with the announcement of her majesty 

that she will wed him as the man who 
loved her for herself alone. The prin- 
cipal musical numbers are: Act I: 
" lloll on, roll on," Henrique; "O'er 
Monntain steep, through Valley Roam- 
ing," Rebolledo; "The young Fe- 
drillo," tutti; "Unto the Hermit of 
tlie Chapel," chorus of disguised 
numks; Act II: "The Brigand" and 
" In the Deep Ravine of the Forest," 
Don IIenri(|ue; "Oh, Surprise unex- 
pected! " quintet; "Love! at once I 
break thy fetters," and "If I could 
but Courage feel," Catarina; "Oh, 
wliisper what thou feelest! " Hen- 
rique; Act III: "When doubt the 
tortured frame is rending," Diana; 
" Love, dwell with me," the Queen. 

Diana. Fr. Aubade or reveille or 
" liuntsup." 

Diapason. Gr. An octave or the 
compass of all the strings of the lyre ; 
the foundation stop of an organ or 
principal, whether open or stopped ; in 
French a tuning fork or the pitch 
registered by it. In French diapason 
normal or French pitch a' is the result 
of 4.35 double vibrations per second at 
a temperature of 59 degrees F. This 
standard of PITCH is modified first 
by equal temperament and also by the 
fact that the temperature of the aver- 
age concert room is higher than that 
given, and at 68 degrees F. in equal 
temperament a' represents 439 double 
vibrations per second. 

Diapason cum Diapente. L. A 

Diapason cum Diatessaron. L. 
An eleven til. 

Diapente. Gr. A fifth. 

Diapentissare. Middle L. Discant 
at tlie interval of a fifth. 

Diaphonia. Gr. Dissonance as 
opposed to consonance ; obsolete form 
of DISCANT or two voice counter- 

Diarmid. Hamish McCunn's four- 
act grand opera to book by the Duke 
of Argyll (then Marquis of Lome), 
based on Celtic folklore, was produced 
Oct. 2.3, 1897, at Covent Garden, Lon- 
don, by the Carl Rosa Opera Company. 

Diaschisma. Gr. Half a LIMMA. 

Diastema. Gr. An interval. 

Diatessaron. Gr. A fourth. 





Diatonic. Intervals, progressions 
of melody or chords belonging to one 
key and unaltered by accidentals; dia- 
tonic modulation shifts from one to 
a closely related key; diatonic scales 
are the modern major and minor 
scales; diatonic melody is constructed 
exclusively of the notes of a single 
scale; hence in general opposed to 
' chromatic. Diatonic with the ancient 
Greeks was one of the three genera of 
music, the other two being Enharmonic 
and Chromatic. 

Diaulion. Gr. Air played on the 
aulos or flute between parts of a song. 

Diaulos. Gr. Double flute. 

Diazeuxis. Gr. The separation of 
two tetraehords by a tone; the tone 

Dibdin (Charles) composed light 
dramatic entertainments including 
" The Waterman " and the " Quaker," 
" The Shepherd's Artiflce " for Covent 
Garden, "The Padlock" and "The 
Recruiting Sergeant " for Drury Lane, 
but retired from the latter house after 
a quarrel with Garrick; was composer 
to Covent Garden for a time at $50 
per week, but became best known 
through " The Whim of the Moment," 
in which he was sole actor, singer, 
composer, and author, and manager; 
and in a similar entertainment called 
" The Oddities," in the course of which 
he introduced many sea songs which 
acquired popularity in the British 
navy; wrote "A History of the Stage," 
novels, and his own " Professional 
Life." B. Mar. 4, 174.5; d. July 25, 
1814. Two sons, Charles and Thomas, 
became playwrights. Henry Edward 
compiled "The Standard Psalm Book," 
1857; composed psalm tunes and for 
piano and organ; played violin and 
harp. B. Sadler's Wells, Sept. 8, 
1813; son of Charles and grandson 
of CHARLES; d. May 6, 1866, 

Dichord. Two stiingod instrument; 
bichoid or instrument with two strings 
to tli(! note. 

Dickons (Mrs. Poole) sang sop. in 
Lomion o]terii and concert. B. 1770, 
London : d. May 4, 18.33. 

Di Colpo. It. Suddenly, at once. 

Dido and Aeneas. Heiny PurceU's 

three-act opera to book by Nalinm 
Tate, ])rol)ably composed between 1688 
and 1690, has been occasionally given 
in concert form and in student per- 
formances, but was revived Mar. 25, 
1901, at the Coronet Theatre, London. 

Diecetto. It. Composition for ten 

Diemer (Louis) founded the " So- 
ciete des instruments anciens " ; com- 
posed " concertstiick," Op. 31; con- 
certo for piano and orchestra. Op. 32; 
" concertstiick " for violin and orches- 
tra. Op. 33, songs and chamber music; 
taught; won first piano prize at Paris 
Conservatoire at 13. B. Feb. 14, 1843, 
Paris; add. Paris. 

Diesare. It. To sharpen. 

Diese. Fr. Sharp. 

Dieser. Fr. To sharpen. 

Dies Irae. L. " Day of wrath." 
Splendid Latin hymn written and 
probably composed by Thomas de Ce- 
lano, friend and follower of St. Francis 
of Assisi, is a sequence in Masses for 
the Dead between the Epistle and the 
Gospel, for which Cherubini, Berlioz, 
and Verdi have composed especially 
fine settings. 

Diesis. Gr. Quartertones in an- 
cient Greek music and the last sub- 
division of intervals in the Aristotel- 
ian system; in modern terms the dif- 
ference between a major or diatonic 
semitone, and a minor or chromatic 
semitone, obtained by tuning up the 
same tone three major thirds and an 
octave, the resultant ratios of vibra- 
tion being 125: 128. 

Dietrich (Albert Hermann) 'com- 
posed the successful three-act opera 
" Robin Hood," Frankfort, 1879; sym- 
phony in D minor, concert overture 
" Normannenfahrt," " Rheinmorgen," 
and other works for chorus and or- 
chestra; incidental music to " Cymbe- 
line," and chamber music; pupil of 
Schumann and friend of Brahms; 
Avrote " Recollections of Brahms," 
1899, with J. V. Widmann; court 
chapelmaster at Oldenburg and royal 
professor at Berlin. B. Golk near 
Meissen, Aug. 28, 1829; settled in 
Berlin, 1890 ; d. 1908. 

Dietrich (Sixt) composed 36 anti- 
phons and book of Magnificats. B. 




Augsburg, about 1490; d. Oct. 21, 
1548, St. Gall. 

Dietsch (Pierre Louis Philippe) 
bought Wagner's " Flying Dutchman " 
libretto and produced his setting at 
the Grand Opera, Paris, Nov. 9, 1842; 
composed ehureli music ; conducted 
Grand Opera, 1860-63. B. Mar. 17, 
180S, Dijon; d. Feb. 20, 1865, Paris. 

Dieupart (Charles) composed harp- 
sichord suites wjiieh may have sug- 
gested the title " Suite Anglaise " to 
Bach; played and taught harpsichord 
and violin; adapted Italian opera for 
Drury Lane, 1707. B.France; d. Lon- 
don, 1740. 

Dieze. Fr. Sharp. 

Diezeuginenon. Or. Disjunct or 

Difficile. It. Difficult. 

Di Gala. It. Merrily. 

Digitorium. Dumb instrument for 
exercising the fingers invented by M. 

Dignum (Charles) composed songs 
and glees, sang in London opera. B. 
1765, Rotherhithe, Eng.; d. Mar. 29, 
1827, London. 

Di Grado. It. By conjunct inter- 

Dilettante. It. Amateur. 

Diludiuni. Interlude. 

Diluendo. It. Diminishing; de- 

Diminished Intervals are a semi- 
tone less than perfect or minor. Tlius 
G and D sounded to gether make a per- 
fect fifth, but G and D flat a dimin- 
ished fifth, which is a discord, but may 
be modified by adding a major sixth 
to the G. The diminished fourth is 
always discordant. The chord of the 
diminished seventh, which is an in- 
version of the chord of the minor 
ninth, is valuable as affording ease 
in modulation. A diminished triad 
consists of two thirds on the subtonic 
or the chord formed in the key of C 
by B, D, and F. 

Diminue. Fr. Diminished. 

Diminuendo. It. Decreasing in 
vohnne of tone; docrescendo. 

Diminution. Repetition of a sub- 
ject or theme in fugues and canons in 
notes of smaller duration. 

Di Molto. It. Very much. 

Din Din. Indian variety of cym- 

Dinorah. Giacomo Meyerbeer's 
three-act opera to book by Barbier and 
Carre was first performed April 4, 
1859, at the Opera Comique, Paris. 
The scene is laid in the Breton village 
of Ploermel. Hoel, a goatherd, and 
Dinorah, his betrothed, start to the 
chapel to be married on the day ap- 
pointed in the village for a pilgrimage 
in honour of the Virgin, but the festivi- 
ties are interrupted by a storm, and 
Dinorah'a home is destroyed by light- 
ning. Hoel is advised by the Wizard 
Tonick to seek the treasure of the 
Korigans, a Breton fairy folk, in prep- 
aration for which he must spend a 
year in solitude. He sets forth upon 
his quest, but Dinorah, believing her- 
self deserted, goes mad, and wanders 
through the woods with her goat, 
seeking him. After an overture which 
introduces a cliorus sung behind the 
curtain, the opera opens with the re- 
turn of Hoel a year later. The vil- 
lagers are singing as Dinorah enters, 
looking for her goat. Corentin, the 
bagpiper, has returned to his cottage, 
and begins to sing and play in order 
to drive away the fairies and goblins, 
and Dinorah, attracted by the music, 
enters, and insists that he continue. 
Then Hoel, confident that he has dis- 
covered the secret of the Korigan's 
treasure, and believing that the first 
to touch it must die, comes in to get 
Corentin to serve as his victim. As 
he enters Dinorah disappears through 
a window, and a moment later Hoel 
sends Corentin out for wine, meaning 
to stifl"en his courage for the ordeal. 
Woodcutters are singing a brindisi as 
the curtain rises on the second act, 
and Dinorah enters, still seeking her 
lost lover. The scene shifts to the 
Val Maudit into which come Hoel and 
Corentin; but the latter, hearing Di- 
norah singing the treasure ballad, 
learns that whoever first touches it 
will die, and he refuses to go on. An 
angry debate follows, after which 
Dinorah and her goat appear and 
Hiiel mistakes her for a spirit sent 
to deter him from the search. Dinorah 
falls into a mountain torrent while 




attempting to cross on a tree which 
bridges a chasm, and Hoel plunges in 
to her rescue. Tlie shock and Hoel's 
singing restore Dinorah's reason, and 
on learning what she has suffered, 
Hoel persuades her that the events of 
the year have been a dream. Dinorah 
tries to recall the Pardon of Ploermel, 
which is taken up by a chorus ap- 
proaching from the distance, and Hoel 
and Dinorah resume their interrupted 
journey toward the chapel. At the 
first production the cast was as fol- 
lows : Dinorah, Mme. Miolan-Carvalho, 
sop.; Hoel, Faure, bar.; Corentin, 
Sainte-Foy, ten. The principal mu- 
sical numbers are: Act 1: "Si carina, 
caprettina," Dinorah ; " Sto in casa al 
fine," Corentin; " Se per prender," 
Hoel; Act II: polka mazourka known 
as " The Shadow Song," Dinorah ; 
" Chi primo al tesor," Dinorah ; " Le 
crede il padre," Hoel ; Act III : " Sei 
vendicata assai," Hoel; "Santa Maria! 
nostra donna," Dinorah and chorus. 

Dippel (Andreas) sang ten. in 
opera, possessing a remarkably exten- 
sive repertoire in both German and 
Italian, so that he was often called 
upon to substitute for other leading 
artists on the briefest notice; became 
associated with GATTI-CASAZZA in 
the artistic management of the Metro- 
politan Opera House, New York, 1908, 
and assuming direction of German 
repertoire at that house, where he had 
been a favourite singer for several 
seasons. The summer of 1908 Mr. 
Dippel toured Europe, engaging new 
Avorks and new artists and scenic 
equipment for the season of 1908-9. 

Direct. Sign placed at the end of 
a page or line to indicate the note next 
to be played. 

Directeur. Fr. Director or man- 

Direct Motion. Progression of 
pai'ts in a similar direction. 

Diretta, alia. //. In direct motion. 

Direttore. It. Director or man- 

Dirge. Funeral music, so called 
from the antiphon " Dirige, Domine 
Deus meus." 

Diruta (Agostino) composed church 
music; Augustinian monlv; chapel- 

master at Sant' Agostino's, Rome, 
1G30-47 ; relative and pupil of GI- 
RO LAMO. Girolamo wrote "II Trana- 
ilvano," which was not only the first 
work to treat the organ as a distinct 
instnunent as regards technique, but 
includes descriptions of the three best 
instnmients of the period in Italy, 
rules of counterpoint and of trans- 
posing the ecclesiastical modes, an in- 
troduction to singing and many illus- 
trations; became the most celebrated 
of Italian organists and played and 
conducted in various Italian cathe- 
drals. B. about 1564, Perugia; d. 

Dis. Oer. D sharp. 

Discant was used from the 12th 
century on as a general term for all 
forms of polyphony. It replaced the 
still earlier diaphony or organum in 
which a second or more parts pro- 
gressed with the principal or subject 
by similar motion, and b}^ permitting 
contrary motion, paved the way for 
the development of counterpoint. Dis- 
cant was soon defined by a set of rules, 
tlie object of which was to enable a 
singer to improvise a part to a sub- 
ject, but improvization or Contrap- 
punto alia mente must soon have given 
way to written discant. Discant was 
double, triple, or quadruple accord- 
ing to the number of parts added. 
Discant was also the name of the 
part added to the tenor melody or 
cantus firmus, or to the first part, 
if there were several. The Discant 
was written above the tenor on its 
own clef. 

Discantgeige. Ger. Violin. 

Discantschliissel. Ger. The so- 
prano or discant clef. 

Discord. Any chord which requires 

Discrete, Discrezione, con. It. 
Prudently, with discretion. 

Disdiapason. Gr. A fifteenth. 

Disinvolto. It. Free, unfettered. 

Disjunct. Disjoined. 

Disjunct Motion. Succession of 

Dis Moll. Ger. D sharp minor. 

Disperato. It. Despairingly. 

Disperazione. It. Despair. 

Dispersed Harmony. Chords in 




which the notes are separated by wide 

Disposition. Arrangements of 
parts of a score, chord, chorus, or- 
chestra, or of the mechanism of an 

Di Salto. It. By jump or skip. 

Dissonance. Combination of tones 
producing JiJiATS; cliord requiring 
resolution whether agreeable to the 
ear or not. 

Dissonare. It. To sound discord; 
to jar. 

Distanza. It. Distance, as of an 

Distinto. It. Distinct. 

Dithyrambus. (Ir. Song in honour 
of Bacchus from which dramatic form 
was evolved ; choruses of early Greek 

Dito. It. Finger. 

Dito Grosso. It. Thumb. 

Ditone. Interval of two major tones. 

Ditonus. L. Ditone. 

Ditson (Oliver) founded the Bos- 
ton, Mass., music publisliing house of 
Oliver Ditson & Co. in 1857 with John 
C. Haynes as partner; began business 
career at 12 in the shop of Samuel H. 
Parker, dealer in music and books; 
became member of the firm in 1832 
which became Ditson & Parker; con- 
tinued the business in his own name on 
Parker's retirement, 1845; established 
New York branch in charge of his 
son Charles H., 1867; Philadelphia 
branch, 1875, in charge of his son 
J. Edward; began the sale of band 
and orchestra instrmnents in Boston 
as John C. Haynes & Co., 1860, and 
extended it by means of Cliicago 
branch known as Lyon & Healy. B. 
Oct. 30. 1811, Boston; d. Dec. 21, 
1888. The catalogue of the allied 
houses in 1908 numbered more than 
52,000 titles, including many text- 
books. " The IMusician " was issued 
as a monthly periodical from 1896. 

Dittersdorf, von (Karl Ditters) 
composed the operetta " Doctor ixnd 
Apotheker," which is still performed 
in C.ermany, and in all 28 operas ; 53 
symphonies, most of which are in the 
style of his friend Haydn, although 
that based on Ovid's " Metamorpho- 
ses " is one of the earliest attempts at 

programme music ; much chamber mu- 
sic, and many songs. In boyhood he 
studied violin with Kiinig and Zie- 
gler, played in the orchestra at St. 
Stephen's, Vienna; was admitted to 
Prince von llildl)urghausen's private 
band; studied witli Bonno and Trani, 
and became intimate with Gluck and 
llaydn. In 1701 he toured Italy with 
Gluck, and in 1704: went with Gluck 
and Guadagni to the coronation of 
Archduke Joseph as King of tiie Ro- 
mans at Frankfort, played at court, 
and on returning to Vienna became 
chapelmaster to the Bishop of Gross- 
wardein at Pressburg, in which capac- 
ity his first oratorio " Isacco figura 
del Redentore " was composed to the 
Bishop's Latin version of ]\Ietastasio, 
followed by the comic opera " Amore 
in Musica." In 1709 he joined the 
Prince Bishop of Breslau, Count von 
Schafgotsch, in his retirement at Jo- 
hannisburg, and through that patron's 
influence was made Knight of the 
Golden Spur and ennobled by the 
Emperor. His pleasant relations with 
the Prince Bishop continued with 
slight interruption until the death of 
that dignitary, 1795, after which he 
accepted the patronage of Count von 
Stillfried, residing on his estates in 
Bohemia for the remainder of his life. 
" Davide," " Ester," " Giobbe " were 
the titles of some of his oratorios; 
" 11 viaggiatore Americano," " Betrug 
durch Aberglauben," " Die Liebe Nar- 
renhause," " Hieronvmous Knicker," 
" Don Quixotte," " Ugolino," " Hocus 
Pocus," and " Die lustigen Weiber 
von Windsor " were all popular operas 
in their day. B. Vienna, Nov. 2, 1739; 
d. Oct. 24, 1799. See "Autobiog- 
raphy," Eng. trans, by A. D. Cole- 
ridcre, London, 1896. 

Ditty. Simple little song. 

Divertimento. It. Instrumental 
composition in several movements; 

Divertissement. Fr. Short ballet; 
entr'act; divertimento. 

Divided Stops. Organ stops which 
draw in two portions. 

Divisi. It. "Divided." Directs 
where instruments which have been 
playing in unison are to separate, 




their reunion being indicated by 
" Unis." 

Divisions. Quick consecutive pas- 
sages of ornamental nature; usually 
the variation of a simple theme. 

Division Viol had frets on the 

Divitis (A n t o n i u s) compo ed 
church music and chansons (published 
under name " Le Riclie ") ; singer to 
Louis Xll of France; 16th century. 

Divotamente. It. Devotedly. 

Divozione, con. It. With devo- 

Dixie, a song of national interest in 
the United States, although " Dixie's 
Land " refers to the Southern States 
only, was first made known in 1859 or 
18(i0 by Bryant's Minstrels, and was 
announced as a " walk around " by D. 
D. Emmet. In 1861 a song of the same 
name and to the same tune, words by 
Albert Pike, went the rounds of the 
Confederate army, and became very 
popular. The title may have been 
adopted in compliment to a New York 
sla\ehol(Iing family named Dixie. 

Dixieme. Fr. Tenth. 

Djamileh. Georges Bizet's op^ra 
comique to book by Louis Gallet was 
first performed May 22, 1872, at the 
Opera Comique, Paris, and has lately 
been revived with success in Germany. 
Harun, a young Turkish voluptuary, 
has avoided serious love because of the 
example of his father's unhappy mar- 
riage, and is unmoved when his sec- 
retary Splendiano tells him his for- 
tune will become exhausted in another 
year, and equally so when told that 
the lovely Djamileh having reigned 
for tlie month, ought, in accordance 
with Harun's way of life, to be re- 
placed by a new slave girl. Splendiano 
is merely directed to buy another slave 
girl, and seeing his master's indiffer- 
ence to Djamileh, begs to retain her 
for himself, to which Harun agrees. 
But Djamileh really loves Harun, and 
she refuses to be comforted with kind 
words or the present of a necklace, and 
declines her freedom when it is ofTered 
her. She rejects Splendiano, and, 
learning from him that a new slave 
is to be purchased, plans to disguise 
herself as the new favourite, who turns 

out to be a young Almee who dances 
marvellously. Re-entering Harun's 
presence disguised as the Almee, 
Djamileh's shyness astonishes her 
master, but when she suddenly unveils 
and pleads to be taken back as his 
slave rather than depart with fortune 
and freedom, Harun at last realizes 
and succumbs to the power of true 
love. The music is of a deliciously 
oriental type, and the opening chorus 
of Nile boatmen and the lovely music 
of the Alinee's dance have won instant 
favour wherever performed. 

Dlabacz (Gottfried Johann) wrote 
on music; librarian and chijirmaster 
of the Premonstratensian convent in 
Prague. B. July 17, 1758; d. Jan. 4, 

D Moll. Ger. Key of D minor. 

Do is the syllable preferred to Ut 
in Italy and England for sof-fa. 

Doctor of Music. Generally an 
honorary degree. 

Dodecachordon. Twelve-stringed 
instrument, which gives title to the 
celebrated book by Glarcanus, the as- 
simied name of Heinrich Loris, pub- 
lished in Basle, 1547. This book de- 
finitely settled a dispute regarding the 
development of Ecclesiastical Modes, 
established the fact that there are 12 
Modes only available for practical 
purposes, and illustrated the charac- 
teristics of each by a series of 89 
compositions selected from the best 

Dodecuplet. Group of 12 notes to 
be played in the time of eight. 

Dohler (Theodor) composed the 
opera "Tancreda," Florence, 1880; 
salon music; jilayed piano; ennobled 
through the influence of his patron the 
Duke of Lucca, he married a Russian 
princess, 1846, and retired. B. Naples, 
April 20, 1814; d. Florence, 1856. 

Dohnanyi, von (Ernst) composed 
" Zrinyi " an overture which was 
performed in Budapest, 1897, winning 
the King's prize; symphony in D 
minor serenade for violin and 'cello, 
Vienna, 1900; played piano in concert 
in the principal cities of Europe and 
America; pupil of his father, of the 
Royal Hungarian Academy of Music, 
Budapest, and of Eugen d'Albert. 




B. July 27, 1877, Pressburg; axid. 

Doigte. Fr. " Fingering " indi- 
cated l)V signs and numerals ou a score. 

Dolcan. DULCIANA. 

Dolce. It. Sweet; 8 ft. soft-toned 
organ stop. 

Dolcemente, Dolcezza, con. It. 
With sweetness and softness. 

Dolciano or Dolcino. It. DULf- 

Dolcissinio. It. As sweetly as 

Dolente, Dolentemente ; Dolore, 
Duolo, or Doloros, con. It. Sadly, 

Dolentissimo. It. As sadly as 

Doles (Johann Friedrich) com- 
posed church music, wrote " Elemen- 
tary Ijistruction in Singing," cantor at 
Freiberg and at the Thomasschule, 
Leipsic, 1750-89; pupil of Johann 
Sebastian Bach and friend of Mozart. 
B. Steinbach, Saxe-Meiningen, April 
23, 1715; d. Leipsic, Feb. 2, 1797. 

DolzfLote. Ger. German flute hav- 
ing seven finger holes and one key. 

Domchor. Ger. Cathedral choir. 

Dominant. Fifth degree of any 
scale; reciting note of a Gregorian 

Dominante. Fr. Dominant. 

Domino Woir. Daniel F. E. 
Auber's three-act opera comique to 
book by Scribe was first produced in 
Paris, bee. 2, 1837. The scene is laid 
at Madrid. Horatio di Massarena has 
fallen in love with a mysterious girl 
in a black domino whom he met at a 
masked ball given by the Queen of 
Spain, and meeting her again a year 
later at a like function, confesses his 
love, but is rejected. At midnight the 
girl seeks her companion, Brigitta, 
who has been sent away by Horatio, 
and failing to find her, cries that she 
is lost, and liurries away. In the next 
act she appears in the house of Hora- 
tio's friend, Count Juliano, disguised 
as a waiting maid, but is recognized 
by Horatio. She slips away as the 
Count's dinner develops into an orgy, 
having obtained some keys from Gil- 
Perez, porter at a convent, who has 
abandoned his post to pay court to 

Claudia, Count Juliano's housekeeper. 
The mysterious lady is, in fact, Angela, 
of noble birth, destined to become ab- 
bess of a convent, although she has not 
yet taken the vows. Her inlluence has 
already helped Horatio in his diplo- 
matic career, but while delighted at 
meeting him at the ball, she should 
have returned to the convent at mid- 
night. However she does return un- 
noticed, and in the last act is shown 
in tlie robes of an abbess, the ollice 
which is about to be conferred upon 
her. Horatio comes to the convent at 
this opportune moment, seeking release 
from an engagement to marry Ursula, 
a noble damsel who is likewise an in- 
mate of the convent. He recognizes 
the girl of the black domino in the 
Lady Abbess. The Lady Abbess has 
grown to love him. The Queen of 
Spain solves all difficulties by nomi- 
nating Ursula to be Abbess and per- 
mitting Angela and Horatio to marry. 

Dommer, von (Arrey) wrote criti- 
cism and books on music. B. Feb. 9, 
1828, Danzig; secretary to Hamburg 
city lil)rary, 187.3-S9. 

Donati (Baldassare) composed 
many graceful secular songs and 
church music; taught singing and 
counterpoint at the Seminario Gre- 
goriano di San Marco; was succes- 
sively " musieo e cantor," assistant 
to Adriano Willaert, and chapelmaster 
at St. Mark's, Venice. B. Venice, 
1548; d. 1003. 

Donati (Ignatio) composed church 
and secular music ; chapelmaster at Pe- 
saro and Milan Cathedrals. B. Casal- 
maggiore, near Cremona, 1612 ; d. 1638. 

Don Carlos. Sir Michael da Costa's 
opera to book by Tarantini was pro- 
duced June 20, 1844, at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, London. Giuseppe Verdi's 
five-act grand opera to book by Mery 
and Du Lode was first performed 
Jlar. 11, 1867. at the Grand Opera, 
Paris. The story deals willi the pas- 
sion of Don Carlos, son of King Philip 
of Spain and grandson of the Emperor 
Charles V for his stepmother, Eliza- 
beth of Valois. The King's jealousy 
is aroused, despite the innocence of his 
queen, and in the last act a meeting 
between the Queen and Don Carlos in 


the convent of St. Just is surprised Later, she is convinced that Elvira is 
by Philip, who then turns Carlos over right, and orders her betrothed to kill 
to the Grand Inquisitor, who had pre- Don Giovanni. Meeting his servant, 
viously demanded his life, and had wlio tells him that Zerlina has re- 
already brought about the destruction turned to Masetto, Don Giovanni re- 
ef Posa, the best friend of Carlos. joins the peasants, and invites them 
Don Giovanni or Don Juan. W. to a feast. The fifth scene shows the 
A. Mozart's two-act opera buffa to banquet hall. Master and sen-ant are 
book by Da Ponte was first performed attentive to their guests. Having plied 
Oct. 29, 1787, at Prague. Although them well with wine, Don Giovanni 
hurriedly composed, this opera is one tries to drag Zerlina away, but is 
of Mozart's best. Its full title is " II prevented by the timely entrance of 
Dissoluto Punito; ossia il Don Gio- three masks, Ottavio, Anna, and El- 
vanni," and the material is taken from vira, who have come to learn just what 
Tirso de Molina's tale, " El combidado sort of man Giovanni is. Giovanni 
de piedra." The scene is laid in Se- tries to throw the blame on Leporello, 
ville, and the first act represents a but his visitors remove their masks 
square before the palace of the Com- and denounce him for his crimes, 
mendatore. Don Giovanni, a dissolute The first scene of the second act rep- 
noble, has gained access to the apart- resents the attempt of Don Giovanni 
ment of the Commendatore's daughter, to abduct Zerlina from Donna Elvira's 
Donna Anna, at night. When the house. Masetto and a party of friends 
Commendatore, alarmed by her out- come in time to effect a rescue, but 
cries, rushes to her assistance, Don are thwarted in their attempt to 
Giovanni stabs him and escapes, join- avenge themselves on Don Giovanni, 
ing his seiwant Leporello, who awaits who has changed costumes with Lepo- 
him in the square. Donna Anna and rello, in order to elude Elvira. Master 
her fiance Don Ottavio swear to avenge and servant meet again in front of the 
the Commendatore's death. While Commendatore's palace, and as Don 
master and servant are discussing a Giovanni tells of meeting one of Le- 
new love aft'air. Donna Elvira, an porello's inamoratas, the statue of the 
earlier victim, comes along, bewailing Commendatore speaks warningly. Don 
her fate, and Don Giovanni attempts Giovanni only laughs and invites the 
to flirt with her, not having recog- statue to dine with him the following 
nized her, only to be met with bitter evening, an invitation which the statue 
reproaches. Don Giovanni runs off, accepts. Another scene represents 
and Leporello shocks Elvira with a Donna Anna clamouring for vengeance 
catalogue of his mastei's conquests in while Ottavio is pleading for love, and 
various lands. Meantime Don Gio- then the action shifts again to the 
vanni has discovered a pretty peasant banquet hall in Don Giovanni's palace, 
girl, Zerlina, who is at the point of The master is at dinner, served by 
marrying ]\Iasetto, a young farmer. Leporello. Elvira comes to implore 
The bridegroom to be is dragged away Don Giovanni to repent before it is 
by Leporello, and Don Giovanni offers too late, but is only laughed at. She 
himself to Zerlina as a substitute, but screams with terror on departing, and 
she is rescued by the timely appear- a knocking is heard, at which the mu- 
ance of Donna Elvira, who leads her sicians run away and Leporello hides 
away to a place of safety. Donna under the table. Don Giovanni opens 
Anna and Don Ottavio now enter, and the door, and finds the Commendatore's 
as Don Giovanni is making love to statue has come to the feast. He 
Donna Anna and inquiring as to the orders Leporello to lay another cover, 
cause of her mourning, Donna Elvira but the statue replies that it does 
returns and denounces him as the Com- not eat the food of mortals, and in- 
mendatorc's murderer. Don Giovanni vites Giovanni to sup with it. Despite 
replies that the woman is crazy, and the pleading of Leporello, Don Gio- 
deceivea Donna Anna for the moment, vanni accepts, then the statue takes 




him by the hand, and for the last time 
orders him to repent. On his refusal 
the statue disappears, and demons 
carry Don Giovanni to the infernal re- 
gions. The orifrinal caste was : Donna 
Anna, Teresa .Sapoiiti, soji. ; Donna 
Elvira, Micelli, sop. ; Zerlina, Bondini, 
sop.; Don Ottavio, Baglioni, ten.; 
Don Giovanni, Luigi Bassi, bar.; II 
Commendatore, and Masetto, LoUi, 
bass; Leporello, Felice Ponziani, bass. 
Tlie principal musical numbers are: 
Act I : " Notte e giorno faticar," Le- 
porello; "Ah! chi mi dice mai," El- 
vira ; " Madaiuina il catalogo," Lepo- 
rello ; " La, ci darem la niano," Zer- 
lina; "Mi tradi," Elvira; "Or sai, 
chi I'onore," Anna ; " Fin ch'han dal 
vino," Don Giovanni ; " Batti, batti," 
Zerlina; the Masked Trio, Ottavio, 
Anna, and Elvira; Act II: "Eh, via, 
buffone," Giovanni and Leporello; 
" Deh vieni alia finestra," Don Gio- 
vanni; " Vedrai, carino," Zerlina; 
"Sola, sola, in bujo loco," sextet; "Ah 
pieta, Signori miei," Leporello ; " II mio 
tesoro," Ottavio; "Non mi dir," Anna. 

Doni (Giovanni Battista) wrote 
" Compendio del trattato de' generi e 
de' modi della musica," a valuable 
book on Ancient Greek music, pub- 
lished 1635, Rome; reconstructed a 
double lyre, which he called " Lyra 
Barberina," or "Amphichord"; taught 
in Florence University. B. 1593, Flor- 
ence; d. 1G47. 

Donizetti (Gaetano) composed 
MOUNI," which have retained their 
place in modern repertoire, and in 
all 66 operas. Son of a weaver, who 
was ambitious that he should become 
a teacher, Donizetti, who had previ- 
ously studied music in the Naples Con- 
servatory and the Liceo Filarmonico 
at Bologna, enlisted in the army to 
avoid obedience to his father's wishes, 
and while stationed at Venice, 1818, 
produced his first opera, " Enrico di 
Borgogna," which was followed by " II 
Falegname di Livonia," " Nozze in 
Villa," and " Zoraide di Granata," the 

last named work making a great suc- 
cess in Rome, 1822, when the composer 
was carried in triumph, crowned at 
the capitol, and exempted from furtlier 
military duty. " Anna Bolena," 1830, 
Milan, was the first of Donizetti's 
operas to attract attention outside 
Italy, and then came " L'Elisir 
d'^imore " and " Lucia di Lammer- 
moor," the last, written for Naples, 
1835, gaining him an appointment as 
teacher of counterpoint in the Roj'al 
College of Music of Naples. The 
rapidity which characterized Doni- 
zetti's composition is shown in the 
fact that " 11 Campanello di Notte," 
based on a vaudeville he had seen in 
Paris, was both written and composed 
in nine days. On the refusal of the 
Neapolitan censor to permit the per- 
formance of his " Poliuto," 1837, Doni- 
zetti removed to Paris, where he 
brought out a number of operas. 
Victor Hugo forbade the representa- 
tions of " Lucrezia Borgia," which had 
been based on his play, so the scene 
was changed from Italy to Turkey, 
and the opera was presented as " La 
Rinegata." In 1840, " Poliuto," " La 
Fille du Regiment," and " Favorita " 
were all performed, greatly extending 
the composer's fame. A tour in which 
he visited Rome, Milan, and Vienna 
followed, and while in the latter city 
he produced " Linda di Chamouni." 
and was made chapelmaster and court 
composer to the Emperor. " Don Pas- 
quale " and the funereal " Dom Sebas- 
tien " were produced on his return to 
Paris, 1843. In 1844 " Catarina Cor- 
naro " w-as produced at Naples. A 
paralytic stroke then ended the com- 
poser's career, although he lingered 
four years more. Among his other 
operas are : " Parisina," " Torquato 
Tasso," " Marino Faliero," " Maria 
Padilla," and "Rita" and "II Duca 
d'AIba," which were performed after 
his death. A " Miserere " and " Ave 
Maria," composed for the imperial 
chapel at Vienna, 6 masses, 12 string 
quartets, a requiem, and some songs 
should also be noted. B. Bergamo, 
Nov. 25, 1797; d. April 8, 1848. 

Donna del Lago. Gioacchino Ros- 
sini's two-act opera, to book by Tot- 




tola, based on Scott's " Lady of the 
Lake," was first performed Oct. 4, 
1819, at tlie San Carlo Opera, Naples. 

Donna, Prima. It. " First lady." 
Leading female singer in opera. 

Don Pasquale. Gaetano Doni- 
zetti's three-act opera biiffa was first 
produced Jan. 4, 1843, at the Theatre 
des Italiens, Paris. Don Pasquale, an 
irritable old gentleman, whose nephew 
Ernesto declines to marry to please 
him, resolves to punish his prospec- 
tive heir by taking a bride himself. 
His old friend Dr. Malatesta, who is 
likewise the friend of Ernesto and the 
confidant of his love aff'airs, is called 
upon for advice, and promptly ap- 
proves Don Pasquale's plan, picturing 
an imaginary sister as an ideal char- 
acter wdio will just suit his old friend. 
Don Pasquale is delighted, and Dr. 
Malatesta at once goes to Norina, 
Ernesto's inamorata, with whom he 
compounds a plot that shall unite her 
to her lover. The second act reveals 
Don Pasquale in gala costume, wait- 
ing for his bride, and when Malatesta 
brings in Norina, he is delighted with 
that young person's excessive modesty 
and loveliness. Yielding to his ardent 
persuasion, she signs a marriage con- 
tract, then instantly displays such 
shrewishness as would have shamed 
Katherine before Petrucio tamed her. 
Ernesto is astonished at the scene, 
but is warned by Malatesta to be 
silent. Norina calls in the servants, 
gives extravagant orders, which Don 
Pasquale vainly covmtermands. He is 
told that she is the mistress of the 
house and will do as she pleases. In 
the third act Don Pasquale's house is 
filled with dressmakers and milliners 
to the old man's dismay, but they are 
finally dismissed, as Norina intends 
going to the theatre with Ernesto. 
Pasquale forbids her to leave the 
house, whereupon she promptly boxes 
his ears and departs, dropping a note 
as she does so, which excites Pasquale's 
jealousy. Malatesta comes in and 
consoles his old friend, and in the end 
Pasquale is delighted to lenrn that 
his marriage was a sham and to trans- 
fer his pseudo bride to Ernesto. The 
original cast was: Norina, Grisi, sop.; 

Ernesto, Mario, ten.; Dr. Malatesta, 
Tamborini, bass ; Don Pasquale, J^a- 
blaciie, bass. The principal nuisical 
numbers include two duets and a 
quartet, often heard in concert, and 
the serenade " Com' e gentil," which 
greatly enhanced Mario's reputation 
and is still the delight of tenors the 
world over. 

Don Quixote has afforded subject 
matter for 29 operas, the first by 
Furtsch at Hamburg, 1690, and the 
last by Frederic Clay, London, 1875. 
Caldara, Padre Martini, Salieri, Paesi- 
ello, all composed operas of this title. 
Henry Purcell and John Eccles com- 
posed songs for the dramatic versions 
of Thomas D'Urfey, 1694 and 1696 
(three parts), and G. A. Macfarren's 
version, to book by his father, was pro- 
duced Feb. 3, 1846, at Drury Lane, Lon- 
don. Richard Strauss has composed 
" fantastisclie variationen " to the 
same title produced in England, Amer- 
ica, and elsewhere under his own baton. 

Dent (Jacob) composed •' Studies 
for Violin"; played and taught that 
instrument at Vienna Conservatory. 
B. Mar. 2, 1815, Vienna; d. Nov. 17, 

Donzelli (Domenico) sang ten. in 
opera ; composed vocal exercises. B. 
1790, Bergamo; d. Mar. 31, 1873, 

Dopo. It. After. 

Doppelbe. Crcr. Double flat. 

Doppelflbte. Ger. Organ stop of 
wooden pipes with double mouths, and 
of 8 ft. pitch. 

Doppelfuge. Ger. Double fugue. 

Doppelgeige. Ger. Viol d'amore. 

Doppelgrijffe. Ger. Doublestop on 
viol instruments. 

Doppelkreuz. Ger. Double sharp. 

Doppelschlag. Ger. Double beat 
or grace note. 

Doppio. It. Double; Pedale, with 
pedal in octaves; Movimento, at 
double the paof. 

Doppler (Albert Franz) composed 
the operas " Benjowski," " Ilka," 
"Afanasia." "Wanda," " Salvator 
Bosa," " Die beiden ITusaren," " Erze- 
beth," the comic ballet "Margot"; 
conducted at Vienna court opera and 
taught flute in Vienna Conservatory. 




B. Lemberg, Oct. 16, 1821; d. July 
27, 1883. Karl composed " The Gren- 
adiers' Camp" and " Tlie Son of the 
Desert," operas performed at the Na- 
tional Theatre, Pesth, of which he was 
conductor; ballets and llute uiursic; 
played llute; court chapelniaster at 
btuttgart. B. Lemberg, 1826; brother 
of ALBERT FRANZ. Arpad com- 
posed the opera " Viel Liirm um 
Nielits," fest overture, suite in B 
flat., sclierzo, theme and varialiuus for 
full orchestra; taught piano in New 
York, 1880-83; chorusmaster Court 
Theatre, Stuttgart. B. June 5, 1857, 
Pestli; sonoflvARL; add. Stuttgart. 

Dorffel (Dr. Alfred) wrote history 
of the Gewandhaus concerts from 1781 
to 1881, criticism for the " Neue 
Zeitschrift fiir Musik " ; edited com- 
positions for Breitkopf & Hiirtel and 
the Bacii Gesellschaft. B. Jan. 24. 1821, 
Waldenburg, Saxony ; d. Feb. lUU"). 

Dorian Mode. First of the " au- 
thentic" church MODES. 

Dorien. Fr. Dorian. 

Dorn (Heinrich Ludwig Egmont) 
composed "Die Rolandsknappen," Ber- 
lin, 1826, and in all ten operas; con- 
ducted Berlin royal opera ; wrote 
criticism and opposed Wagnerian 
school; taught counterpoint to Schu- 
mann. B. Nov. 14, 1804, Konigsberg, 
Prussia; d. Berlin, Jan. 10, 1892. 

Dorner (Armiri W.) wrote " Tech- 
nical Exercises " ; played and taught 
piano at Cincinnati College of Music; 
sttidied in Berlin, Stuttgart, and 
Paris. B. June 22, 1852, Marietta, 
Ohio; add. Cincinnati. 

Dorset Garden Theatre was opened 
in London, Nov. 19, 1671, and was the 
scene of many musical productions, 
inchuling the operas of Purcell, until 
demolished, 1706. 

Dot added to a rest or note increases 
its length by one half; when doubled, 
by three fourths ; wlieii placed o\er a 
note, indicates that it is to be per- 
formed staccato; when placed under 
a shir in violin music, indicates SPIC- 
CATO; when two or four are placed 
on either side of two double bnrs in 
the spaces of the stave they indicate 
repeat; Dot Svstem was a variety of 
TABLATURE 'for wind instruments; 

in ancient Measured Music four dots 
were employed, known as Point of 
Perfection, Point of Alteration, Point 
of Division, and Point of Addition. 

Dotzauer (Justus Johann Fried- 
rich) composed the opera " Graziosa," 
1S41; a symphony, overtures, masses, 
and chamber music; played, taught, 
and composed for 'cello. B. June 20, 
1783, Hildburghatisen; d. Dresden, 
Mar. 0, 1860. 

Double. Fr. Turn. 

Double. Variations in harpsichord 
music; repetition of words in sing- 
ing; understudy; used in combina- 
tion to indicate the octave below. 

Double Action. HARP mechanism 
for producing chromatic tones. 

Double Backfall. Turn or orna- 

Double Bar indicates the end of a 
piece; tlie end of a movement; the 
end of a portion to be repeated; a 
change of key; a change of time; the 
end of a line of words set to music. 

Double Bass is the largest instru- 
ment of the viol family, with a com- 
pass from E or G' to a. When there 
are three strings they are attuned to 
G', D, A by the French and Italian 
and to A', D, G by the English sys- 
tem. Where there are fotir strings 
they are attuned E', A', D', G'. The 
earliest specimens of the instrument 
are those of Gasparo da Salo, 1542- 
1609, and its introduction in the or- 
chestra is accredited to Michael 
Monteclare about 1696. The music 
sounds an octave lower than written, 
and its English name may have origi- 
nated in the fact that it was usually 
employed to double the bass of the 
'cello. While of the utmost impor- 
tance in m.odern orchestra, the double 
bass is too unwieldy for solo pur- 
poses, and the instrument played by 
Bottesini and other virtuosi was really 
a smaller one, properly called Basso 
di Camera. 

Double Bassoon doubles the bass 
of the bassoon as the doublebass does 
that of the 'cello, with a compass 
from B" flat to F. The music sounds 
an octave lower than written. Nu- 
merous attempts have been made to 
improve the bassoon, which is un- 




wieldy in size and difficult to blow 
and linger. A demi-contra-fagotto in 
F is intermediate in pitch between the 
bassoon and double bassoon, and a 
double bassoon in E flat is made of 
brass for use in military bands. 

Double Beat. A BEAT which is 

Double Bourdon. Organ stop of 
32 ft. pitch consisting of stopped wood 

Double Chant used in the Anglican 
Church equals two single CHANTS 
in length. 

Double Chorus. Chorus for two 

Double Concerto introduces two 
solo instruments. 

Double Counterpoint employs a 
second melody, wliich may be used 
either above or below the original 
melody or snl)ject. 

Double Creche. Fr. Semiquaver. 

Double Demisemiquaver. Sixty- 
fourth note. 

Double Diapason. 16 ft. pitch 
organ stop. 

Double Dieze. Fr. Double sharp. 

Double Drum. Two-headed DRUM. 

Double Flageolet has two tubes 
and one mouthpiece. 

Double Flat lowers a note already 
flattened by the signature another 
half tone. It is contradicted by the 
natural sign and a flat. 

Double Fugue. Fugue with two 

Double Octave. A fifteenth. 

Double Pedal Point. Fugue or 
melody in which the tonic and domi- 
nant are long sustained. 

Double Quartet. Composition for 
two quartets of voices or instruments. 

Double Reed. Vibrating reed of 
oboe instruments; IG ft. pitch reed 
organ stop. 

Double Root. Extreme SIXTH. 

Doubles. Changes rung on five bells. 

Double Sharp raises a note sharp- 
ened in the signature another half- 
tone. It is contradicted by a natural 
and a sharp. 

Double Sonata introduces two solo 
instruments, as violin and piano. 

Double Stopped Diapason. 

Double Stopping. Simultaneous 
stopping of two notes on instruments 
of the viol family. 

Double Tongueing. Peculiar ar- 
ticulation employed to obtain fast 
staccato passages by flute and cornet 
players ; reed organ stops having two 
tongues are called Double Tongued. 

Double Travale. Trill executed by 
drawing a wetted thumb across a 

Double Trumpet. Reed organ stop 
an octave below the 8 ft. trumpet. 

Doublette. Fr. Compound organ 
stop consisting of two ranks, generally 
a twelfth and fifteenth. 

Doucement. Fr. Softly, sweetly. 

Doux. Fr. Soft, sweet. 

Douzieme. Fr. Twelfth. 

Dowland (John) composed three 
books of airs and much music for lute; 
played that instrument with great 
success at various courts; lutenist to 
Christian IV of Denmark, 1598, and 
to the English court, 1612. B. 1563; 
d. London, 1626. Robert composed 
for and played lute; son of JOHN. 

Down Beat. The first beat in each 

Down Bow in violin playing elicits 
the greatest volume of tone. 

Doxologia Magna. L. The "Gloria 
in Excelsis Deo." 

Doxology. The Gloria Patri re- 
peated at the end of the Psalms, or 
its metrical version. 

Draeseke (Felix August Bern- 
hard) composed the operas " Gudrun," 
1884, "Herrat," 1892; three sympho- 
nies, overtures, a requiem, advent 
lied, chamber music, " Fantasiestiicke 
in Walzeifin-m," for piano ; taught 
and played piano ; in early life one 
of Liszt's disciples at Weimar. B. 
Oct. 7, 1835, Coburg; add. Dresden. 

Drag. Ornament in lute music 
consisting of descending notes. 

Draghi (Antonio) composed 87 
operas, 116 feste teatrali and sere- 
nades, 37 oratorios, cantatas, and 
hymns, wrote libretto for " Apollo 
deluso," composed by Emperor Leo- 
pold, 1669; intendant at the Vienna 
court thentre and ehapelmastor to 
Empress Eleonore. B. 1635, Ferrara; 
d. Jan. 18, 1700, Vienna. Carlo be- 




came court organist at Vienna. Son 
of ANTONIO; d. May 2, 1711. 

Draghi (Giovanni Baptista) com- 
posed music for Dryden's ode " From 
Harmony " and many popular songs, 
and for harpsichord; tauglit music 
to Queens Mary and Anne of Enghind ; 
organist to Catherine of Braganza, 
Queen of Charles II; collaborated in 
D'Urfey's comic opera, " Wonders in 
the Sun." Possibly a brother of AN- 
TONIO; b. Italy; settled in England 
about 1C67. 

Dragonetti (Domenico) composed 
sonatas, concertos, and capriccios for 
doublebass ; ranked for more than half 
a century with the greatest virtuosi 
of that instrument. B. April 7, 1763, 
Venice; d. April 16, 1846, London. 

Dramma Lyrica or Per Musica. 
It. Primitive opera. 

Drammaticamente or Dramma- 
tico. It. In dramatic style. 

Dream of Gerontius. Sir Edward 
Elgar's oratorio to Cardinal New- 
man's poem was first performed Oct. 
3, 1900, at the Birmingham Festival, 
and since that time in all parts of the 
world, ranking its composer with the 
foremost of living British musicians. 
Drechsler (Josef) composed 16 
masses, six operas, 25 singspiele, 
chamber music ; wrote instruction 
books in theory and for organ; 
chapelmaster at St. Stephen's, Vienna. 
B. Vlachovo Brezi, Bohemia, May 26, 
1782; d. Feb. 27, 1852, Vienna. 

Drechsler (Karl) led the court 
band at Dessau ; became famous as 
teacher and player of 'cello. B. 
Kamenz, Saxony, May 27, 1800; d. 
Dec. 1, 1873, Dresden. 

Dreher. Obsolete German dance 
resembling the LANDLER. 
Drehleier. Ger. HURDY GURDY. 
Dreichorig. Ger. Triple stringed 
grand piano ; trichord. 
Dreiklang. Ger. Triad. 
Dreistimmig. Ger. Music in three 

Drei Pintos. Unfinished opera by 
Carl Maria von Weber, 1812, was re- 
arranged by his grandson, and the 
music completed byGustav iNIahler was 
performed -Jan. 20, 1888, at Lcipsie. 
Dreyscliock (Alexander) played 

piano with great brilliancy; taught 
in St. Petersburg Conservatory. B. 
Zack, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1818; d. 
April 1, 1869, Venice. 

Dritta. It. Right. 

Driving Notes. Syncopated notes. 

Droite. Fr. Right. 

Drone. Pipes on the bagpipe which 
emit a single tone, used as bass to 
the melody sounded by the clianter; 
hence any continuous pedal base ; the 
burden of a song. 

Drouet (Louis Frangois Philippe) 
composed for and manufactured liutes ; 
solo flautist to Napoleon I ; court 
chapelmaster at Coburg. B. 1792, 
Amsterdam; d. Sept. 30, 1873, Berne. 

Drum. Of tlie various percussion 
instruments which appear to have 
been common to all peoples and to 
all times, the most important is 
the kettledrum, which was probably 
brought to Europe by returning Cru- 
saders. Kettle shaped shells of brass 
or copper are closed by a parchment 
drawn tightly over the mouth by 
means of screws, and the drummer is 
able to tune his instrument by tighten- 
ing or slackening this parchment. In 
the modern orchestra at least two 
kettledrums are required, usually tuned 
to tonic and dominant of the compo- 
sition to be played, but in Berlioz' 
Requiem are parts for eight pairs of 
kettledrums. Where two kettledrums 
are employed their combined range is 
from F to f. Beethoven was the first 
composer to recognize the musical 
value of the kettledrum, which had 
l>een used merely as a noiseinaker be- 
fore his time, and various tunings for 
the drums are given in all his impor- 
tant scores. The kettledrums are 
beaten with sticks having whalebone 
handles and wooden buttons covered 
by fine sponge. The tone of the bass 
drum is too indefinite to require tun- 
ing. It is important in fixing rhythm. 
In small orchestras the bass drummer 
is often compelled to play cjTiibals as 
well, in wliich case he beats the drum 
with one hand only. The Snare Drum 
or side drum is a military instrument 
frequently employed by modern com- 
posers. The Tenor Drum is a large 
side drum without snares, employed 




as a substitute for the kettledrum in 
military bands. TAMBOURINES 
and TABORS are varieties of drum 
less commonly used in tiie orchestra. 

Drury Lane Theatre was opened in 
London, 1696, but the present build- 
ing dates from Oct. 10, 1812; earlier 
structures having been razed or burned. 
Dr. Arne and Sir Henry Bishop wrote 
largely for this theatre, and later, 
Balfe and Benedict produced operas 
there. It was the home of serious 
opera, 1870-77, under Mapleson, and 
again in 1882, under Richter; and in 
1883 passed to the Carl Rosa Com- 
pany. Sir Augustus Harris began his 
career there in 1887, afterwards re- 
moving to Covent Garden. Drury 
Lane was still occasionally used for 
grand opera, however, and was the 
scene in 1904 of a series of :]nglish 
productions by the Moody-Manners 

Drysdale (F. Learmont) composed 
the lyric play "The Plague," Edin- 
burgh, 1896; the opera "Red Spider"; 
cantata, " The Kelpie " ; the prize 
overture, "Tarn o' Shanter," 1891; 
pupil Royal i\cademy of Music. B. 
Edinburgh, 1866; d. June 18, 1909. 

D String'. Third string on violins; 
second string on violas and 'cellos, 
and three stringed doublebasses ; 
fourth string on gviitars. 

Duan. Gaelic verse or stanza. 
Dubois (FranQois Clement Theo- 
dore) composed " Les Sept Paroles du 
Christ," 1867 for Ste. Clotilde, Paris, 
where he was chapelmaster ; the 
operas "La Guzla de I'Emir," " Le 
Pain bis," " Aben Hamet," the ballet 
"La Farandole," and " Xaviere," 
dramatic idyl in three acts; became 
director of 'the Paris Conservatoire, 
1896 to 190.5; pupil of that institu- 
tion, where he gained first prizes for 
harmony, fugue, organ, and in 1861 
under Ambroise Thomas, the prix de 
Rome; Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor, 1883; member of the Acad- 
emic, 1894. Other important composi- 
tions include: " Paradis perdu," "Di- 
vertissement," " Pieces d'Orchestre," 
" Suite d'Orchestre," " Scenes Sym- 
phoniques," the overture " Fritiof," 
Symphonic poem " Notre Dame de la 

Mer "; " Clovis," for ten., bar., chorus, 
and orchestra. B. Aug. 24^ 1837, Ros- 
ney, Marne; add. Paris. 

Dubourg (George) wrote " History 
of the Violin," 1835; played that in- 
strument. B. 1799; grandson of 
MATTHEW; d. April 17, 1882, 

Dubourg (Matthew) conducted 
viceregal band at Dublin and com- 
posed Birthday Odes for Dublin 
Castle, 1728-64; became master of 
the king's band, London, 1752; played 
violin with great skill. B. 1703, Lon- 
don; d. July 3, 1767, London. 

Duels or Hertoghs (Benedictus) 
composed elegies on the deaths of 
Josquin and Erasmus, an eight-part 
Agnus Dei, the motet " Peccantem me 
quotidie," and other church music; 
played organ at Antwerp Cathedral. 
B. about 1480, Flanders; visited 
England, 1515. 
Ductus. L. AGOGE. 
Due, a. It. DIVISI. 
Due Corde. It. Directs that the 
same note is to be played on two 
strings of a viol; directs release of 
the soft pedal in piano music. 

Duet is music for two voices or 
instruments or for two performers 
on one instrument. 

Duettino. It. Little duet. 
Duetto. It. Duet. 
Due Volte. It. Twice. 
Dufay (Guillermus) composed 
church music and led the group of 
composers who constituted the First 
Flemish School ; was canon of Cam- 
brai and Mons and the recognized 
authority on music in his day; chor- 
ister in the papal choir at Rome, 
1428. B. Hainault; d. Cambrai, Nov. 
27, 1474. 

Dugazon (Mme. Rosalie) sang 
light roles in opera so admirably as 
to have given her name to those in 
which she excelled, which are called 
" jeunes Dugazon " and " meres Du- 
gazon." B. 1755, Berlin; daughter 
of the actor Lefevre; d. Sept. 22, 
1821, Paris, Gustave composed the 
ballet "Aline"; played piano; won 
prix de Rome at Paris Consers'atoire, 
1806. B. 1782; son of ROSALIE; 
d. Paris, 1826. 




Dukas (Paul) composed the opera 
Maeterlinck's text, produced in Paris, 
1907, at the Opera Comique, aud later 
at the Vienna Folk Opera, a work said 
by certain critics in those cities to 
have unified note with word, even more 
strikingly than in Debussy's setting of 
Pell(5as et M(5lisande." Dukas was 
also said to have modelled his method 
on Wagner and Strauss. He com- 
posed the lyric drama " L'Arbre de 
Science " ; the symphonic poem " Ap- 
prenti Sorcier," a symphony; the 
overture " Polyeucte," a piano sonata; 
the overtures " Lear " and " Goetz von 
Berlichingen," and the cantata " Vel- 
l€da," with which he won the Prix 
de Rome; wrote music criticism. B. 
Oct. 1, 1865, Paris; add. Paris. 

Dulgaynas. 8p. Instrument of 
Moorish origin of the oboe family. 

Dulcian or Dulcino. It. Small 

Dulciana. Open diapason organ 
stop of pleasing tone and small scale, 
probably invented by Snetzler about 

Dulcimer. An instrument prob- 
ably of oriental origin still played in 
Hungarian or Gipsy orchestras as the 
czimbaloin or cembalo ; consists of a 
reson;iiice box usually ornamented 
with sound holes, over which strings 
are stretched, and having two bridges. 
There are usually from two to five 
strings for each note, the range being 
from c to d". The strings are set in 
vibration by being struck with ham- 
mers held in either hand. The modern 
piano is a dulcimer, in which the ham- 
mers are operated by a keyboard. 

Dulcken (Mme. Louise) taught 
piano to Queen Victoria and played 
piano brilliantly from debut at 10 in 
Hamburg until her death from over- 
work. B, Mar. 20, 1811. Hambiirg; 
sister of FERDINAND DAVID; d. 
London. April 12, 1850. 

Dulichius (Philip) composed and 
tauglit music in Stettin. B. Chem- 
nitz, 1562; d. Mar. 25. 1631. 

Dumka. " Lament." Little Rus- 
sian word by which Dvorak character- 
izes certain slow passages in his cham- 
ber music. 

Damp. Obsolete slow dance in 4-4 

Dun (Finlay) composed two sym- 
phonies, solfeggi, edited Scotch music; 
played first viula in San Carlo Or- 
chestra, Naples. B. Feb. 24, 1795, 
Aberdeen; d. Nov. 28, 1853, Edinburgh. 

Duncan (William Edmonstoune) 
composed " Ve Mariners of England," 
for chorus and orchestra, Glasgow 
Choral Union, 1890; Mass in F 
minor, 1892; the opera "Perseus"; set- 
tings of Swinburne's "Ode to Music" 
and Milton's " To a Nightingale." B. 
18()6, Sale, Cheshire, Eng. ; taught at 
Oldham College. 

Duni (Egidio Komoaldo) com- 
posed " Le Peintre amoureux," Paris, 
1757, one of the earliest examples of 
opera comique, and in all 22 operas; 
the oratorio "Giuseppe riconosci- 
uto " ; pupil of the Conservatorio dei 
Poveri di Gesu Cristo, Naples; in 
early life competed with Pergolesi at 
Rome, where his opera " Nerohe " was 
a success. B. Feb. 9, 1709, Matera, 
Naples; d. June 11, 1775, Paris. 

Dunkley (Ferdinand Louis) com- 
posed " The Wreck of the Hesperus " 
for soli, chorus, and orchestra. Crys- 
tal Palace, London, April 7, 1894; 
taught music in St. Agnes School, 
Albany, New York, 1893, and played 
organ First Pres. Church, that city, 
1897 ; pupil of the Roval College of 
Music, London. B. July 16, 1869, 
London; add. Albany, N. Y. 

Dunstable (John) composed a 
three-part song, " O Bella Rosa " ; a 
four-part setting of " Veni Sancte 
Spiritus"; wrote on " Mensurabilis 
Musica"; was the most famous of 
early English contrapuntists. B. 
about 1400, Dunstable. Bedfordshire; 
d. Dec. 24, 1453, Walbrook. 

Duo. It. Duet. 

Duodecimo. It. A twelfth. 

Duodecimole. It. Group of twelve 

Duodramma. It. Drama for two 
performers; melodrama in which the 
words are spoken to musical ac- 

Duolo. It. With grief, sadness. 

Duparc (Henri) composed the sym- 
phonic poem " Lenore," three songs 




with orchestra, "Phydile," "Invita- 
tion au Voyage," "Extase"; pupil 
of Cesar Franck. B. 1848, Paris; re- 
tired because of ill health, 1889. 

Duple Time has two, four, or eight 
beats to the measure. 

Dupont (Augusta) composed " con- 
certstiick," Op. 42; piano concerto in 
F minor, " Contes du Foyer," Op. 12, 
and the song cycle "Poeme d' amour"; 
played piano and taught Brussels Con- 
servatory. B. Feb. 9, 1827, Ensival, 
near Liege; d. Dec. 17, 1890. Joseph 
conducted opera at Warsaw, Moscow, 
Brussels, Paris, and London. B. Jan. 
3, 1838, Ensival; brother of AU- 
GUSTE; d. Dec. 22, 1899, Brussels. 

Duport (Jean) played first 'cello in 
the band of Frederick the Great of 
Prussia; directed court concerts under 
his successor; pupil of Berthaut. B. 
Nov. 27, 1741, Paris; d. Dec. 31, 1818, 
Berlin. Jean Louis originated mod- 
ern 'cello technique ; wrote an " Essai 
sur le doigter du violoncelle et la 
conduite de I'archet, avec une suite 
d'exercises " ; played in London, and 
with his brother JEAN in Berlin; 
joined the private band of Empress 
Marie Louise and became teacher at 
the Paris Conservatoire. B. Oct. 4, 
1749, Paris; d. Sept. 7, 1819, Paris. 

Duprez (Gilbert) created the lead- 
ing ten. roles in " Benvenuto Cel- 
lini," "Otello," and "Favorita" at the 
Grand Opera, Paris ; composed the ora- 
torio " The Last Judgment," a Re- 
quiem, masses, chamber music, eight 
operas including "Joanita," 1848, and 
" Jeanne d'Arc," 1857 ; wrote " L'Art 
du Chant," 1845, and "La Melode" ; Sou- 
venirs d'un chanteur," and "Recrea- 
tions de mon grand age." B. Dec. 6, 
1806, Paris; d. Sept. 23, 1896, Passy. 

Dupuis (Dr. Thomas Sanders) 
composed cathedral music; played 
organ Eng. Chapel Royal. B. Nov. 5, 
1730, London; d. July 17, 1796. 
Dur. Ger. Major, as applied to keys. 
Durand, A., et Fils, publish music 
in Paris as successors to Durand et 
Schonewerk, and therefore as succes- 
sors to Flaxland; founded, 1847. 
Nearly all the works of the modern 
French composers have been issued 
by this house, as well as the French 

versions of Wagner. A complete edi- 
tion of Rameau is in preparation. 

Durand or Duranowsky (Augusts 
Frederic) played violin with great 
brillianc}-, and is said to have been 
Paganini's early inspiration; led band 
in Strasburg. B. 1770, Warsaw; son 
and pupil of violinist in royal band; 
d. Strasburg. 

Durante (Francesco) composed the 
song "Danza, fanciulli," oratorios, and 
church music; directed Neapolitan 
conservatory. B. INLar. 15, 16S4, 
Fiattainaggiore, near Naples ; d. Aug. 
13, 1755, Naples. 

Durastanti (Margherita) sang 
leading sop. roles in London opera 
under Handel. B. about 1695; re- 
tired, 1734. 

Durate, Duramente, Dure. It. 
With hardness; roughly. 

Durchcomponirt. Ger. " Thorough 
composed." Term applied to songs 
with different music for each stanza. 

Durchftihrung. Ger. Develop- 
ment of the theme or subject in so- 
natas and symphonies. 

D'TJrfey (Thomas) wrote many 
plays and songs, most of which are 
disfigured by the indecencies of his 
time, though some, including his three- 
part version of " Don Quixote," were 
set by Henrv Purcell. B. 1653, Exeter ; 
d. Feb. 26, 1723, London. 

Duschek or Dussek (Franz) com- 
posed symphonies and chamber music, 
and ranked with the best of piano 
players and teachers. B. Chotiebor, 
Bohemia, Dec. 8, 1736; d. Prague, Feb. 
12, 1799. Josepha sang, composed, and 
played piano; pupil of her husband, 
FRANZ, born Hambacher; she was 
highly esteemed by Mozart, and by 
Beethoven, who composed the scena 
"Ah Perfido" for her. B. Prague, 1756. 

Dussek (Johann Ladislaw) played 
piano with remarkable skill, especially 
noted for the singing quality which 
he evoked ; composed " The Captive of 
Spilburg," in collaboration with 
Michael Kelly, Drury Lane, 1798; the 
piano sonata in F minor, No. 31, Op. 
77, known as " L'invocation " ; the 
piano sonata in F sharp minor. Op. 61, 
known as the " Elegie harmonique sur 
la morte du Prince Louis Ferdinand 




de Prusse," whose friend, teacher, and 
companion Dussek had been; in all 
nearly lUO works for piano, includ- 
ing 12 concerLos, 53 sonatas, and many 
sonatas for piano with violin or tlute, 
church and chaiubcr music. Son of 
Johann Joseph Dussek, organist at 
Czaslau, Bohemia, and brother of 
Franz Benedict and Vcronika llosalia, 
young Dussek began the study of piano 
at live, and was soon able to assist 
his father at the organ. Developing 
a fine treble, he entered tlie choir of 
the Minorite Church in Iglau, study- 
ing music with Father Ladislaw 
Spinar and the humanities in the Col- 
lege of the Society of Jesus. Later 
he became organist at the Jesuit 
church in Kuttenberg, removed to 
Prague, where he took a degree in 
philosophy, and being disappointed in 
his desire to join the Cistercians, fell 
in with Count Miinner, with whom he 
journeyed to Mechlin, where he played 
organ at St. Rombaut's Church. His 
next engagement was as organist at 
Berg-op-Zoom, but in 1782 he ob- 
tained an appointment at Amsterdam, 
where his growing reputation led to 
his engagement for a year at the 
Hague as music master to the Stadt- 
holder's children. At 22 he went to 
Hamburg for a course of lessons under 
C. P. E. Bach ; then toured Germany 
as a performer on Hessel's " Har- 
monica," and spent a year with Prince 
Radziwill on his Lithuanian estates. 
In 1786 he played before Marie An- 
toinette in Paris, but declining an ap- 
pointment at the French court, visited 
his brother Franz Benedict in Italy, 
and after another sojourn in Paris, 
went to London in 1790, where he 
speedily became tlie fashionable pian- 
ist and teacher of the period ; married 
Sophia Corri, daughter of Domenico, 
and engaged with his father-in-law in 
the pubishing business. In 1800 he 
was obliged to leave England to escape 
his creditors, and after a sojourn at 
Hamburg formed the connection with 
Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, 
which lasted three years, and \mtil 
the Prince was killed in the battle of 
Saalfeld. After a brief service with 
Prince Isenberg, Dussek entered tliat 

of Talleyrand, Prince of Benevento, 
by whom he was treated with marked 
consideration. In 1812 Dussek went 
to St. (jJermain-en-Laye, seeking relief 
from an attack of gout, but died sud- 
denly, after being coullned to his bed 
but two days. B. Feb. 9, 1701, Czas- 
lau; d. Mar. 20, 1812. Sophia, daugh- 
ter of Domenico Corri, m. JUliA5iN 
LADISLAW, 1792, and under his tui- 
tion speedily acquired reputation as 
a pianist and harpist, having already 
a])peared in concerts as a singer. After 
the death of Dussek she m. .Idhii 
Alvia Moralt. B. Edinburgh, 1775. 
Olivia composed songs and played 
harp and piano; m. Buckley, London 
organist. B. London, 1797; daughter 
of SOPHIA; d. 1847. 

Dutch Concert. Convivial cnter- 
tainiiiojit, at wliich every man sings his 
own song at llio same time. 

Duvernay (Pauline) became the 
most famous ballet dancer of her gen- 
eration in both Paris and London, 
especially noted for her performance 
of the Cachuca; m. Stephens Lyne 
Stephens, M. P., of Norfolk, Eng., Oct. 
14, 1845, devoting the remainder of 
her life to practical charity. B. 1813, 
Paris; christened Yolande Marie 
Louise; d. Sept. 2, 1894, Lynford 
Hall, Norfolk. Eng. 

Duvernoy (Victor Alphonse) com- 
posed " La Tempete " for soli, chorus, 
and orchestra, Paris municipal prize, 
1880; the operas " Sardanapale " and 
" Hell6 " ; the lyric scene '' Cleopatra," 
the two-act ballet " Bacchus," Paris 
Opera, 1902; the overture " Hernani " 
and chamber music; taught piano at 
the Paris Conservatoire, where he had 
been a pupil. B. Aug. 31, 1842, Paris; 
d. Mar. 7, 1907. 

Dux. L. Theme, subject, or propo- 
sition of a fugue, the answer being 
called Comes. 

Dvorak (Antonin) composed " The 
Spectre's Bride," cantata for soli, cho- 
rus, a>nd orchestra, Op. 69 ; Stabat 
Mater for soli, chorns, and orcliestrn. 
Op. 58 ; symj)liony in E minor, Op. 96, 
"From the New World"; "St. Lud- 
mila," oratorio. Op. 71 ; Requiem, 
Op. 89, Birmingham Festival, 1891 ; 
cantata "America's Flag," Op. 1U2, 




sung in New York, 1895; the operas 
" Konig unci Koliler," Prague, 1874; 
"Die Dickschildel." Prague, 1882; 
"Wanda," Prague, 187G; '" Der Bauer 
ein Schelm," Prague, 1877 ; " Dimi- 
trije," Prague, 1882; "Jacobin," 1889; 
"Der Teufel und die Wilde Kiithe," 
1899; "Rusalka," Prague, 1901; " Ar- 
mida," Prague, 1904 ; chamber music, 
songs, and orchestral pieces. Son of 
the innkeeper and butcher at Miilil- 
hausen, Boiiemia, and destined by Ms 
father for the butcher's trade, young 
Dvorak learned violin from the village 
schoolmaster, and later organ, piano, 
and theory from A. Liehmann at 
Zlonitz and from Hancke at Kamnitz. 
His father's objections to music as a 
means of obtaining a livelihood were 
finally overcome, and in 1857 Dvorak 
went to Prague, where he studied three 
years in the organ school under 
Pitzsch, and supported himself by 
playing viola in the cafes. In 1862 
the National Theatre was organized, 
and Dvorak became a member of the 
orchestra, directed by Smetana, who, 
with Karel Bendl, gave him valuable 
assistance in his studies. In 1873 he 
became organist of St. Adalbert's 
Church, retired from the orchestra, 
married, and organized a class in 
music. His first work to attract 
general attention was performed in 
that year, the patriotic cantata " Die 
Erben des weissen Berges," to words 
by Halek ("The Heirs of the White 
Mountain " ) ; and the following year 
a symphony in E flat, the scherzo from 
a symphony in D minor and two not- 
turnos for orchestra were performed. 
" Der Kcinig und Kohler," although it 
had to be entirely rewritten before 
production, won him a pension of $250 
per annum from the government, and 
this pension was afterwards increased. 
The friendsh-ip of Brahms, one of tlie 
examiners, resulted from this award. 
" Klilnge aus Mahren," a collection of 
duets, and the " Slavische Tiinze," 
published by Simrock, became popular 
tliroughout Europe. Thereafter Dvo- 
rak was an international character. 
He conducted performances of his own 
works in London, where he was fa- 
vourably received, and from 1892 to 

1895 directed the National Conserva- 
tory in New York, leaving suddenly 
for Prague, where he became head of 
the conservatory six years later. 
Dvorak while in America advised the 
upbuilding of a national school based 
on plantation music, and attempted to 
embody the elements suggested in his 
" From the New World " symphony, 
the only effect of which seems to have 
been that the country was subsequently 
Hooded with debased melody in synco- 
pation, or " ragtime." In his cham- ' 
ber music D\'ofak introduced the 
" Dumka," a kind of lament, and the 
" Fviriant," which is a modified scherzo. 
Both in chamber music and in song 
Dvorak created a wealth of melody. B. 
Sept. 8, 1841 ; d. Prague, May 1, 1904. 

Dwight (John Sullivan) founded 
and edited Dwight's Journal of Music, 
Boston, 1852-81; helped found Har- 
vard Musical Association; in early life 
Unitarian clergyman, but retired and 
taught music and classics in the Brook 
Farm community. B. 1813, Boston, 
Mass.; grad. Harvard 1832; d. Sept. 
5, 1893, Boston. 

Dygon (John) composed "Ad 
lapidis positionem," three-part motet 
contained in Hawkins' " History of 
Music"; English monk, 16th century. 

Dykes (Rev. Dr. John Bacchus) 
composed the hymns " Nearer, my God, 
to Thee," " Jesus, lover of my soul," 
" The day is past and over"; aided in 
compiling " Hymns, Ancient and Mod- 
em " ; precentor Durham Cathedral. 
B. Mar. 10, 1823, Hull, Eng. ; d. Jan. 
22, 1876, St. Leonards. J. St. Oswald 
composed, taught piano. Royal College 
of Music, London; pupil of Clara 
Schumann. B. Oct. 27, 1863; son of 
JOHN BACCHUS; add. London. 

Dyne (John) composed the glee "Fill 
the bowl," which won a Catch Club 
prize, 1768; sang alto, Eng. Chapel 
Royal ; lay vicar, Westminster Abbey. 
Committed suicide Oct. 30, 1788. 

Dystonic. Discordant; with false 

E is the third note in the natural 
scale of C; is the name of the major 
scale having four sharps and of the 




minor scale relative to G major; la 
the keynote of the Phrygian Mode; is 
the name of the first string or chant- 
erelle on the violin and the fourth 
string of the doublebass. 

Eager (John) composed a piano 
sonata and songs; played organ; 
taught at Yarnioutli and Edinburgh. 
B. Aug. 15, 1782; son of an organ 
builder, Norwich; d. June 1, 1853, 
Edinburgh. (Emma) sang sop. in opera, 
debut as Juliette, Mar. 13, 1889, 
Grand Opera, Paris; later at Metro- 
politan Opera, New York, and Covent 
Garden, London; pupil of Marchesi, 
Paris; m. Julian Stoiy, the painter, 
1891, divorced him, 1907. B. Aug. 13, 
1867, Shanghai, of American parents; 
add. New York. 

Ear. Projecting plates of metal at- 
tached to organ pipes; to "play by 
ear" is to play from memory; to 
possess a " good ear" is to have a cor- 
rect sense of pitch. 

Eastcott (Kev. Bichard.) composed 
piano sonatas and songs; wrote on 
history of music. B. 1740, E.xeter, 
Eng.; d. 1828. 

Ebdon (Thomas) composed two 
volumes of cathedral music, six glees, 
two harpsichord sonatas; played or- 
gan 48 years at Durham Cathedral. 
B. 1738, 'Durham; d. Sept. 23, 1811. 

Ebeling (Johann Georg) composed 
" Warum sollt ich mich denn grii- 
men " ; wrote on music ; directed at 
the Nicolaikirche, Berlin. B. July, 
1637, Llineberg; d. Stettin, 1076. 

Eberl (Anton) composed a sonata 
in C minor and other piano music 
which was published as Mozart's; a 
symphony in E flat which was played 
at a concert with Beethoven's Eroica, 
and preferred to it by the critics of 
the time; played piano admirably, 
conducted at the court of St. Peters- 
burg, 1796-1801; produced the operas 
" La Marchande de Modes," " Pyra- 
mus and Thisbe," " Die Koenigin der 
sclnvarzen Inseln," and much chamber 
music, all of which has been forgotten. 
B. Vienna, June 13, 1766; d. Vienna, 
Mar. 11. 1807. 

Eberlin (Johann Ernst) composed 
" IX Toccate e f ughe per I'organo," 

mass for two choirs and double or- 
chestra, 13 oratorios, and much valu- 
able church music which has been lost; 
court organist to the Prince Bishop of 
Salzburg and chief organist in the 
Cathedral. B. Mar. 7, 1702, Jettingen, 
Bavaria; d. June 21, 1762, Salzbuig. 

Ebers (Carl Eriedrich) composed 
the drinking song " Wir sind die 
Konige der Welt," four operas, can- 
tatas, symplionies, overtures, and 
chamber music. B. Mar. 25, 1770, 
Cassel; d. Sept. 9, 1836, Berlin. 

Ebers (John) managed opera at the 
King's Theatre, London, 1821-28, com- 
pletely ruined himself, and returned to 
his former business as bookseller ; wrote 
" Seven Years at the King's Theatre." 
B. 1785, London; d. about 1830. 

Eberwein (Traugott Maximilian) 
composed " Claudine von Villa Bella," 
" Der Jahrmarkt von Plunderweile," 
in all 1 1 operas ; three cantatas, ilass 
in A flat; one of the founders of Ger- 
man music festivals; chapelmaster to 
Prince von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. 
B. Oct. 27, 1775, Weimar; d. Dec. 2, 
1831, Rudolstadt. 

Ebollizione. It. Ebullition; over- 
flow of emotions. 

Ecart. Fr. Long stretch on piano. 

Ecbole. Gr. Sharpening a note. 

Eccard (Johann) composed " Er 
riihmt die heilige Sehrift " and many 
other chorales; wrote " Geistliche 
Lieder," 1597; musician to the Fug- 
gers of Augsburg, and chapelmaster to 
the Elector of Bnmdenburg at Kiinigs- 
berg. B. 1553, Miihlhausen, Tliuringia; 
d. 1611, Berlin. 

Eccles (Solomon) taught the vir- 
ginals and viols in London, but de- 
stroyed his instruments on being con- 
verted to Quakerism, and wrote a 
curious dialogue against music called 
"A Musick-Lector," etc., London, 1667 ; 
helped George Fox organize Quaker- 
ism in the West Indies, and may have 
relapsed into fiddling on his return 
to England. B. London, 1613, de- 
scended from three generations of mu- 
sicians; d. Feb. 11, 1683. John com- 
posed music to Congrove's " Way of 
the World" and in all for 46 plays, 
100 songs, many birthday and Now 
Year's Odes while serving as masLer 




of the King's Band of Music. B. Lon- 
don ; son of SOLOMON; d. Jan. 12, 
1735, Kingston on Tliames. Henry- 
composed 12 violin solos in Corelli'a 
stj'le; played violin in the bands of 
the kings of England and France. B. 
London; second son of SOLOMON; 
d. about 1742, Paris. Thomas played 
violin in London. Youngest son of 

Ecclesiastical Modes. PLAIN 

Echeion. Gr. Hollow vessel used 
as drum or gong; metal vases which 
served as resonance boxes in ancient 

Echelle. Fr. Scale. 

Echo. Reverberation or its imi- 
tation ; in organ music was produced 
from a repetition of certain stops in 
the treble which were enclosed in a 
wooden box and placed in a remote 
part of the organ case; in modern 
instruments the echo is often far re- 
moved from the main organ, but con- 
trolled by electrical action. The harp- 
sichord possessed a stop for obtaining 
a soft and distant effect. 

Echos du Temps Passe is a three- 
vol. collection of French airs dating 
from the l'2th to the 18th century. 

Eck (Johann Friedrich) composed 
four concertos for violin, a concertante 
for two violins; played violin with 
distinction until 1801, when he mar- 
ried a woman of wealth and retired 
to Paris. B. Mannheim, 17GG; d. 
Bamberg, about 1810. Franz played 
violin in Brunswick and Russia; 
taught Spohr; became insane. B. 
1774, Mannheim; pupil and brother 
of JOHANN FRIEDRICH; d. 1804, 

Eckert (Carl Antonin Florian) 
composed tlie successful opera " Das 
Fischermadchen " at 10, the oratorio 
" Ruth " at 13, an Echo Song still 
popular with high sopranos; con- 
ducted admirably, accompanying Son- 
tag on her tour of the United States, 
afterwards at the court opera, Vieima, 
at Stuttgart and Berlin; pupil of 
Mendelssohn. B. Dec. 7, 1820, Pots- 
dam; d. Berlin, Oct. 14, 1879. 

Eclisses. Fr. Sides of a lute, vio- 
lin, or guitar. 

Eclysis. ECBOLE. 

ficole. Fr. School. 

ficossaise. Fr. " In Scotch style." 
Originally a bagpipe dance in 3-2 or 
2-4 time ; the dance has generally 
been written by modern composers in 
lively 2-4 time. 

Eddy (Clarence) became at an early 
age the best known of American con- 
cert organists and teachers; pupil of 
Dudley Buck in Hartford, Conn. ; of 
A. Haupt and A. Loeschhorn in Ber- 
lin; settled in Chicago, 1874, as organ- 
ist First Cong. Church; directed the 
Hershey School of Musical Art in 
Chicago ; m. Mrs. Sara B. Hershey, its 
founder; became organist First Pres. 
Church, 1879; made several success- 
ful concert tours of the United States 
and Europe ; composed organ music 
in classic form. B. June 23, 1851, 
Greenfield, Mass. ; add. New York. 

E Dur. Ger. Tlie key of E major. 

Edwards (Henry John) composed 
" The Ascension," oratorio, Exeter, 
1888; "Praise to the Holiest," Here- 
ford Festival, 1891; church music, 
part songs ; played organ Barnstaple 
in succession to his father and con- 
ducted Exeter Oratorio Society. B. 
Feb. 24, 1854, Barnstaple, Devonshire; 
add. Barnstaple. 

Edwards (H. Sutherland) wrote 
" History of the Opera," 1802 ; " Life 
of Rossini," 18G9; music critic "St. 
James Gazette," London. B. Sept. 5, 
1829, Hendon, Middlesex; add. London. 

Edwards (Julian) composed the 
opera " Elfinella," symphonies, over- 
tures, and the comic operas " Princess 
Chic," "Dolly Varden," "When Johnny 
Comes Marching Home." B. 1855, 
Manchester, Eng. ; became conductor 
Royal English Opera Company; since 
1889 has resided in New York. 

Edwards (Richard) composed and 
wrote the part-song " In going to my 
naked bed " ; became master of the 
children, Eng. Chapel Royal; wrote 
plays and verses. B. about 1523, Som- 
ersetshire; d. Oct. 31. 1566, London. 

Eeden, van den (Jean Baptiste) 
composed the opera " Numance," Ant- 
werp, 1897; the oratorios "Brutus," 
" Jacqueline de Baviere," " Jacob van 
Artevelde"; the cantatas "Het VVoud" 




and " De Wind"; directed Mons con- 
servatory. B. Dec. 26, 1842, Ghent; 
add. Mons. 

Effekt. Oer. EfTect. 

Effet. Fr. Effect. 

Effetto. 11. Effect. 

Egmont. Beethoven's music to 
Goetlie's tragedy consists of an over- 
ture, two sop. songs, four entr' acts, 
" Clara's Death," a melodrama, and a 
finale, in all 10 numbers. The first 
performaiK'o took place May 24, 1810. 

Eguaglianza. It. Equality, even- 

Egualemente. It. Equally, evenly. 

Ehlert (Ludwig) composed a 
" Spring " sympliony, " Requiem for 
a Child," sonata Romantique, songs; 
wrote criticism and sketches of the 
great composers called '* Briefe iiber 
Musik," Berlin, 1859, trans, by Ritter 
and published in Boston, 1870. B. 
Jan. 13, 1825, Konigsberg; d. Jan. 4, 
1SS4, Wiesbaden. 

Ehrlich (Alfred Heinrich) com- 
posed " Concertstikk in Ungarischer 
Weise," " Lebensl)ilder " ; court pianist 
to George V of Hanover; wrote criti- 
cism and novels. B. Oct. 5, 1822, 
Vienna; d. Dec. 29, 1899. 

Eibenschiitz (Ilona) played piano, 
especially noted for interpretation of 
Brahms; pupil of Clara Schumann. 
B. Budapest, May 8, 1873; m. Carl 
Darenburg, 1902; add. London. 

Eichberg (Julius) composed the 
operettas " The Doctor of Alcantara," 
"The Rose of Tyrol," "The Two 
Cadis," and "A Night in Rome"; 
founded the Boston Conservatory; 
played and taught violin; pupil of 
the Brussels Conservatory, where, 
under Fgtis, he won first prizes in 
composition and violin playing. B. 
June 13, 1824, Diisseldorf ; went to New 
York, 1857; d. Jan. 18, 1893, Boston. 

Eight Foot Pitch is that sounded 
by an open organ pipe 8 ft. in length, 
which would be C. Organ pipes pro- 
ducing such tones with stopped pipes 
are said to hove 8 ft. tone. 

Eighth. Octave. 

Eileen Aroon. The popular song 
known in a Scotch version as " Robin 
Adair " was composed to Irish words 
about 1385 by Carrol O'Daly. 

Einfach. Ger. Simple. 

Ein Feste Bvu'g. Martin Luther's 
setting of Psalm xlvi to his own trans- 
lation, was probably made in Coburg, 
about 1530. it recurs in the works of 
J. S. Bach, Mendelssohn, Wagner, 
Raff", and Meyerbeer. 

Eingang. Ger. Introduction. 

Eingestrichen. Ger. Having one 
stroke, as c'. 

Einheit. Ger. Unity. 

Einleitungssatz. Ger. Opening 
phrase, introduction, or overture. 

Einschlafen. Ger. To diminish 
speed ami volume. 

Einschlagend. Ger. " Striking 
inwards." Percussion reed. 

Einschnitt. Ger. Incomplete mo- 
tive or sentence, in music. 

Eis. Ger. E sharp. 

Eisteddfod. " Sittings of learned 
men," were held originally in Wale^j 
for the election of Chief Bard, " Bardd 
Cadoiriawg " and the " Pencerdd " or 
chief minstrels, who were alone aiithoi-- 
izcd to teach. King Cadwaladr is said 
to have presided at one in the seventh 
century. They are held now not only 
in Wales, but wherever Welshmen are 
assembled in sufficient numbers, for 
the encouragement of Welsh music and 

Eitner (Robert) founded the " Ge- 
sellschaft fiir Musikforschung," 1868; 
edited many publications, including 
the " Quellen-Lexicon." B. Breslau, 
Oct. 22, 1832; d. Jan. 22, 1905. 

Eklysis. Gr. ECBOLE. 

Ela. The highest tone in the Hexa- 
chnrdal system or e". 

Electric Organ. One in which part 
of the mechanism is operated by 

Elegantemente. It. Elegantly. 

Eleganza, con. It. With elegance. 

Elegy. Terms applied to musical 
compositions having the characteris- 
tics of elegiac verse, even though with- 
out words. 

Elevatio. L. ARSIS; motet to 
be sung at elevation of the Host ; rais- 
ing a mode beyond its AMBITUS. 

Elevazione. It. Composition 
founded on a special theme. 

Eleve. Fr. Pupil. 

Eleventh. Chord built up from 




dominant root by series of superim- 
posed tliirds. 

Elford (Richard) sang in London 
theatres and Eng. Chapel Royal ; vicar 
choral of St. Paul's and lay vicar 
Westminster Abbey. D. Oct. 29, 1714. 

Elgar (Sir Edward) composed a 
setting for Cardinal Ne\\Tiian'3 poem 
" Tlie Dream of Gerontius," Birming- 
ham Festival of 1900, which ranked 
him with the foremost of British mu- 
sicians, and since then the military 
marches " Pomp " and " Circum- 
stance," the concert overture " Cock- 
aigne " ( In London Town ) ; inci- 
dental music and funeral march for 
the Gaelic play " Grania and Diar- 
mid " ; " Dream Children," two pieces 
for small orchestra; Coronation Ode, 
1902; five-part songs from Greek An- 
thology ; " The Apostles," oratorio ; 
" In the South," overture. Son of the 
organist in the Roman Catholic church 
at Worcester, Eng., Elgar received his 
earliest and almost his only lessons 
from his father, who was a good vio- 
linist as well as organist. Both father 
and son played in the orchestra at the 
Three Choirs Festivals, and in time 
young Elgar was able to assist his 
father at the organ. He received a 
few violin lessons from Pollitzer dur- 
ing a short visit to London, 1877, and 
two years later became bandmaster at 
the County Lunatic Asyliun, Worces- 
ter, composing and arranging music 
for his men, who were likewise attend- 
ants in the institution. An Intermezzo 
was produced in 1883 at Birmingham, 
which seems to have been Elgar's de- 
but as a composer. In 1882 he had 
become conductor of the Worcester 
Amateur Instrumental Society, and 
wrote the programmes for its concerts. 
In 1885 he succeeded his father as or- 
ganist at the Roman Catholic church, 
where he remained for the next four 
years, marrying in 1889 and settling 
in London. Discouraged alike by pub- 
lishers and managers, Elgar retired to 
Malvern and taught and conducted. 
His Froissart overture, played at the 
Worcester Festival of 1890, had some- 
what extended his reputation, and in 
rapid succession the " Scenes from the 
Saga of King Olaf," "The Black 

Kniglit," " Scenes from the Bavarian 
Iligiilands," and his " Lux Christi " 
oratorio, were made known ; and in 
1899 his cycle of "Sea Pictures" in- 
creased his popularity. The cantata 
" Banner of St. George," a Te Deum 
and Benedictus in F, and the cantata 
" Caractacus " bring the list down to 
the notable " Dream of St. Gerontius," 
which has now been heard in Germany 
and in America, as well as in England, 
where it won him the honour of knight- 
hood. B. June 2, 1857, Broadlioath, 
near Worcester; add. Hereford. 

Eli. Sir Michael da Costa's ora- 
torio to book by Bartholomew was 
first performed Aug. 29, 1855. 

Elijah. Felix Mendelssohn's sec- 
ond oratorio to book by Bartholomew 
consisting largely of Biblical selec- 
tions, was first performed Aug. 26, 

1846, in London, and later revised and 
again performed by the Sacred Har- 
mony Society, Exeter Hall, April 16, 

1847. It appears to have been begun 
by the composer in 1845. 

Elisa. M. Luigi C. Z. S. Cheru- 
bini's two-act opera to book by Saint- 
Cyr was first performed Dec. 13, 1794, 
at the Theatre Feydeau, Paris. 

Elisir d'Amore. Gaetano Doni- 
zetti's two-act opera buff"a to book by 
Romani was first performed in Milan, 
1832, has been popular in all countries, 
and is known in an English version as 
" The Love Spell." The scene is laid 
in an Italian village to which the 
celebrated quack Dr. Dulcamara comes 
to sell his medicines. Adina, the vil- 
lage belle, is loved by Nemorino, who 
buys of the quack a bottle of the Elixir 
of Love, which is nothing more than a 
rather heady wine. Hoping for a 
speedy understanding with Adina, Ne- 
morino drinks the whole bottle, be- 
comes drunk, and greets Adina with 
such assurance that she immediately 
resolves to marry the Recruiting Ser- 
geant, who has been courting her for a 
long time. Receiving an order trans- 
ferring him to another part of the 
countrj^ the Sergeant implores her to 
set the marriage for that day, to which 
Adina agrees. In the midst of the 
festivities Nemorino has sobered up, 
and he implores Dulcamara to give 




him a more potent charm, which the 
quack refuses to do, as Nemorino has 
no more money. At this juncture the 
Sergeant appears, Adina having re- 
fused to sign the marriage contract 
until evening, and finding Nemorino in 
need of money, offers him a bonus of 
20 crowns if lie will enlist in the army. 
Thus Nemorino obtains a second bottle 
from Dulcamara. Meantime the news 
has spread through the village that 
Nemorino's uncle has died, leaving 
him some property, and the village 
maidens show an increased interest 
in the heir which he attributes to the 
magic effect of the Elixir, and he re- 
solves to make Adina jealous. She 
too seeks the aid of the quack, and 
learns from him of Nemorino's devo- 
tion, whereupon she jilts the Sergeant 
and marries her devoted lover. In the 
first act is the admirable buffo song 
" Udite, udite, o rustici," Dulcamara; 
the duet " Obbligato, ah ! si obbli- 
gato," Dulcamara and Nemorino ; and 
in the second act a lively tenor ro- 
mance for Nemorino, " Una furtiva 
lagrima," and the duet " Quanto 
amore! ed io spietata," Dulcamara 
and Adina. 

Ella (Jolm) founded the London 
morning concerts known as the " Mu- 
sical Union," which lasted from 1845 
to 1880, and the "Musical Winter 
Evenings," 1850-59, for both of which 
series he wrote analytical programmes ; 
lectured on music, London Institution 
from 1855; wrote criticism, London 
"Morning Post." B. Dec. 19, 1802; 
son of Richard Ella of Thirsk; d. Oct. 
2, 1888. London. 

Ellerton (John Lodge) composed 
the successful English opera " Dom- 
enic," Drury Lane, London, 1838, and 
other operas to German, Italian, and 
English books, the oratorio " Paradise 
Lost," six masses, six anthems, six 
symphonies, four concert overtures, 17 
motets, 13 sonatas, 61 glees; be- 
friended Wagner on his visit to Lon- 
don, 1855. B. Jan. 11, 1807, Cheshire, 
Eng.; d. Jan. 3, 1873, London. 

Ellicott (Rosalind Frances) com- 
posed the song " To the Immortals," 
Gloucester Festival, 1883; dramatic 
overture, Gloucester Festival, 1886; 

" Elysium," cantata for the Gloucester 
Festival, 1889; "The Birth of Song," 
1892; "Radiant Sister of the Dawn," 
Cheltenham Festival, 1895; "Henry 
of Navarre," cantata for male voices, 
Oxford, 1894, and chamber music; 
pupil of Thomas Wingham, Royal 
Academy of Music, London. B. Nov. 
14, 1857; daughter of the Rt. Rev. 
C. J. Ellicott; add. London. 

Ellis-Sharpe (Alexander John) 
translated Ilelmholtz's work " On the 
Sensations of Tone," London, 1875; 
wrote on pitch, " Pronunciation for 
Singers," 1877; "Speech in Song," 
1878. B. Jime 14, 1814, Hoxton, Eng.; 
d. Oct. 28, 1890, London. 

Elmblad (Johannis) sang bass in 
Wagnerian opera ; Wagner's original 
choice for Donner in " Das Rhein- 
gold " ; sang Fafner at Bayreuth and 
principal opera houses, Europe and 
America. B. Aug. 22, 1853, Stockliolm. 

Elsenheimer (Nicholas J.) com- 
posed ■' Valerian," "Belshazzar," can- 
tatas with orchestra; taught Cincin- 
nati College of Music, 1891; LL.D., 
Heidelberg. B. 1866, Wiesbaden; add. 
New York. 

Eisner (Joseph Xaver) aided in 
founding the Warsaw Conser\'atoire, 
of which he was first director and pro- 
fessor of composition, 1821; taught 
Chopin; composed 21 operas in Polish, 
symphonies, chamber music, church 
music, cantatas, and a Stabat Mater, 
1844; chapelmaster at Lemberg. B. 
June 29, 1769, Grottkau, Silesia; d. 
April 18, 1854, Warsaw. 

Elson (Louis Charles) composed 
songs and instrumental pieces, trans- 
lated and arranged more than 2,000 
songs and operas; wrote "The National 
Music of America," 1900; and many 
other books ; taught theory and history, 
New England Conservatory of ]\Iusic ; 
wrote criticism, Boston "Herald," 
"Courier," and "Advertiser"; edited 
"Vox Humana." B. April 17, 1848, 
Boston ; add. Boston. 

Ellsler (Fanny) danced as Zoloe 
in Auber's " Bayadere " in Berlin, 
1832, and thereafter, until her retire- 
ment, 1851, was one of the most 
noted ballerinas in Europe ; youngest 
daughter of Haydn's servant and copy- 




ist, Johann Elssler; debut at six in 
children's ballet at the Theatre an 
der Wien, Vienna. B. June 23, 1810, 
Gumpendorf, near Vienna; d. Nov. 
27, 1884, Vienna. Therese designed 
ballets and danced with her sister 
FANNY; became morganatic wife of 
Prince Adalbert of Prussia, 1848; en- 
nobled by the King of Prussia as 
Countess von Barnim. B. 1808; d. 
Nov. 19, 1878, Meran. 

Elvey (Dr. Sir George Job) com- 
posed " The Lord is King," anthem 
with orchestra, Gloucester Festival, 
1853; "Sing, heavens," Worcester 
Festival, 1857; Festival March for 
wedding of Princess Louise of Great 
Britain, 1871, in which year he was 
knighted; organist St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. B. Mar. 27, 1816, 
Canterbury; d. Dec. 9, 1893, Windle- 
sham, Surrey. Dr. Stephen composed 
an Evening Service and other church 
music; played organ at New College, 
Oxford. B. June 27, 1805, Canterbury; 
brother of GEORGE JOB; d. Oct. 6, 
1860, Oxford. 

Elwart (Antoine Aimable Elie) 
composed the oratorios " Noe," Paris, 
1845; "La Naissance d'^ve," Paris, 
1846; the opera " Les Catalans," 
Rouen; symphonies, overtures, church 
and chamber music; taught harmony, 
Paris Conservatoire, where he had 
been a pupil, and in 1834 had cap- 
tured the Prix de Rome. B. Nov. 18, 
1808. Paris; d. Oct. 14, 1877, Paris. 

Emboucliure. Fr. The mouthpiece 
of a win<l instrument; hence the 
method of blowing such instruments. 

Emerald Isle. Sir Arthur Sulli- 
van's two-act comic opera, completed 
after his death by Edward German, 
book by Captain Basil Hood, was first 
performed April 27, 1901, at the Savoy 
Theatre, London. 

Emmeleia. Gr. Accord of musical 
tones ; music of a tragic dance. 

E Moll. Ger. Key of E minor. 
Relative minor key to G major. 

Empater les Sons. Fr. To sing 

Emperor Concerto. Ludwig van 
Beethoven's piano concerto in E flat. 
Op. 73, is so named, though without 
the composer's advice or consent. 

Emperor's Hymn. Joseph Haydn's 
setting of a hymn written by Lorenz 
Leopold Hauschka, 1790, embodies the 
patriotic feeling aroused in Austria 
by the excesses of the French Revolu- 
tion, and was sung Feb. 12, 1797, at 
the Emperor's birthday. 

Empfindung. Ger. Feeling, emo- 
tion, passion. 

Emphasis. Accent, ARSIS. 

EmiDorte. Fr. Hurried; passionate. 

Empresse. Fr. Eager, hurried. 

Enarmonico. It. Enharmonic. 

En Badinant. Fr. Scherzando. 

Encore. Fr. " Again." The word 
used by English-speaking audiences in 
demanding that a work be repeated, 
although in French, as in German, the 
word employed is " BIS." 

Ende. Ger. End. 

End Man. In negro minstrelsy the 
performer at either end of the semi- 

Energia, con. It. With energy. 

Energicamente or Energico. It. 
With energy, forcibly. 

Enfant de Choeiir. Fr. Chorister. 

Enfant Prodigue. Daniel F. E. 
Auber's five-act opera to book by Scribe 
was first performed Dec. 6, 1850, at 
the Academic, Paris. A three-act pan- 
tomime of this title was popular in 
London and Paris, 1890-91; com- 
posed by Andre Wormser to scheme 
by Carre, fils. 

Enfasi, con. It. With emphasis. 

Enfatico. It. With emphasis. 

Enfler. Fr. To swell. 

Enge. Ger. Narrow, as of organ 
pipes; close, as the stretto of a 
fugue; Harmonie, close harmony. 

Engel (Carl) wrote " Descriptive 
Catalogue of the Musical Instruments 
in the South Kensington Museum," 
1874; "Music of the Gipsies," 1880; 
an elaborate MS. description of the 
musical instruments of the whole 
world ; composed a piano sonata and 
played and taught that instrument. 
B. July 6, 1818, 'I'hiedenwiese, Han- 
over; d. Nov. 17, 1882, London. 

Engelstimme. Ger. VOX AN- 

Engfuhrung. Ger. STRETTO. 

England (George) built organs in 
England, 1740-88; m. daughter of 




Richard Bridge; was succeeded by 
his son George Pike. 

English Horn. COR ANGLAIS. 

English Opera in the sense of 
serious opera has found litlle piildic eu- 
couragenient, although llieCari Rosa and 
Manners-Moody companies in Enghind 
and Henry W. Savage in America have 
done much to make the grand operas 
of other countries familiar in the 
vernacular. English-speaking people 
have always shown a prefer^'nce for 
opera in some unfamiliar language, a 
fact which seems incapable of explana- 
tion, but which has always been dis- 
couraging to interpretative and crea- 
tive MuiJsicians alike. 

Engraving Music is the first proc- 
ess in the publication of most of the 
music in modern times. Stave lines 
are first cut on a pewter plate, and 
the notes are added by means of steel 
punelies. Proofs are then pulled in 
a copper plate press, revisions made, 
and when the plate has been corrected, 
a copy is taken in transfer ink, which 
is then applied to a lithographic stone. 
Copper, zinc, and pewter plates and 
movable type were employed in the re- 
production of music prior to the in- 
vention of lithography. 

Enharmonic. One of the three 
genera in GREEK MUSIC, the others 
being Diatonic and Chromatic; en- 
harmonic scales are those containing 
intervals less than a semitone ; an en- 
harmonic instrument is one capable of 
producing G sharp and A flat as dis- 
tinct tones, which thovigh mathe- 
matically different, are reconciled in 
Equal TEMPERAMENT on keyboard 
instruments, both being produced 
on the piano by the same black key; 
enharmonic modulation is a mis- 
leading term which signifies a change 
as to notation but not as to tone, 
which is only possible on instru- 
ments tuned in Equal Temperament, 
where C sharp and D flat, etc., are 

Enna (August) composed the three- 
act opera " Heksen " (The Witch), 
produced with success Jan. 24, 1892, 
at the Copenhagen Royal Opera; 
" Aiienssin et Nioolette," Copenhagen 
and Hamburg, 1896-97; "Cleopatra," 

1894, which became popular the follow- 
ing year; violin concerto in D major; 
largely self taught until w'ith Gade'a 
help he won tlie Ancker scholarship, 
1888-89, which enabled him to spend 
a year in Germany. B. May 13, 18G0, 
Nakskov, Denmark; add. Copenhagen. 

Enoch & Sons published music in 
London from 18Ui). 

Enoplius. Qr. Warlike music; 
war (lance. 

Ensemble. Fr. " Together." 
Union of a whole group of performers 
in a concerted number; efl'ect of a 
musical perfonnanee. 

Entfiihrung aus dem Serail. W. 
A. Mozart's singapiel or comic opera 
in three acts to book, altered from 
Bretzner's " Belmont und Constanze," 
by Stephanie, was first performed at 
Vienna, July 16, 1782. There are 
Italian, English, and French versions. 
Constanza, who is betrothed to Bel- 
monte, her maid Bionda, and Pedrillo, 
Belmonte's servant, are captured by 
Corsairs and sold to the Turkish mag- 
nate Selim Pasha, who chooses Con- 
stanza for himself, gives Bionda to his 
overseer, Osmin. and sets Pedrillo to 
work in his garden. Constanza main- 
tains her vow of fidelity to Belmonte, 
although the Pasha seeks in every way 
to gain her aft'ections. Belmonte, noti- 
fied of their place of captivity by 
Pedrillo, attempts a rescue, but is 
himself captured, and the four Chris- 
tian prisoners are brought before the 
Pasha, to whom Constanza boldly tells 
her story. Selim Pasha retires, over- 
come by emotion, and the captives pre- 
pare for death, but the magnanimous 
Pasha sets them free, provides the 
means for them to return to their own 
country, asking only their friendship 
in return. 

Entr'acte. Fr. Music performed 
between the acts at any performance, 
whether operatic or dramatic 

Entrata. it. ENTREE ; Scena d', 
singers lirst scene in opera. 

Entrechats. Fr. Bounding steps 
employed by a ballerina in crossing or 
entering the stage. 

Entree, Fr. Short composition in 
march time to which the ballet or other 
procession enters. 




Entremese. 8p. Short musical 

Entremets. Fr. Interludes which 
were popular as early as the reign of 
St. Louis in France, from which some 
historians trace the growth of both 
opera and drama. 

Entusiasmo. It. Enthusiasm. 

Entusiastico. It. With enthu- 

Entwurf. Ger. Sketch. 

Eolian Mode is the fifth of the 
authentic Gregorian MODES. 

Epicedion. Gr. Dirge or elegy. 

Epicinion. Gr. Song of triumph; 
Sanctus in the Greek liturgy. 

Epigoneion. 40 stringed lyre 
named for its inventor Epigonus. 

Epilenia. Gr. Vintage songs. 

Epine, de 1' (Francesca Margher- 
ita) sang in London, 1692, with great 
success until 1718, when she m. Dr. 
Pepusch and retired, having accumu- 
lated $50,000, and having paved the 
way for other Italian singers. D. Aug. 
10, 1746. 

Epinette. Fr. Spinet. 

Episode. Intermediate passage in 
FUGUE, suspending development, 
while affording variety. 

Epistle Side. The left or north 
side of the altar as opposed to the 
right or south, called the Gospel Side. 

Epistrophe. Gr. Refrain. 

Epitasis. Raising the voice or an 
instrument's strings from low to high 

Epithalamium . Gr. Wedding ode. 

Epode. Gr. After song; burden 
or refrain. 

E Pol. It. "And then," as la 
coda, then to the coda. 

Equabilmente. It. Equally. 

Equal Temperament is discussed 

Equal Voices. Works for women's 
or men's or boy's voices are said to be 
for equal voices, and when male and 
female voices are used in combination 
they are said to be mixed. 

Equale. It. Equally. 

Equale. Short pieces written for 
instruments of the same general 

Equivoca. L. Equivocal, doubtful. 

Equivocal Chords are those com- 

mon to two or more keys, which leave 
the mind in doubt as to the key which 
is to follow. 

Erard (Sebastien) invented the 
double action and other important im- 
provements for the harp; made the 
first French piano, 1777; invented the 
repetition action of the piano, and a 
combination of piano and organ which 
he called " Piano Organise," the 
"Orgue Expressif "; founded the Paris 
piano and organ business still con- 
tinued as Erard & Cie. B. April 5, 
1752, Strasburg; d. Aug. 5, 1831. 
Pierre continued and enlarged the 
business, and is said to have invented 
the Harmonic Bar, 1838. B. 1796; 
nephew of SEBASTIEN; d. Aug. 18, 
1855. His widow continued the busi- 
ness, and from her it passed to Count 
de Franqueville, who had married her 
niece, and was the chief proprietor in 
1908, although the management de- 
volved on his partner, M. Blondel. 

Erba (Don Dionigi) composed a 
Magnificat from which Handel doubt- 
less appropriated several numbers for 
the second part of " Israel in Egypt '"; 
cliapelmaster and priest in the Church 
of S. Francesco, Milan, 1692. 

Erbach (Christian) composed 
church music ; played organ to the 
Fuggers of Augsburg. B. Algesheim, 
Palatinate, 1573. 

Erhohung. Ger. Elevating, raising. 

Erhohungzeichen. Ger. The 
sharp sign. 

Erk (Ludwig Christian) edited 

many important coilectioiis of songs 
including " Deutscher Liederhort"; 
directed music in Berlin royal sem- 
inary; established singing societies 
and festivals. B. Wetzlar, Jan. 6, 
1807; d. Nov. 25, 1883, Berlin. 

Erkel (Eranz) composed the na- 
tional anthem of the Hungarians in a 
successful competition, 1841, the 
operas " Hunyady Laszlo," which is 
still popular: " Bathori Maria," 
" Bank-Ban," " Dozsa Gyorgy," " Ist- 
van Kiraly"; played piano; conducted 
at the National Theatre, Buda-Pest. 
B. Nov. 7. 1810, Bek6s, Gyula; d. June 
15. 1893, Budapest. 

Erlanger (Camille) composed the 
operas " Le Fils de I'fitoile," Grand 




Opera, Paris, April 20, 1904; " Bar- 
kok6ba," " Aphrodite," and " La Glu"; 
won his first success with " Lc Juif 
Polonais," Opera Comique, Feb. 8, 
1897; pupil of the Paris Conserva- 
toire, where he won the Prix de Rome, 
1888. Other works to be noted are: 
the dramatic legend " Saint-Julien 
I'Hospitalier," the idyll " Kermaria," 
" serenade carnavalesque " for orches- 
tra, " Podmes russes." B. May 25, 
1863, Paris; add. Paris. 

Erlanger, d' (Frederic) composed 
the operas " Jehan de Saintr^," " Inez 
Mendo," " Tess of the d'Urbervilles "; 
suite symphonique for orchestra, a vio- 
lin concerto, Op. 17. B. jMay 29, 1868, 
Paris; add. London. 

Ernani. Giuseppe Verdi's four-act 
opera, founded on Victor Hugo's great 
play, was first performed at Venice, 
1844. The police of that city com- 
pelled the composer to change the 
conspiracy scene, and at the Paris 
production Hugo insisted that the 
whole story be changed; but as now 
produced it follows the Hugo play in 
detail. Ernani, a duke turned bandit, 
loves Elvira, ward of Don Gomez de 
Silva. Don Carlos of Spain, after- 
wards the Emperor Charles V, like- 
wise loves the lady. Sylva, too, loves 
Elvira, and when she is carried off 
by the king, Silva and Ernani plot 
vengeance. Ernani had been chal- 
lenged by Silva, but agreed if that 
noble would join him in his plot, to 
kill himself whenever Silva should give 
the signal by blowing his horn. Don 
Carlos is aware of the conspiracy, and 
captures the conspirators, w^hom he 
condemns to death. Wishing to die 
as befits a noble, Ernani announces his 
rank and titles, whereupon Don Carlos 
pardons him. The union of Ernani and 
Elvira is arranged, but in the midst 
of the wedding festivities, Silva sounds 
his horn, and Ernani, faithful to his 
word, goes forth to death. The prin- 
cipal musical numbers are: Act I: 
" Ailegri beviamo," chorns ; "Come ni- 
giada al cespite," Ernani; "Dell' esi- 
lio nel dolore," Ernani ; " Ernani, in- 
volami," Elvira ; " Tutto sprezzo che 
d'Ernani," Elvira; "Bella come un 
prime amore," Don Carlos ; " Fiero 

sangue d'Aragona," Don Carlos; "la* 
felice! e tuo credevi," Silva; Act II: 
"Ah! morir potessi adesso! " Ernani 
and Elvira; "La vendetta piu tre- 
menda," Ernani and Elvira; " In arci- 
oiie, cuvalieri," Enuini and Silva; 
" Pronti vedi li tuoi cavalieri," chorus; 
Act III : " Gran Dio ! io sto sui sepol- 
crali niarmi," Don Carlos; "Si ridesti 
il Leon di Castiglia," chorus; "O 
Sommo Carlo," sextet and chorus; Act 
IV: "0 come felice," chorus; " Ces- 
saro i suoni," Elvira and Ernani ; and 
" Per noi d'amore il talamo," Elvira 
and Ernani. 

Ernst (Alfred) translated " Der 
Ring des Nibelungen " and " Die 
Meistersinger " into French ; \\Tote re- 
views and books on music. B. April 
9. 1860, Perigueux; d. Paris, May 15, 

Ernst (Heinrich Wilhelm) became 
one of the most celebrated of violin 
virtuosi, playing throughout Europe 
from 1832 to 1850, having followed 
Paganini through Germany as a boy 
to study his technique; composed 
" Deux Nocturnes," Op. 1 ; " Elegie," 
Op. 10, Fantasia on " Otello," Op. II; 
" Concertino," Op. 12 ; " Polonaise de 
concert," Op. 17; concerto pathetique 
in F sharp minor, Op. 23 ; string quar- 
tets in B flat and A; Hungarian airs. 
Op. 22. B. May 6, 1814, Briinn, Mo- 
ravia; d. Oct. 8, 1865, Nice. 

Eroica. Ludwig van Beethoven's 
third symphony, said to have been 
suggested by Bemadotte, when ambas- 
sador at Vienna, consists of four move- 
ments: Allegro con brio, E flat; 
Marcia funebre; Adagio assai, C 
minor; Scherzo and Trio; Allegro 
vivace, E flat; Finale, Allegro molto, 
interrupted by a Poco Andante ending 
in a Presto, E flat. Its original title 
was " Bonaparte," but when the First 
Consul became Emperor, Beethoven, a 
radical at heart, tore off the title page, 
and stamped on it. On publication 
the composer inscribed it : " Sinfonia 
eroica composta per festeggiare il sov- 
venire di un grand' uomo dedicata a 
Sua Altezza Serenissima il Principe 
di Lobkowitz da Luigi van Beethoven. 
Op. 55. No. III. Partizione." Bee- 
thoven was at work upon this e>Tn- 




phony during the summer of 1803, but 
the first performance took place in 
Dec, 1804. 

Erst. Ger. First. 

Ersterben. Ger. To die away. 

Erweitert. Ger. Augmented, am- 
plified, extended. 

Es. Ger. E flat. 

Esatto. It. Exact, strict. 

Escudier (Marie) wrote with his 
brother Leon " Kossini, sa vie et ses 
csuvres," Paris, 1854, published music, 
including Verdi's operas, founded La 
France Musicale, 1838, for which both 
wrote until 1862, when they dissolved 
partnership, and Marie directed the 
older paper while Leon published 
"L'Art musical." B. June 29, 1819; 
d. April 17, 1880. Leon b. Sept. 17, 
1821 ; d. June 22, 1881. Both were 
natives of Castelnandary. 

Es Dur. Ger. Key of E flat major. 

Esecuzione. It. Execution. 

Eses. Ger. E double flat. 

Eslava (Miguel Hilarion) made a 
valuable collection of early Spanish 
church music, published as " Lira 
sacro-hispana," Madrid, 1869; com- 
posed 140 pieces of church music, the 
operas " II Solitario," " La Tregua di 
Ptolemaide," and "Pedro el Cruel"; 
ehapelmaster and priest at Seville 
Cathedral and to Queen Isabella. B. 
Oct. 21, 1807, Burlada, Navarre; d. 
July 23, 1878, Madrid. 

Esmeralda. A. Goring Thomas's 
four-act opera to book based on Victor 
Hugo's libretto arranged by Theo 
Marzials and Alberto Randegger, was 
first performed Mar. 26, 1883, at 
Drury Lane by the Carl Rosa Opera 
Company. Victor Hugo's libretto was 
written for the French composer 
composed by her. 

Es Moll. Ger. Key of E flat 

Espace. Fr. Space of the stave. 

Espagnuolo, a. It. In Spanish 

Espirando. It. Dying away, ex- 

Esposito (Michele) composed an 
Irish symphonv which won the Feis 
Ceoil prize, 1902; " Deirdre," Feis 
Ceoil prize in Dublin, 1897, cantata 

for soli, chorus, and orchestra; the 
operetta, " The Postbag " ; sonata for 
violin and piano ; songs, chamber mu- 
sic. B. Sept. 29, 1855, Castellammare, 
near Naples; pupil Naples Conserva- 
tory; became teacher of piano. Royal 
Irish Academy of Music, 1882; add. 

Espressione, con. It. "With ex- 

Espressivo. It. Expressive. 

Essential Harmony is that of the 
tonic, dominant, or subdominant. 

Essential Notes are those belong- 
ing to a key chord. 

Esser (Heinrich) composed 40 
books of lieder, the operas " Silas," 
"Riquiqui," and "Diebeiden Prinzen"; 
ehapelmaster Imperial Opera, Vienna. 
B. July 15, 1818, Mannheim; d. June 
3, 1872, Salzburg. 

EssipofE (Annette) played piano 
in concert in Europe and America; 
pupil of Theodor Lesehetitzky, whom 
she m. 1880. B. Feb. 1, 1850, St. 
Petersburg; court pianist and teacher 
St. Petersburg Consen'atory, 1893; 
add. St. Petersburg. 

Este (Thomas) published music in 
England, 1587, to his death, 1609, 
when Thomas Snodham succeeded to 
the business. " The Whole Booke of 
Psalmes," 1592, was his most impor- 
tant publication. Michael composed 
madrigals, " Ayerie Fancies of four 
parts " that could be sung or played ; 
master of choristers, Lichfield Cathe- 
dral. The three-part madrigal " How 
merrily we live " is still sung. Prob- 
ably son of THOMAS. B. London. 

Este was the seat of two musical 
academies in the 15th century, and for 
a time the home of JOSQUIN. GUIDO 
D'AREZZO was a native of Pomposa 
in the territories of the Dukes of Este, 
who were famous as patrons of music. 

Esther. George Frederick Handel's 
first English oratorio was composed 
to book by S. Humphreys, based on 
Racine's play. The Duke of Chandos 
paid Handel $5000 for it, and it was 
first performed at Cannons, his coun- 
try seat. Aug. 29, 1720. 

Estinguendo, Estinto. It. Dying 
away or diminishing. 

Estravaganza. It. Fanciful or 




extravagant in composition or execu- 

Estremamente. It. Extremely. 

Estro Poetico. It. Poetic fervour. 

Estwick (Rev. Sampson) composed 
odes for the Acts at Oxford ; chorister 
as a child, Eng. Chapel Royal. B. 
1657; d. Feb. lU, 1739. 

Etendue. Fr. Extended. 

£toile du Nord. Giacomo Meyer- 
beer's three-act opera to book by 
Scribe, based on the incidents already 
rehited of Peter tlie Great, as CZAAR 
UND ZIMMERMANN, was first per- 
formed Feb. 10, 1854, at the Paris 
Opera Comique. 

Etouffe. Fr. Stifled or dampened. 

Etouffoirs. Fr. Dampers. 

Etude. Fr. Exercise, study or 

Et Vitam. Part of the CREDO in 
the -MASS. 

Etwas. Qer. Somewhat; Lang- 
sam, rather slow. 

Eugen Onegin. Peter Ilyitch 
Tschaikowsky's tliree-act opera to book 
adapted from Poushkin was first per- 
formed ill jMiUch, 1S79. intro- 
duces his friend Onegin to the home 
of Mme. Levin, to whose daughter 
Olga he is engaged. Her sister Tati- 
ana falls in love with Onegin, and con- 
fesses her feelings in a letter, but 
Onegin only feels a brotherly affection 
for her. A ball is given in honour of 
Tatiana's birthday at which Onegin 
flirts with Olga. A quarrel with Len- 
ski follows, there is a duel and Lenski 
is killed. Five years later in St. 
Petersburg Onegin again meets Tati- 
ana, who has married Prince Gremin. 
This time he falls desperately in love 
with the woman he had formerly re- 
jected, and, after declaring his pas- 
sion, tries to induce her to elope with 
him. She admits that she still loves 
him, but leaves him forever as she 
does so. The principal musical num- 
bers are : Act I : " Hearest thou the 
Nightingale ? " duo for Olga and Ta- 
tiana based on a folksong; " I have 
no mind for languor or for sadness," 
Olga; "I love you, Olga," Lenski; 
" Nay, though I be undone," Tatiana ; 
Act II : waltzes and mazourkas for the 
ball ; " My days of youth, where have 

they fled?" Lenski; Act. Ill: duo, 
Tatiana and Onegin ; " Despised, re- 
jected, what misery is mine," 

Eulenstein (Charles) played 16 
Jew's Harps at eiiLertiiinments in Eng- 
land and Scotland; taught guitar and 
concertina at Bath. B. 1802, Heil- 
bronn, Wiirtemberg; d. 1890, Styria. 

Euphonium. Brass valve instru- 
ment corresponding in compass with 
the baritone SAXHORN, but with a 
louder and broader quality of tone. 
It does not blend well in orchestra, but 
is useful in brass bands as a solo 

Euphony. Sweet sound or a con- 
cord of sound. 

Euryanthe. C. M. von Weber'3 
three-act opera to book by Helmine 
von Chezy was first performed Oct. 25 
at the Kiirnthnerthor Tlieatre, Vi- 
enna, Oct. 25, 1823; and was revived, 
with alterations and omissions, by 
Gustav Mahler, 1904, at the Imperial 
Opera, Vienna. Euryanthe is the be- 
trothed of Count Adolar, who sings 
her praises in the palace of King Louis 
of France until Count Lysiart sneer- 
ingly declares that he can win her 
love, and promises the proof to Adolar. 
The scene then shifts to the castle of 
Nevers, where Euryanthe, lamenting 
the absence of Adolar, reveals to her 
confidant Eglantine the secret of a 
nearby tomb. Adolar's sister had 
killed herself, and in punishment her 
ghost must roam the earth until the 
tears of injured innocence fall upon 
her ring. Lysiart fails to gain the 
favour of Euryanthe, but Eglantine, 
who loves Adolar, has entered the 
tomb and taken away the dead 
woman's ring, which she gives Lysiart, 
and his possession of the jewel is 
taken by Adolar as proof of Eury- 
anthe's fault, since the secret was 
known only to Euryanthe and himself. 
Adolar takes Euryanthe into the des- 
ert, meaning to kill her, but they are 
attacked by a serpent, and, after kill- 
ing the monster. Adolar decides to 
leave her to her fate. King Louis finds 
her alone in the wilderness, and she 
tells him the story of Eglantine's 
treachery. Adolar, who has begun to 




suspect that Euryantlie was the vic- 
tim of a plot, goes to Nevers to punish 
Lysiart, and meets a procession in 
honour of his wedding with Eglantine. 
He challenges Lysiart, but before they 
fight the King enters, announcing the 
death of Euryanthe. At this Eglantine 
declares her love for Adolar, but Ly- 
siart stabs her, and a moment later 
Euryanthe, who is not dead, but had 
merely fainted, appears to claim her 
lover, while Lysiart is led away to 
pimishment. The principal musical 
nimibers are : Act 1 : " Dem Frieden 
Heil," chorus; " Unter bluhenden 
Mandelbiiumen," Adolar; " W'uhlan! 
du kennst," Adolar, Lysiart and the 
King; " Gloeklein im Thale," Eury- 
anthe ; " mein Leid ist unermessen," 
Eglantine ; " Unter ist mein Stern ge- 
gangen," Euryanthe and Eglantine; 
" Frijhliche Klilnge," Euryanthe and 
chorus; Act II: "Wo berg ich mich," 
Lysiart; " Komm denn unser Leid 
zu rtichen," Lysiart and Eglantine; 
" Wehen mir Lufte Ruh," Adolar; 
" Lass mich empor zum Lichte," quar- 
tet and chorus; Act III: " Hier am 
Quell wo Weiden stehn," Euryanthe; 
" Die Thale dampfen," chorus ; " Lasst 
mich hier in Ruh' erblassen," the 
King, Euryanthe, and chorus ; " Zu 
ihm," Euryanthe. 

Evacuant. Ger. Exhaust valve in 
organ or other instrument. 

Evacuatio. L. In ancient nota- 
tion reducing the valuation of a black 
note one half by writing only its 

Evans (Charles Smart) composed 
" Great Bacchus," " Beauties have you 
seen a toy," and other highly popular 
glees and songs ; sang in Eng. Chapel 
Royal. B. 1778; d. Jan. 4, 1849, 

Eveille. Fr. Sprightly. 

Evers (Carl) composed four piano 
sonatas and played and taught that 
instnmient; chapelmaster at Griitz, 
1841-72. B. April 8, 1819, Hamburg; 
d. Vienna. Dec. .31, 1875. 

Evolutio. L. The working out of 
a theme. 

Evovae. Technical word formed 
by vf)wels in " Seculorum Amen " with 
which the Gloria concludes, employed 

to indicate the close of the tone on 
which the antiphon had been clianted. 

Ewer & Co. sold music in London 
from 1824 until 18U7 when merged in 
the house of NOVELLO, EWER & CO. 

Exercise. Practice for the purpose 
of acquiring skill ; the composition in- 
tended for that purpose; thesis or 
composition requii'ed of candidates for 
degrees in music at the universities. 

Eximeneo (Antonio) wrote " Dell' 
origine della musica, colla storia del 
suo progresso, decadenza, e rinnova- 
zione," 1774, which contains germs of 
the theories afterwards elaborated by 
Wagner, and which aroused a con- 
troversy along similar lines; Jesuit, 
settled in Rome on expulsion of his 
order from Spain. B. Balbastro, Arra- 
gon, 1732; d. Rome, 1798. 

Expert (Henri) wrote " Les Mal- 
tres Musiciens de la Renaissance fran- 
gaise," taught in the " 6cole nationale 
de musique classique," and founded 
" Soci^t6 d'etudes musicales et de con- 
certs historiques." B. May 12, 1863, 
Bordeaux; add. Paris. 

Exposition is the statement or pres- 
entation of the subjects in FUGUE; 
or in forms of harmonic order, the 
first half of a movement in Binary 
form, which usually contains two 
principal subjects. 

Expression is the soul of musical 
art as it is of oratory and declamation. 
Expression marks aid in conveying an 
idea of the composer's meaning, but 
the ability to interpret that meaning, 
whether so indicated or not, is the 
highest test of the artist as distin- 
guished from the mere mechanical mu- 
sician or time-beater. 

Expression Stop shuts off the 
w^aste valve in the bellows of har- 
moniums; thus enabling the performer 
to control the volume of tone pro- 
duced by means of the wind pedals. 

Extempore Playing is the art of 
improvising music at the time of per- 
formance. Since it implies both com- 
plete mastery of the instrument em- 
ployed and of the science of music, it 
need hardly be added that the great 
composers such as Bach, Beethoven, 
Mozart greatly excelled in extem- 




Extempoi'ize. To play extempore. 

Extended Compass. That wliich 
ranges beyond the ordinary compas3 
of a voice or instrument. 

Extended Harmony. Dispersed 

Extraneous Modulation. Modu- 
lation to an extreme or unrelated key. 

Extravaganza. Burlesque or cari- 
cature in music. 

Extreme. Highest and lowest parts 
in music; augmented intervals; keys 
not closely related ; keys having more 
than three sharps or flats in the 

Extreme Sixth. Chord which con- 
tains the interval of an augmented 
sixth either directly or by in- 

Eybler, Edler von (Joseph) com- 
posed the opera " J^'Epee enchantee," 
Vienna, 1790, oratorios, symphonies, 
chamber music, seven masses, two Te 
Deums, and other church music in all 
forms; friend of Haydn, ^Mozart's 
nurse in his last illness, ennobled by 
the Emperor, 1834; chief chapelmaster 
at the court of Vienna. B. Feb. 8, 
1765, Schwechat, near Vienna; d. July 
24, 1846, Schonbrunn. 

r is the fourth tone in the natural 
scale of C; the name of the major 
key having B flat as its signature, of 
which D is the relative minor; of the 
minor key having four flats to its 
signature, relative to A flat; of the 
bass clef, the sign of which is cor- 
rupted from F; of the soundholes in 
violins, so called from their shape. 
F is the usual abbreviation of forte. 
F is the final of the Lydian church 
MODE A\ath C as its dominant. 

Fa is the syllable which stands for 
F in solmisation, and is the name of 
F in French and Italian. 

Fa Bemol. Fr. F flat. 

Fablier. Provencal for trouveur. 

Fabri (Annibale Pio) sang ten. in 
opera under Handel; called Balino. 
B. 1697, Bologna; d. Aug. 12, 1760, 

Fabri cius (Werner) composed 
dance music, songs with figured bass, 
and church music; organist at the 

Xicolaiikirche, Leipsic. B. 1G33; d. 
April 9, 1679. 

Fabritius (Albinus) composed 
church music; lived in Ciorlitz, Prus- 
sia, Itilli century. 

Faburden meant originally a har- 
mony consisting of thirds and sixths 
added to cantus firmus, but wlien coun- 
terpoint superseded both organum and 
discant the term was retained to in- 
dicate a variety of counterpoint, gen- 
erally of note against note. 

Faccio (Franco) conducted the 
first European performance of " Aida," 
Milan, 1872; taught harmony in 
Milan Conservatory; composed " Le 
Sorelle d'italia " and other operas. 
B. Mar. 8, 1840, Verona; d. July 23, 
1891, Monza. 

Faces d'un Accord. Fr. Posi- 
tions or inversions of a chord. 

Fach. Ger. Rank, as a rank of 
organ pipes. 

Facile. Fr. Easy. 

Facilement. Fr. Easily. 

Facilita. It. Facility in execution. 

Facilite. Fr. Facility. 

Facilmente. It. Easily. 

Fackeltanz. Music in 4-4 time for 
ceremonial torchlight processions at 
some German courts. 

Facture. Fr. Construction of mus- 
ical composition; measurement or 
scale of organ pipes. 

Fa Diese. Fr. F sharp. 

Fa Fictum. In the HEXA- 
CHORDAL system was B flat. 

Fagottista. It. Bassoon player. 

Fagotto. It. BASSOON. 

Fagottone. It. DOUBLE BAS- 

Faignient (Noe) composed part 
songs and motets, Belgium, 16th 

Faisst (Immanuel Gottlob Fried- 
rich) helped found the Stuttgart Con- 
servatory, of which he became direc- 
tor; played organ; composed choral 
works. B. Oct. 13, 1823, Esslingen, 
Wiirtemberg; d. June 5, 1894, Stutt- 

Falcon (Marie Cornelie) sang sop. 
in opera; debut 1832 to 1840. highly 
esteemed in Paris. B. Jan. 28, 1S12; 
pupil of the Paris Conservatoire; d. 
Feb. 26, 1897. 




Fa La. Syllables used as words. 


Falsa Musica. L. Old term for 
music in wliieh accidentals were in- 

False Fifth. Imperfect FIFTH. 

False Intonation. Tones sung or 
played ovit of tune. 

False Relation. Appearance near 
together, but in different parts, of a 
note and the same note chromatically 

Falsetto. The third and uppermost 
register of male or female voices, such 
as that of the male countertenor, so 
called because it was thought to be 
unnatural. Falsetto singers were em- 
ployed at an early date in the Sistine 
Chapel choir, displaced by the voce 
d'evirato, and again restored. 

Falso Bordone. It. FABURDEN. 

FalstafE. Michael William Balfe's 
two-act Italian opera, to book by 
Maggioni, was first performed July 
19, 1838, in London. Giuseppe Verdi's 
three-act opera, to book by Boito, was 
first iserformed at La Scala, Milan, 
Feb. 9, 1893. "The Merry Wives of 
Windsor " and " Henry IV " are ad- 
mirably blended in the libretto, but 
the story of the Merry Knight's ad- 
ventures is too well known to be re- 
peated here. The original cast was: 
Mistress Ford, Signora Zilli ; Nan- 
netta, Mme. Stehle; Fenton, Garbin; 
Dr. Caius, Paroli ; Pistola, Arimondi ; 
Mistress Page, Signora Guerrini ; Mis- 
tress Quickly, Signora Pasqua ; Ford, 
Pini-Corsi ; Bardolfo, Pelagalli-Ros- 
setti; Falstaff, Maurel. The princi- 
pal musical numbers are : " Falstaff's 
Letter," Mistress Ford ; " He '11 surely 
come courting," a capella quartet for 
women; " He 's a foul, a ribald Thief," 
male quartet ; Act. II : " Do I dream, 
or is it reality?" Ford; " 'T was at 
the Garter Inn," Mistress Quickly; 
" Once I was Page to the Duka of 
Norfolk," FalstafF'; Act III: "Ho! 
landlord!" Falstaflf; "From those 
sweet lips a Song of Love arises," 
Fenton; "While we dance in the 
Moonlight." Nannetta. 

Famitsin (Alexander Sergeivich) 
composed the unsuccessful opera " Sar- 
danapalus," " Songs for Russian Chil- 

dren," chamber music; wrote criti- 
cisms attacking the " New Russian 
school." B. 1841, Kalouga; d. July 
6, 1896, St. Petersburg. 

Fancies. FANTASIA. 

Fandango. Graceful Andalusian 
dance in 3-4 time to accompaniment 
of guitar, castanets, and sometimes 
the tambourine. 

Fanfare. Fr. Flourish of trum- 

Faning (Eaton) composed the four- 
part chorus " Song of the Vikings," 
symphony in C minor; church music, 
two operettas ; conducted and taught 
in Royal College of Music, Loudon. 
B. May 20, 1850; add. London. 

Faniska. M. Luigi C. Z. S. Cuer- 
ubini's three-act opera, to book by 
Sonnleithner, was first performed Feb. 
25, 1806, at the Kiirnthnerthor Thea- ' 
tre, Vienna. 

Fantaisie. Fr. Fantasia. 

Fantasia. Composition in which 
form is subordinate to fancy. 

Fantasiesttick. Ger. Fanciful 

Fantasiren. Ger. To improvise 
or play as fancy suggests. 

Fantasticamente. It. Fantastic- 

Fantastique. Fr. Fantastic. 

Farandole. Popular Provencal 
round dance in 6-8 time. 

Farce. Originally a satirical song 
introduced at the Christmas festivi- 
ties, the term is now applied to short 
dramatic pieces of the burlesque type. 

Farinelli. John Barnett's two-act 
opera, to book by C. Z. Barnett, was 
first performed Feb. 8, 1839, at Drury 
Lane, London. 

Farinelli (Carlo Broschi) became 
the most celebrated of all sopranists, 
the favourite of Philip V of Spain, 
whose melancholy he charmed away 
by singing as David had done with 
Saul; Knight of Calatrava and St. 
lago. A pupil of Porpora, he sang in 
boyhood at the principal opera houses 
in Italy and at Vienna; joined Por- 
pora in the London opposition to 
Handel, 1734, Avhere he sang three 
seasons at about $25,000 per annum; 
returned to Italy, building a mansion, 
which he called "English Folly"; 




went to Madrid, 173G, where he re- 
mained 25 years, wielding higher 
power than the ministers under Philip 
VI, although not in ollice; returned 
to Italy after accession of Charles 
III ; lived in niagiiilicent retirement 
near Bo!o<,'na, where he collected pic- 
tures, harpsicjionls, and viols, and en- 
joyed friendsliii) of Padre Martini, to 
whom he had previously suggested 
writing a " History of Music." B. 
Jan. 24, 1705, Naples; probably as- 
sumed the name of his uncle CRIS- 

Farinelli (Giovanni Battista) com- 
posed the cantata " Lord, roniemher me 
wiien Thou comest into Thy kingdom," 
when tlie Elector of Hanover, to whose 
household he was attached, became 
George I of England; later ennobled 
by the King of Denmark, and " re- 
membered " by George I, who made 
him his representative at Venice. B. 
Italy, uncle of CARLO EROSCHI 

Farinelli (Giuseppe) composed a 
mass, Stabat Mater, 58 operas ; chapel- 
master at Trieste, 1819. B. May 7, 
1769, Este; d. Trieste, Dec. 12, 1836. 

Farmer (John) composed madri- 
gals, church music ; wrote on counter- 
point; contributed to Thomas Este's 
" Whole Booke of Psalmes." B. Eng- 
land; publications between 1591- 

Farmer (John) composed the ora- 
torio " Christ and his Soldiers," 1878; 
Cinderella, fairy opera, 1882; played 
organ and founded concerts at Balliol 
College, Oxford. B. Nottingham, Aug. 
16, 1836; d. July 17, 1901, Oxford. 

Farmer (Thomas) composed music 
for "The Princess of Cleve," 1682, 
songs, and dramatic music. B. Eng- 
land ; graduated as Mus. Bac, Cam- 
bridge, 1684. 

Farnaby (Giles) composed for vir- 
ginals, voice, collaborated in Thomas 
Este's " Whole Booke of Psalmes." B. 
England. 16th century. 

Farrant (John) played organ in 
English churches and at Salisbury 
Cathedral, 1598-1602; composed an 
Anglican sen'ice. 

Farrant (Richard) composed the 

anthems " Call to remembrance " and 
" Hide not Thou Thy face " ; sang 
in Eng. Chapel Royal; master of 
children at St. George's, Windsor. D. 
Nov. 30, 15S0. Daniel composed foi 
organ and viol ; played viol in king's 
band, 1606-16:25. B. England; son 

Farrar (Geraldine) sang sop. in 
opera, debut, Berlin Royal Opera, 
Marguerite in " Faust " at 19, 
Metropolitan Opera House, New York, 
1906, as Juliette in " Romeo et 
Juliette," and later in such roles as 
Elizabeth, Mimi, Nedda, Mme. But- 
terlly; under contract with both 
houses in 1908; pupil of Lilli Leh- 
mann. B. Melrose, Mass., 1880; add. 
New York and Berlin. 

Farrenc (Jacques Hippolyte Aris- 
tide) composed for flute and wrote on 
musical topics. B. April 9, 1794, 
Marseilles; d. Jan. 31, 1865, Paris. 
Louise compiled " Tresor des Pian- 
istes," an anthology beginning with 
early composers for harpsichord and 
piano and coming down to Chopin 
and Weber ; composed two symphonies 
and chamber music; taught piano in 
Paris Conservatoire; sister of the 
sculptor Dumont and aunt of ERNEST 
REYER. B. Paris, May 31, 1804; 
m. J. H. A. FARRENC; d. Sept. 15, 

Farsa. L. Interpolations between 
the sentences of a Kyrie or Gloria. 

Fasch (Johann) composed orches- 
tral suites, church music; founded a 
collegium musicum at Leipsic of which 
the Gewandhaus concerts are the out- 
growth ; declined to compete against 
J. S. Bach for the cantorship of the 
Thomasschule ; chapelmaster at Zerbst. 
B. April 15, 1688, Buttelstedt, Wei- 
mar; d. Dec. 5, 1768, Zerbst. Carl 
Friedrich Christian composed " Giu- 
seppe riconosciuto," oratorio; church 
music, canons; founded the Berlin 
Singakademie; played accompani- 
ments with C. P. E. Bach to Fred- 
erick the Great; entertained Beetho- 
ven at Berlin. B. Nov. 18, 1736, 
Zerbst; son of JOHANN; d. Aug. 3, 

Fascia. It. Tie or bind; sides of 
a violin. 




Fastoso, Fastosamente. It. 

Proudly, liaughtily. 

Fattura. It. FACTURE. 

Faure (Gabriel Urbain) became 
director of the Paris Conservatoire, 
June, 1905, in succession to Theodore 
Dubois ; composed ; organist at the 
Madeleine, 1896. Pupil of Nieder- 
meyer, Dietsch and Saint-Saens ; he 
became organist of St. Sauveur,Rennes, 
1866; returned to Paris four years 
later as assistant at St. Sulpice, then 
became organist at St. Honors, chapel- 
master at the Madeleine; professor 
of composition at the Conservatoire; 
inspecteur des Beaux Arts, 1892. His 
principal compositions include: " Le 
Po&me d'Amour," " Apres un reve," 
" Les Roses d'lspahan," " Cantique de 
Racine," " En Priere," violin sonata, 
Berceuse and Romance for violin with 
orchestra, Elegie for 'cello; two quar- 
tets for piano and strings, two quar- 
tets for strings, violin concerto, or- 
chestral suite, " Choeur des Djinns," 
symphony in D minor, " L'Organiste," 
one-act opera; a Pvcquiem; "La Nais- 
sance de Venus," for chorus. Madrigal 
for four voices and orchestra, " Pa- 
vane " for orchestra and chorus ; five 
melodies to Verlaine's poems ; piano 
quintet, " La Bonne Chanson," nine 
songs to Verlaine's verses; music to 
the plays "Caligula," " Shylock," 
" Pell^as et Melisande," " Prom6thee." 
B. Pamiers, Ariege, May 13, 1845; 
add. Paris. 

Faure (Jeane Baptiste) sang bar. 
in opera ; debut Paris Opera Comique, 
1852, principal roles at the Opera 17 
years, Covent Garden and Drury Lane, 
London, Brussels, Vienna, Berlin; 
taught Paris Conservatoire ; inspector 
at Brussels Conservatory, 1872; com- 
posed two books of songs; retired 
1880. B. Jan. 15, 1830, Moulins; m. 
Mile. Lefebvre ; add. Paris. 

Fausse Corde. Fr. False string. 

Fausset. Fr. FALSETTO. 

Faust. Cliarles Gounod's five-act 
opera, to words by Barbier and Carr6, 
founded on the first part of Goethe's 
greatest work, was first sung at the 
Th(?atre Lyrique, Paris, Mar. 19, 1859, 
and still ranks \\\t\\ the most popular 
in modern repertoire. Faust is repre- 

sented as an old man regretting the 
untasted joys of youth after a life 
spent in study. Mephistopheles offers 
to renew his youth and to serve him 
through life, provided Faust becomes 
his servant thereafter. Charmed by 
the vision of Marguerite, a lovely vil- 
lage maid, Faust drinks the potion 
Mephistopheles has prepared, and in 
the guise of a young and handsome 
cavalier sets ofl' for the kermess at 
which he is to meet her. Valentin, 
who is going to the wars, gives his 
sister Marguerite a tender warning of 
farewell, but after his departure Meph- 
istopheles, by means of a message 
he pretends to bear to Martha from 
her husband, who has been killed in 
battle, introduces Faust to Marguer- 
ite, and by making love to the foolish 
old woman, leaves them together. 
Siebel, a lad of Marguerite's own rank, 
endeavours to protect her, but is help- 
less against the gallantry and gener- 
osity of Faust, whose present of jewels 
arouses the maiden's consciousness of 
her own beauty. When Valentin re- 
turns from the wars he finds JNIephis- 
topheles singing a mocking serenade 
beneath the window of his sister, 
whose name had become a by-word to 
the neighbours. Valentin fights with 
Faust, whose sword, directed by Me- 
phistopheles, strikes him down. The 
dying Valentin curses Marguerite. 
Overcome with horror, forsaken by 
friends, and dreading to meet Faust, 
]\Iarguerite seeks refuge in a church. 
Even in these holy surroundings evil 
spirits jibe at her. In despair she 
kills her child, and is thrown into 
prison. There Faust sees her in a 
vision while revelling with Mephis- 
topheles in the Brocken's Walpurgis, 
and demands that Mephistopheles re- 
turn with him and rescue her. Mar- 
guerite, condemned to death, though 
mad, shrinks away from Faust on see- 
ing his companion, and prays to God 
for his pardon and her own. The 
prayer is granted. A final tableau 
reveals Marguerite in Heaven, pray- 
ing for her lover. Mephistopheles 
sinks before the angelic host, and 
Faust kneels to beg forgiveness. The 
original east was: Faust, Barbot, ten. ; 




Mefistofele, BalaiKjue, bass; Valentin, 
Regnal, bar.; Wagner, ten.; Siebel, 
Mile. Faivre, mez. sop. ; Marguerite, 
Mme. Miolan Carvalho, sop. ; Martha, 
Mme. Duclos, con. The principal mu- 
sical numbers in the opera are : Act I : 
" Interroiio invano,'' Faust; ''^la il 
ciel," Faust and Mophistophelcs. Act 
II: "0 santa medaglia," Valentin; 
"Dio del' or," Mephistophcles; " Tu 
puoi la sjiada" and "Come la brezza," 
chorus. Act HI: "Le parlate d'amor " 
( Flower song) , Siebel ; " Salve dimora, 
casta e pura," Faust; "Cera un re 
di Thule " and " Ah ! e strano poter " 
(Jewel Song), INIarguerite; " V'appo- 
giate al braccio mio," quartet ; " Si'iii- 
pre a mar," Faust and ^Marguerite. 
Act IV: " Nascose eran," Marguerite; 
" Deponiam il brando," chorus; " Tu 
che fai 1' addormentata." INIephis- 
topheles; " Marglicrita! Maladetta!" 
Valentin. Act V: " Penetrato e il 
mio cor," Faust; " Pur fra il riso bef- 
fardo," Marguerite ; " del ciel an- 
geli," Marguerite. 

Faux Bourdon. Fr. FABURDEN. 

Favorita. Gaetano Donizetti's 
four-act opera to book by Royer and 
Waetz, based on the French play " Le 
Conite de Commingues," was first per- 
formed Dec. 2, 1840, at the Paris Acade- 
mic Royale. Fernando, a novice in the 
monastery of St. James of Compo- 
stella, falling in love with Leonora, 
whom he lias seen worshipping in the 
church, confesses his passion to Baltha- 
sar, who sends him into the world. Leo- 
nora, the favourite of Alfonso, King 
of Castile, who is threatened with ex- 
communication because of her, gives 
Fernando a commission in the army, 
and he goes to win honours for her 
sake, not knowing her relations with 
the king. In the second act the ex- 
communication is pronounced by Bal- 
thasar, and in the next act when 
Fernando returns from victories over 
the Moors, Alfonso loads him with 
honours, and, finding Leonora loves 
him. arranges for their marriage. 
Leonora sends her confidant Inez to 
tell Fernando everything, but the king 
intercepts her, the marriage is hast- 
ened, and Fernando only learns the 
truth after the ceremony. He returns 

to the monastery. Leonora follows 
liim there, and after obtaining his for- 
giveness, dies in his arms. The orig- 
inal cast included Leonora, 2*lme. 
Stolz, sop.; Fernando, Duprez, ten.; 
Balthasar, Baroelhst, bass. The prin- 
cipal numbers are: Act I: " Una Ver- 
gine," Fernando ; " Deh, Vanne ! deh, 
parti," Fernando and Leonora ; Act 
II: "Ah! I'alto ardor," Leonora an I 
the king; Act III: "0 mio Fernando," 
Leonora; Act IV: " Scaviam I'asilo," 
chorus of monks; " Spirito gentil," 
Fernando ; " Ah, va, t'invola," Fer- 
nando ; " Clemente al par di Dio," 
Leonora; "Vieni, ah, vieni," Fernando. 
Fawcett (John) composed the ora- 
torio " Paradise " and psalm and hymn 
tunes. B. Dec. 8, 1789, Wennington, 
Eng. ; d. Oct. 26, 1867, Bolton. John, 
Jr., played organ at 11 in St. John's 
Church, Farnworth ; composed " Sup- 
plication and Thanksgiving," a cantata 
for his degree Mus. Bac, Oxford. B. 
1824; son of JOHN; d. July 1, 1857. 
Fayolle (Frangois Joseph Marie) 
wrote a " Dictionnaire historique des 
Musiciens " with Choron, Paris, 1810- 
11, criticisms, fragments of a history 
of the violin. B. Aug. 5, 1774; d. 
Dec. 2, 1852, Paris. 

Fayrfax (Dr. Robert) composed a 
five-part Mass, an anthem " Of oure 
lady and Saint Elizabeth," songs; 
sang in Chapel Royal of Henry VIII; 
first Doctor of Music of record at Ox- 
ford. Probably b. in Hertfordshire, 
Enu'., 10th centurv; d. 1521. 
F Clef. Bass CLEF in NOTATION. 
F Dur. Ger. Key of F major. 
Federclavier. Ger. Spinet. 
Feen. Richard Wagner's opera to 
his o\^Ti libretto was composed at 
Wiirzburg, 1833, the story being 
adapted from Gozzi's " Donna Ser- 
pente," but not performed until 1888, 
at Munich. 

Feier. Ger. Festival. 
Feierlich. Ger. Festival style. 
Feis Ceoil is the annual Irish com- 
petition and music festival held in 
])ublin. The first took place May, 

Feld. Ger. Field. Disposition of 
pipes in an organ. 

Feld Flote. Ger. Rustic FLUTE. 




Feldlager in Schlesien. Giacomo 
Meyerbeer's three-act opera was first 
performed at the reopening of the Ber- 
lin Opera House, Dec. 7, 1844, and 
later with great success at Vienna. 

Feldmusik. Ger. Military music. 

Feldton. Ger. Key of E flat in 
which military instruments are usu- 
ally set. 

Felix Meritis was the name of an 
institution for the cultivation of let- 
ters, arts, and sciences in Amsterdam, 
which gave several important series 
of concerts. The society was founded 
in 1777 and was disbanded in 188S. 

Felton (Rev. Williain.) composed 
for harpsichord and organ ; custos 
of Vicars choral, Hereford Cathedral. 
B. Cambridge, Eng., 1713; d. Dec. 6, 

Fenell (Thomas) sang and played 
organ in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dub- 
lin. D. 1708. 

Fenton (Lavinia) became London's 
favourite singer on her appearance as 
Polly Peachum in the first perform- 
ance of the " Beggar's Opera," Jan. 
29, 1728; m. Charles, third Duke of 
Bolton. B. 1708, London; real name 
Beswick; d. Jan. 24, 1760. 

Feo (Francesco) composed the 
operas " Ipermestra," " Ariana," " An- 
dromache," and church music; di- 
rected Conservatorio de' Poveri di 
Gesil Cristo, Naples. B. 1685, Naples. 

.Ferial Music is that for perform- 
ance on other than feast or fast days; 
hence simple as opposed to ornate. 

Ferlendis (Signora Barberi) sang 
con. and buffa in opera, Lisbon, Mad- 
rid, Paris, retired 1810. B. 1778, 
Rome; m. Alexander Ferlendis, the 

Fermata. If. "Pause." The term 
or sign which indicates that note or 
rest shall be held beyond its natural 

Fermato, Fermamente. It. 
Firmly, decidedly. 

Fernando Cortez. Gasparo Spon- 
tini's three-act opera to book by 
Esm^nard and De Jouy was produced 
Nov. 28, 1809, at the Paris Academic 

Feroce. It. Fiercely. 

Ferocita, con. It. With ferocity. 

Ferrabosco (Alfonso) composed 
madrigals; became musician to Queen 
Elizabeth. B. Bologna; son of the 
chapelmaster of St. Petronio; d. 
Turin, 1588. Alfonso composed music 
for Ben Jonson's masques; composer 
to Charles I of England. B. Green- 
wich, son of the first ALFONSO; d. 
1628. Alfonso composed; played in 
royal band. Son of the second AL- 
FONSO ; d. during the Commonwealth. 
Henry became composer of the King's 
music; played in the royal band. Son 
of the second ALFONSO; killed while 
serving as captain in Jamaica expedi- 
tion. John composed services and 
anthems ; played organ Ely Cathedral. 
Probably son of the second ALFONSO. 
D. Oct. 15, 1682, Ely. 

Ferrara was the seat of the ancient 
imperial " Intrepid!" academy, founded 
1600 by Giambattista Aleotti d'Ar- 
genta, and contained a splendid theatre 
for the performance of " Feste Musi- 
cali," opened by Duke Ercole I, 1484. 

Ferrarese Del Bene was the stage 
name of Francesca Gabrielli, who sang 
sop. in opera in Venice, London, and 
Vienna, 1770-90. 

Ferrari (Benedetto) was among 
the earliest writers and composers of 
" dramme per musica " ; said by Bur- 
ney to have first employed the word 
"cantata"; composed "Andromeda," 
"Adone," "Armida," and other operas, 
the baHet " Dafne in alloro," the ora- 
torio "Sansoiie," chapehnaster to the 
Duke of Modena. B. 1597, Reggio; d. 
Oct. 22, 16S1. 

Ferrari (Domenico) composed vio- 
lin sonatas; violin virtuoso; pupil of 
Tartini. B. Piacenza; d. 1780, Paris. 

Ferrari (Giacomo Gotifredo) com- 
posed the popular songs " Qu'il fau- 
drait de philosophic " and " Quand 
I'Amour nacquit a Cyth&re," four 
operas, two"ballets; taught and wrote 
" Treatise on Singing " and entertain- 
ing memoirs. B. 1759, Roveredo; m. 
Miss Henry, 1804, London, the well 
kno\\Ti pianist; d. 1842, London. 

Ferrel (Jean Francois) played 
\Tolin; led romlt of musirinns against 
the " Roi des M6n6triers," Paris, 17th 

Ferretti (Giovanni) composed mad- 




rigals, canzoni ; cliapelmaster at An- 
cona Cathedral, 1575-85. B. 15-iO, 

Ferri (Baldassare) became famous 
sopninist, called "king of musicians" 
by Emperor I.copold I, made Knight 
of St. Mark, Venice, 1G43 ; left estate 
of 000,000 crowns to charity. B. 1610, 
Perugia; d. Scjit. S, KiSO. 

Ferte, de la (Papillon) bought the 
office of " Intendant des Menus plai- 
sirs" to Louis XVI, 1777. B. 1727, 
Chalons; d. Paris, 1794. Under the 
Restoration his son held the same post. 

Fertig. Ger. Quick, dexterous. 

Fervaal. Vincent d'Indy's three- 
act opera to his own libretto was first 
performed Mar. 12, 1897, at the The- 
atre de la i\Ionnaie, Brussels, and May 
10, 1898. at the Paris Opera Comique. 

Fervente, Ferventemente. It. 
Fervently, vehemently. 

Fes. Ger. F flat. 

Fesca (Friedrich. Ernst) composed 
the opera " Cantemir," '" Leila," over- 
tures, sjTnplionies, chamber music; 
plaved violin; chapelmaster to Duke 
of Baden. B. Feb. 15, 1789, Magde- 
burg; d. May 24, 1826, Carlsruhe. 
Alexander Ernst composed " Der 
Troubadour " and three other operas, 
chamber music. B. May 22, 1820, 
Carlsruhe; son of FRIEDRICH 
ERXST; d. Feb. 22, 1849, Brunswick. 

Fest. Ger. Festival. 

Festa (Constanzo) composed a Te 
Deum still sung in celebration of papal 
elections, songs and church music; 
singer, then maestro, at the Vatican. 
D. Rome. April 10, 1545. 

Fasting (Michael Christian) 
helped found the London Society of 
Musicians ; directed music at London 
Italian Opera, 1737; Ranelagh Gar- 
dens, 1742; played violin and taught; 
composed cantatas, songs, chamber 
music. B. London; son of a well 
known flautist; d. July 24, 1752. 

Fetis (Francois Joseph) became 
the most useful of the world's writers 
on music; wrote the monumental 
" Biographie universelle des I\Iusi- 
cians " and " Histoire g^nerale de la 
Musique"; a "Traits du contrepoint 
et de la fugue." which ranks with the 
best modern theoretical works, " Traite 

complet de la theorie et de la pratique 
de Hiarmonie," which has been re- 
published in many languages; founded 
the " Revue IMusicale," 1827-33, the 
earliest of musical journals in France; 
composed; undertook the revision of 
Gregorian chant; became director of 
the Brussels Conservatory and chapel- 
master to the King of the Belgians, 
1833; taught, wrote, lectured, and 
composed without ceasing until his 
death. As a lad F^tis learned violin, 
piano, and organ from his father, who 
was organist at Mons, then studied at 
the Paris Conservatoire, where he 
gained a prize in harmony, 1803, and 
the second prize in composition 1807. 
In 1806 he married, and became more 
earnest in his work than ever, but in 
18 11 was obliged by the loss of his wife's 
fortune, to accept an appointment as 
organist at Ardennes. Then he taught 
in Douai, but returned to Paris, 1820, 
became professor of counterpoint and 
fugue at the Conservatoire, and in 
1827 librarian, in which post he con- 
tinued until his departure for Brus- 
sels. His compositions include the 
operas " L'Amant et le Mari," " Marie 
Stuart en ficosse," " Le Mannequin de 
Bergame," produced at the Op6ra 
Comique, a sjTnphony, overtures, 
chamber music, and much church 
music, including " Messes faciles pour 
I'orgue " and a " Messe de Requiem " 
for the Queen of the Belgians. As a 
critic F6tis was not always fair; as 
a composer by no means great; as an 
historian not free from error, a state- 
ment equally true of all writers on 
music, but he was none the less the 
greatest of all modern musical lit- 
terateurs. B. Mar. 25, 1784, Mons; 
d. Brussels, Mar. 26, 1871. Eduard 
Louis Frangois wrote on music, be- 
came head of the Brussels Royal Li- 
brary; professor of resthetifs Brussels 
Academic des Beaux Arts. B. May 16, 
1812, Bouvignes near Dinant; son of 
FRANCOIS JOSEPH: d. .Tan. 3, 1909. 
Adolphe Louis Eugene composed; 
taught and plaved piano in Paris. 
B. Aug. 20. 1820.' Paris; son of FR.\N- 
COIS JOSEPH; d. Mar. 20, 1873, 
Festivals of Music were first held 




in Italy, that given by the combined 
musicians of the courts of Pope Leo 
X and Francis I of France at the meet- 
ing of their sovereigns in Bologna, 
1515, being an early example. As a 
rule festivals were occasional affairs, 
held in celebration of some important 
event in royal families. The Vienna 
Tonkiinstler-Societat appears to have 
first devised regularly recurring festi- 
vals, a practice which has since spread 
throughout the world. Church choir 
festivals, held annually by the churches 
attached to one diocese in the Anglican 
church, have become popular in British 
possessions and in the United States 
since 1856, when the first of the 
kind was held in Lichfield Cathedral, 

Festivamente. It. Solemnly, 

Festivita, con. It. With joy. 

Festive. It. Festive. 

Festoso. It. Gay, joyous. 

Feuillet (Raoul Auger) wrote an 
arrangement of dances with diagrams 
sliowing the steps, published in Paris, 
1701, as " Choregraphie," etc. 

Fevin, de (Antoine) composed 
masses, motets, and part songs es- 
teemed second only to those of Jos- 
quin. B. Orleans, probably 1490. 

Fevin, de (Robert) composed 
church music; chapelmaster to Duke 
of Savoy. B. Cambrai, IGth century. 

FF. It. Abbreviation for Fortis- 
simo. " Very loud." 

F Holes. Openings in the belly of 
viols, so called from resemblance to 
the letter f. 

Fiacco. It. Weak, faint. 

Fiala (Joseph) composed two sym- 
phonies, two sets of string quartets, 
played oboe with remarkable skill ; 
chapelmaster to Prince Fiirstenberg. 
A serf belonging to Countess Lobko- 
witz, he was compelled to labour at 
the Schloss and ran away. On being 
recaptured the countess wished to 
have his teeth pulled to prevent hiiu 
from playing, but he was freed by 
order of the Emperor. B. 1751, Lob- 
kowitz; d. ISIG, Donaueschingen. 

Fiasco. It. "Flask." Used by 
Englisli and French but not by Ital- 
ians to describe a complete failure. 

Fiato. It. Wind; respiration. 

Fibich (Zdenko) composed more 
than 700 works, including six operas, 
six melodramas, the overture " Eine 
Nacht auf Karlstein," " Komensky 
Festoverture," symphonies in G minor, 
F, E flat, seven symphonic poems, 352 
piano pieces; conducted at Prague 
national opera, 1875-78, Russian 
Church, 1878-81. B. Czarlau, Dec. 
21, 1850; d. Prague, Oct. 10, 1900. 

Ficta Musica. L. MUSICA 

Fiddle. VIOLIN. 

Fiddlestick. Violin BOW. 

Fidelio. Ludwig van Beethoven's 
only opera composed at Hetzendorf in 
the summer of 1805, to book adapted 
by Joseph Sonnleithner from Bouilly's 
" Lenore, ou I'Amour conjugal," was 
first performed Nov. 20, 1805, in three 
acts, with what is now called the 
" Leonora overture No. II," at the 
Theater an der Wien, Vienna. It was 
afterwards, with Beethoven's reluctant 
consent, reduced to two acts. Both 
take place in a Spanish prison where 
Florestan, a Spanish noble, is confined 
by order of Pizarro, the governor. 
Florestan's wife, Leonora, disguises 
herself as a lad, Fidelio, and obtains 
employment in the prison, where the 
turnkey's daughter, Marcelline, falls in 
love with her. Rocco, the turnkey, ap- 
proves the match, although Jaquino, 
his assistant, also loves Marcelline. 
Fidelio profits by her employment to 
seek out her husband,but in vain. Then 
comes a letter annoimcing a visit of 
inspection from the minister, Don Fer- 
nando, and Pizarro at once determines 
Florestan shall be put to death. Rocco, 
the old turnkey, refuses to commit 
murder, so Pizarro orders him to dig a 
grave in which the body may be con- 
cealed, meaning to kill Florestan him- 
self. Fidelio assists in this grewsome 
task, then gains admittance to the 
dimgeon in which her husband is con- 
fined, and gives him bread and wine, 
for he has been nearly starved by 
Pizarro's orders. Florestan is brought 
forth, but as Pizarro tries to stab 
him, Fidelio throws herself between 
tliem, then covers Pizarro with a pis- 
tol. Just then a trumpet announces 




the approach of Don Fernando. Piz- 
arro rushes out in despair, and when 
the minister enters he instantly orders 
the release of his old friend I'lorestan 
and the punishment of his cruel enemy. 
Marcellino naturally agrees to marry 
Jaquino on discovering that Fidclio is 
a woman, and there is general rejoic- 
ing as the curtain falls. The original 
cast was : Don Fernando, WeinkofT, 
bar. ; Pizarro, Meier, bar. ; Florestan, 
Demmcr, ten.; Rocco, Rothe; Ja- 
quino, Cache; Leonore, Frl. Milder, 
Bop. ; Marcelline, Frl. Muller, sop. 
The principal musical numbers are: 
Act 1: "Die Hoffnung," Marcelline; 
" Mir ist so wunderbar," canon- 
quartet ; " Hat man nicht auch Geld 
deneben," Rocco; " Abscheulicher! " 
Fidelio; Act II : " In des Lebens Friih- 
lingstagen," and " Und spiir' ich nicht 
linde," Florestan ; " O Namenlose 
Freude," Florestan and Fidelio. Bee- 
thoven wrote in all four overtures to 
this opera, which are now called the 
Leonore overtures No. I, No. II, No. 
Ill, and the Fidelio overture. He even 
planned a fifth. The second, No. Ill, 
was for the production of the modified 
work; the third, No. I, was for a 
performance at Prague which was 
never given, and the fourth was the 
Fidelio, first played May 26, 1814, on 
the second and final revision of the 
work. The Fidelio overture is in E, 
the others are in C. 

Fidicen. Lutenist or harp player. 

Field (Henry Ibbot) played and 
taught piano; called " Field of Bath." 
B. Dec. n, 1797; d. May 19, 1848. 

Field. (John) composed five noc- 
turnes which are still played, 15 which 
have been forgotten, seven piano con- 
certos, four .sonatas, two divertimenti, 
and much other music once higlily 
esteemed; played the piano with ex- 
traordinary skill ; pupil first of his 
father and grandfather, then of Muzio 
Clementi, in whose London warehouse 
he showed pianos; taught in Russia, 
and hence called the "Russian Field"; 
returned to England, 1824, and played 
at the Philharmonic concerts, London; 
visited Paris, and in 1833 made an un- 
successful tour of Belgium, Switzer- 
land, and Italy; rescued from a hos- 

pital where he lay for nine months in 
Naples by a Russian family with 
whom he returned to Moscow; played 
with great success in Vienna on the 
journey north; died shortly after 
reaching Russia. Jn his nocturnes 
and in his piano playing Field was 
the legitimate precursor of Chopin. 
He was sufficiently admired by Liszt 
to have caused that composer to edit 
some of his works, prefacing them with 
an essay. B. July 20, 1782, Dublin; 
d. Moscow, Jan. 11, 1837. 

Fielitz, von (Alexander) composed 
the widely known song cycle " Eli- 
land," the opera " Das stille Dorf," 
Hamburg, Mar. 13, 1900; two suites 
for orchestra ; conducted under Ni- 
kisch; taught in Berlin Stern Con- 
servatory ; conducted at the Theatre 
des Westens, 1904. B. Dec. 28, 18G0, 
Leipsie; add. Berlin. 

Fier. Fr. Proud. 

Fieramente, Fiero. It. Proudly, 

Fierrabras. Franz Schubert's three- 
act opera to book by Kupelwieser was 
composed in 1823 but never performed, 
although ordered by Barbaja. The 
score is in possession of the Gesell- 
schaft der Musikfreunde, Vienna. 

Fife. Instrument of the flute 
family having six finger holes with 
four, five, or six keys, ranging from 
d' to d'", set usually 'in B flat, F. or C. 
The fife, until recently employed in mil- 
itary fife and drum music, lacked keys 
and was of cylindrical instead of coni- 
cal bore, with very faulty intonation. 

Fife. Piccolo organ stop; two ft. 

Fifteenth. Organ stop sounding 
two octaves higher than open dia- 
pason : interval of double octave. 

Fifth is the diatonic interval of five 
notes or the ancient diapente. The 
vibrational ratio is 2:3, a perfect 

Figaro. BuflTo character from the 
comedies of Beaumarchais in Ros- 
sini's " BARBER OF SEVILLE " and 
in IMozart's " NOZ/E DI FIGARO." 

Figura. L. Note. 

Figurante. Ballet dancer having 
an individual part in the action; in 
]<>cnch plays a silent character. 




Figure. Musical phrase or sen- 
tence or MOTIF; the complete ex- 
pression of an idea in music in the 
briefest form ; numeral ; florid melody. 

Figured, Figurato. FLOKID. 

Figured Bass. Bass note with 
figures which serve as shorthand in- 
dications of chords. Examples: 2 in- 
dicates a 4th and 6th; 3 indicates a 
5th ; 4 a 5th and 8th ; 9 a 3d and 5th. 

Fila la Voce. It. To prolong a 
tone, swelling and diminishing it by 

Filippi (Filippo) composed; edited 
Gazetta Musicale of Milan, wrote criti- 
cism; propagated the Wagner cult in 
Italy. B. Vicenza, Jan. 13, 1830; d. 
June 25. 1887, Milan. 

Fille du Regiment. Gaetano Doni- 
zetti's two-act opera to book by Bay- 
ard and St. Georges was first per- 
formed Feb. 11, 1840, at the Paris 
Op^ra Comique. Its popularity was 
immediate and still continues. Marie, 
vivandiere of the 21st Regiment of 
Napoleon's army, had been found on a 
battlefield in infancy by Sergeant 
Sulpice and adopted as "The Daughter 
of the Regiment." During the occupa- 
tion of the Tyrol by the French Marie 
has developed into womanhood, and 
Tony, a peasant lad who has saved her 
from falling over a precipice, becomes 
desperately in love with her. While 
seeking an interview in the camp he 
is arrested as a spy, but manages to 
clear himself and win the consent of 
Marie's numerous foster-fathers to be- 
come her husband on condition that he 
joins the regiment. But before the 
wedding can take place the Mar- 
chioness of Berkenfeld appears, and 
Sergeant Sulpice remembers to have 
a letter addressed to her from Marie's 
father, which was attached to the 
child's dress when he found her. He 
presents this letter, and the Mar- 
chioness claims Marie as her long lost 
niece. Tony is rejected as an un- 
suitable suitor for the noble young 
lady, and marches away with the regi- 
ment. Marie is sad in the midst of 
her luxury, but presently the regiment 
comes mnrchins; bnck. and Tony has 
become its colonel. He renews liis suit. 
the marchioness declines to consider 

it, and an elopement is planned, but 
on the confession of the marchioness 
that Marie is not her niece but her 
daughter by a secret marriage with an 
army officer of lower social position 
than liOT own, Marie yields to the 
mother obedience which she had denied 
the aimt, and, though overwhelmed 
with grief, renounces Tony. In the end 
the marchioness relents, and the regi- 
ment joyfully prepares to celebrate 
the nuptials. The original Alarie was 
the soprano Anna Thillon, and the role 
was a favourite with Jenny Lind, 
Patti, Sonntagg, Albani, Kellogg, and 
Sembrich. The principal musical num- 
bers are: Act I: " The Camp was my 
Birthplace," Marie; "Rataplan duet," 
I\Iarie and Sulpice, bass; "All Men 
Confess it," Marie ; " No Longer can 
I doubt it," Marie and Tony, ten.; 
" Farewell, a long farewell," Marie ; 
Act II: "The Light of Early Day," 
Marie, breaking into the " Rataplan," 
Marie and Sulpice ; " We have come, 
our child to free," soldiers' chorus. 

Fillunger (Marie) sang sop. in 
concert ; became teacher in Royal 
College of Music, Manchester, 1904. 
B. Jan. 27, 1850; pupil Vienna Con- 
servatory; add. Manchester, Eng. 

Filtsch (Charles) won phenomenal 
success as pianist in childhood; but 
brought on consumption by overwork. 
B. Siebenburgen, Hungary, July 8, 
1830; pupil of Chopin and Liszt; d. 
May 11, 1845, Venice. 

Filtz (Anton) composed 39 sym- 
phonies, played 'cello with great skill; 
name also spelled Fils, Filz, Filsl, and 
Fieltz. B. 1725, probably in Bohe- 
mia; d. 1760, Mannheim. 

Fin, Fr. The end. 

Final is the equivalent of tonic or 
keynote in the ecclesiastical MODES. 

Finale. It. The last movement in 
a symphony or sonata; last number 
in the act in opera ; last number on 
a programme. 

Finch (Hon. and Rev. Edward) 
composed church music, including an 
anthem, " Grant, we beseech thee," 
and a Te Deum; prebendary at York 
and at Canterbury. B. 1664; son of 
Earl of Nottingham; d. Feb. 14, 




Finck (Heinrich) composed church 
music and secular songs in strict con- 
trapuntal style; chapelmaster to the 
Polish kings and to the Duke of Wiir- 
temberg, 15U1-1519. B. 1482; d. June 
9, 1527, Vienna. Hermann composed 
work " Practica musica," etc., an im- 
portant book on theory; played organ 
and taught at University of Witten- 
berg. B. Pirna, Saxony, ^lar. 21, 
1527; granduephew of HEINIUCII; 
d. Dec. 28, 1558, Wittenberg. 

Finck (Henry Theoiahilus) wrote 
" Wagner and his Works," New York, 
1893 ; " Chopin and other Musical Es- 
says," " Paderewski and his art," 
"Songs and Song Writers," 1901; 
" Primitive Love and Love Stories," 
1900; " Ron' intic Love and Personal 
Beauty," books of travel and criti- 
cisms in New York " Evening Post " 
and " Nation." Graduated from Har- 
vard, 1876; pupil of J. K. Paine in 
music; studied in Berlin, Heidelberg, 
and Vienna. B. Sept. 22, 1854, Bethel, 
Mo.; add. New York. 

Fine. It. The end. 

Finger (Gottfried) composed con- 
certos and sonatas, dparaatic music 
for English plays ; musician to James 
II; musician to Queen Charlotte of 
Prussia, for whom he composed the 
opera " Sieg der Schonheit iiber die 
Helden." B. Moravia; chapelmaster 
at Gotha, 1717. 

Finger Board. The wood attached 
to the neck of stringed instruments of 
the viol and guitar families, against 
which the strings are stopped by 
pressing with the fingers; manual or 

Finger Cymbals. Small cymbals 
worn on the fingers and played like 

Fingering is usually indicated in 
modern NOTATION for organ and 
piano by the numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
regarding the thumbs of either hand 
as fingers, although in some English 
and American publications the thumb 
is indicated by a cross mark, and only 
the first four numerals are employed. 
Johann Sebastian Bach was probably 
the first to introduce a system of 
fingering which employed all the 
fingers and both thumbs. Paganini 

was the pioneer in the modern finger- 
ing for viol instruments. 

Fingerleiter. Gcr. CHIROPLAST. 

Fingersatz, Fingersetzung. (Jer. 

Finite Canon. One which is not 

Finite. It. Finished. 

Fink (Christian) composed organ 
music, songs, psalms for chorus and 
orchestra ; organist and president Es- 
sliiigen Seminary. B. Dettingen, V.'ur- 
temberg, Aug. 9, 1831; add. Ess- 

Fink (Gottfried Willielm) edited 
the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung, 
1827-41; composed songs. B. Suiza, 
Tliuringia, Mar. 7, 1783; d. Aug. 27, 
184G, Halle. 

Finta Giardiniera. W. A. Mozart's 
three-act opera buffa, to book by 
anonymous librettist, was first per- 
formed Jan. 13, 1775, at Munich. 

Finta Semplice. W. A. Mozart's 
three-act opera buffa, to book by Col- 
tellini but not produced, was composed 
in Vienna, 17U8, when the composer 
was but 12. 

Finto. It. Feint, as of deceptive 

Fiocco (Pietro Antonio) composed 
masses and motets, conducted court 
band at Brussels, 170G. D. Nov. 3, 
1714. His sons, Jean Joseph and 
GioseflPo Hectore, conducted succes- 
sively at the Brussels court. The 
latter composed for and played harp- 

Fiochetto. It. Slightly hoarse. 

Fioco. It. Hoarse. 

Fioravanti (Valentino) composed 
"Le Cantatrici Villane," ISOG, and 
" I virtuosi ambulanti," 1807, and in 
all more than fifty operas. B. 1704, 
Rome; d. June 16, 1837, Capua. Vin- 
cenzo composed operas. B. April 5, 
1799; son of VALENTINO; d. Mar. 
28, 1877. 

Fiorillo (Federigo) composed 36 
fitudes for violin and much chamber 
music. B. 1753, Brunswick, where his 
lather, a Neapolitan, was conductor 
of the opera. 

Fioriscente, Fiorito. It. Florid, 

Fioriture. It. Cadenzas, orna- 




ments; florid passages in melody or 

Fipple Flute. FLUTE-a-bec. 

Firework Music. George Fred- 
erick Handel's music in celebration of 
the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, per- 
formed in connection with fireworks 
in London, April 27, 1749, consisted 
of an overture and several movements 
in D, scored for 100 instruments. 

Firing. Ringing all the bells in a 
tower together as an expression of 
joy, and of mourning, when muffled. 

Fis. Ger. F sharp. 

Fischer (Emil) sang bass in opera, 
excelling in Wagnerian roles; debut, 
1849; with Metropolitan Opera, New 
York, for many years. B. Germany 
about 1835; add. New York. 

Fischer (Johann) became famous 
throughout northern Europe as violin 
virtuoso and composed for that instru- 
ment. B. Probably in Swabia 17th 

Fischer (Johann Caspar Ferdi- 
nand) composed " Ariadne Musica 
Neo-Organoedum," published 1702, 
which gives organ preludes and fugues 
in twenty different keys, thus fore- 
shadowing the scope of Bach's " Well- 
tempered Clavier," clavier music; 
chapelmaster to the Markgraf of 
Baden. B. about 1660; d. 1738. 

Fischer (Johann Christian) com- 
posed chamber music, including a 
minuet, for which Mozart composed 
variations, and largely for oboe, on 
which he was a distinguished per- 
former; served in the band of Fred- 
erick the Great, and at Mannheim, 
Dresden, and in London. B. 1733, 
Freiburg; d. April 29, 1800. 

Fischer (Ludwig) sang bass in 
operas of Mozart, whose close friend 
he was. B. Aug. 18, 1745, Mayence. 
Barbara was an actress and singer 
of ability; wife of LUDWIG. Joseph 
sang bass admirably and became a 
noted impresario. B. 1780; son of 
LUDWIG; d. 1862. Wilhelmine 
and Mme. Fischer- Vernier sang, and 
the latter founded a girls' singing 
school in Vienna, 1835. They were 
sisters of JOSEPH. 

Fis Dur. Qer. F sharp major. 

Fish (William) composed songs, a 

sonata for piano and concertos; 
taught successfully and played violin. 
B. 1775, Norwich; d. Mar. 15, 1866, 

Fisher (Dr. John Abraham) com- 
posed symphonies and much forgotten 
dramatic music; m. Miss Powell, 
1770, part owner of Covent Garden 
Theatre; disposed of this on her 
death and visited Vienna, where he 
ni. Anna Selina STORAGE; was ban- 
ished by the Emperor for beating her. 
B. 1744, Dunstable; d. London, 1806. 

Fisis. Ger. Double sharp F. 

Fis Moll. Ger. F sharp minor. 

Fistula. L. "Pipe"; Dulcis, 
FLUTE-a-bec; Pastoricia, shepherd's 
pipe; Eburniola, pitch pipe; Ger- 
manica, German FLUTE ; Panis, pan 

Fistulator. L. Piper. 

Fithele. Old English for VIOLIN. 

Fitzwilliam (Edward Francis) 
composed songs, the oj^era " Queen of 
a Day," a Te Deum, and a hymn. B. 
Aug. 1, 1824, Deal; m. Ellen Chaplin; 
d. Jan. 20, 1857, London. 

Fitzwilliam Collection, bequeathed 
to Cambridge University, together 
with the interest of $500,000, 1816, 
by Viscount Fitzwilliam, includes the 
works of more than 250 composers of 
the 17tli and 18th centuries. 

Fladt (Anton) composed three con- 
certinos for oboe, which instrument 
he played in the chief music centres 
of Europe. B. Mannheim, 1775; d. 

Flageolet. Obsolete instrument of 
which the simplest surviving type is 
the tin whistle with six holes. It was 
a development of the FLUTE-a-bec or 
fipple flute, having a tubuiar mouth- 
piece swelling into a bulb. The tone 
resembled that of the piccolo, but was 
softer. Handel is said to have em- 
ployed it in an obbligato to " O Rud- 
dier than the Cherry." 

Flageolettone. Ger. Flageolet 

Flageolet Tones. HARMONICS 
of viol instruments. 

Flat. The sign in NOTATION de- 
rived from the letter b, which indi- 
cates that a note is to be lowered a 
semitone; minor, as of flat 3ds and 




5ths; an instrument or voice is said 
to be flat when the tone produced is 
below true pitch. The double flat 
lowers a note two semitones. 

Flat Tuning. French tuning for 
the lute, so called because French 
pitch was formerly lower than any 

Flautando, Flautato. It. Indi- 
cates violin liarmonics. 

Flautino. It. Little flute or flage- 
olet; instrument resembling the ac- 
cordion ; FLAUTANDO. 

Flauto. It. FLUTE. 

Flauto Dolce. Sweet-toned organ 
stop of four ft. pitch, either closed or 

Flauto Magico. Name of the Ital- 
ian version of Mozart's ZAUBER- 

Flautone. It. Bass FLUTE. 

Flauto Piccolo. It. Piccolo 

Flauto Traverso. It. The trans- 
verse FLUTE, as distinguished from 
the flute-a-bec. 

FlebilSj Flebilmente. It. Dole- 
fully; tearfully. 

Flemming (Friedricli Ferdinand) 
composed setting of " Integer vitiE," 
an ode by Horace, which is still sung 
in German and English universities. 
B. Neuhausen, Saxony, Feb. 28, 1778; 
d. May 27, 1813, Berlin. 

Flessibilitata. It. Flexibility. 

Flexibility. Describes free and 
rapid performance of either vocal or 
instrumental passages. 

Fliegende Hollander. Richard 
Wagner's three-act opera to his own 
libretto (or rather the libretto he sold 
in Paris, which was composed by 
Dietsch as " Le vaisseau fantome " ) 
was first performed Jan. 2, 1843, at 
Dresden. The original cast included 
Mme. Schroeder-Devrient, sop., as 
Senta ; and Wachter, bar., as the 
Dutchman. Driven to anchorage near 
a shore by a severe storm, the Nor- 
wegian Captain Daland regrets not 
having been able to make his home 
port, which is but a short distance 
off. A second vessel looms up in the 
storm, and its black mast and red sails 
proclaim that the Flying Dutchman is 
skipper. The captains meet, the 

Dutchman oflers pearls for a night's 
lodging, and all his wealth if the 
daughter Daland has mentioned will 
become his bride. Daland agrees and 
the two captains sail away together. 
The second act reveals Senta spinning 
with her maidens in Daland's home. 
Sne sings the ballad of the Flying 
Dutchman, who, having sworn with 
horrid blasphemy that he would double 
a cape though he had to keep on try- 
ing to all eternity, has been condemned 
to do so. Every seven years the 
Dutchman is permitted to go ashore, 
and if he can find a maiden who will 
love him faithfully, the curse will be 
removed; but otherwise he must sail 
on to the day of doom. As the ballad 
ends, Senta cries that she would be 
that faithful maid, which her suitor 
Erik, who has just entered, hears, 
and is deeply grieved. Vainly does 
Erik plead his love. Then he points 
to the Dutchman's picture which hangs 
in the room, and declares he had 
dreamt the Dutchman would come, 
claim Senta as his bride, and sail away 
with her. At this moment her father 
and the Dutchman enter. Daland com- 
mends the stranger to his daughter, 
and is later rejoiced that Senta has 
agreed to become the Dutchman's 
bride. The third act represents a 
harbour with Daland's and the Dutch- 
man's ships at anchor. Erik makes a 
last appeal to Senta, and w'hen she 
refuses to listen further, reproaches 
her with infidelity. At this the 
Dutchman despairingly goes aboard 
his ship, believing Senta false, and 
orders his men to sail away. As the 
vessel moves from the shore Senta 
plunges into the sea, crying, " Here 
am I, faithful unto death ! " the 
doomed ship sinks, and Senta and the 
Dutchman are seen transfigured and 
at last united. The principal musical 
numbers are : Act I : " Mit Gewitter 
und Sturm," Der Steuermann (Pilot), 
ten.; "Die Frist ist um," the Dutch- 
man; Act II: " Summ' und brumm du 
gutes Miidchen," spinning chorus of 
maidens; "Johohae! triifft ihr das 
SchiflF im Meere an," Senta ; " Wie 
aus der Feme," Senta and the Dutch- 
man; closing with Daland in terzetto; 




Act III: " Steueimann, lass die 
Wacht," sailors' chorus; " Wass muss 
ich hihen ? " Senta and Erik. 

Flight (Benjamin) built organs in 
England; founded the firm of Flight 
and Kelly. Benjamin, Jr., founded 
with Joseph Robson the organ build- 
ing firm of Flight & Robson, in Lon- 
don, 1800, which continued until 1832, 
and exhibited the APOLLONICON. 
J. Flight was admitted to the firm on 
the retirement of Robson, and the 
house became known as Flight & Son. 
B. 1767, London; son of BENJAMIN; 
d. London, 1847. 

Fling. Higliland dance in 4-4 
time or reel. 

Flintoft (Rev. Luke) composed the 
double chant in G minor, the earliest 
known specimen of its kind, and is 
therefore accredited with its inven- 
tion ; sang Eng. Chapel Royal ; be- 
came priest-vicar of Lincoln and minor 
canon of Westminster Abbey. B. 
Worcester; d. Nov. 3, 1727, London. 

F Lbcher. Ger. F holes. 

Flonzaley Quartette was founded 
Nov., 1903, at " Le Flonzaley," near 
Lausanne, Switzerland, by E. J. de 
Coppet, solely and absolutely for the 
sake of art. Its position among simi- 
lar organizations is exceptional, by 
reason of the fact that all the players 
are free from material preoccupation, 
and devote their time exclusively to 
the cultivation of chamber music. The 
quartette played in public for the first 
time, Nov., 1905, in Switzerland, and 
in the autumn of 1907 gave a series 
of concerts in Munich, Frankfort, 
Leipsic, Cologne, and Amsterdam. 
During the season of 1907-8 the quar- 
tette played in New York, Boston, 
Chicago, St. Louis, and other Ameri- 
can cities. The plans for 1908-9 in- 
clude tours of Switzerland and Ger- 
many, with two concerts in Leipsic 
and four in Berlin; Holland, with 20 
concerts in all, four in Amsterdam and 
two at The Hague, returning to Amer- 
ica, Dec. 20, 1908. Members of the 
quartette were: Adolfo Betti, 1st 
violin; Alfred Pochon, 2d violin; 
Ugo Ara, viola; Twan d'Archambeau, 
'cello. Adolfo Betti made his debut 
as a violinist at seven, but hoped for 

a career in literature rather than 
music, until C6sar Thomson urged him 
to devote himself to the violin. He 
entered the Liege Conservatory, 1892, 
studied four years with Thomson, and 
won the Conservatory's gold medal. 
He gave concerts in Austria, Germany, 
and England, 1890-1900, then becom- 
ing a teacher in the Brussels Conser- 
vatory. B. Mar. 21, 1875, Florence; 
add. New York. Alfred Pochon re- 
ceived his first instruction on the vio- 
lin from Louis Rey, Geneva, later 
continuing his studies with C^sar 
Thomson. In 1899 he became an as- 
sistant to this famous teacher in 
Brussels. B. July, 1879, Lausanne; 
add. New York. Ugo Ara was at 
first a pupil of P. A. Tirindelli in 
Venice, and later of C^sar Thomson 
in Liege. In 1896 he went to Vienna, 
where for several years he devoted 
himself to the study of composition 
with Robert Fuchs. B. 1876, Venice; 
add. New York. Iwan d'Archam- 
beau studied 'cello with Jacobs at 
Brussels, and later with Hugo Becker, 
at Frankfort. During 1900-1 he gave 
chamber concerts in England. B. Sept. 
25, 1880, Brussels; add. New York. 

Florence has been the seat, since 
1862, of the Royal Musical Institute, 
which teaches music in all branches 
and includes an academy composed 
of non-resident as well as resident 
members. The average number of 
pupils is 220. A Philharmonic Society 
existed in Florence in the 14th cen- 
tury, and there were first produced 
those Laudi Spirituali from which 
oratorios were evolved. Under the 
Medici family the early form of music 
drama known as " feste musicali " 
were performed in splendid style, and 
the " Academy Degli Alterati " was 
among the first to devote itself to the 
representation of opera. 

Florence (Evangeline) was the 
professional name under which ]\Irs. 
Alexander Crerar, born Hougliton, 
won distinction as a concert singer 
in London. She displayed the aston- 
ishing range of g to c"". B. Dec. 12, 
1873. Cambridge, Mass; m. Oct. 17, 
1894; add. Boston. 

Florid Counterpoint. The fifth 




variety of COUNTERPOINT, gov- 
erned by special laws intended to 
secure variety in ell'cct. 

Florid Music is that which is 
higlily ornamented or embellislied. 

Floi'idia (Pietro, Baron Napo- 
lino) composed the tliree-act opera 
" Maruzza " to his own book, Venice, 
1894, later performed with success 
in Messina, Turin, Milan, and other 
Italian cities; the four-act opera 
" La Colonia Libera " ( based on 
Bret Harte's "M'liss"), Theatre Cos- 
tanzi, Rome, 11)00, and later in the 
principal Italian cities; symphony in 
D minor (first prize, Milan, ISJO) ; 
several collections of piano pieces. 
Pupil of the Conservatory of San 
Pietro a Majella, Naples, his first 
work, a three-act comic opera, " Car- 
lotta Cleqier," was produced at Naples, 
but later withdrawn by the composer, 
who was dissatisfied, and burned his 
score. His latest opera, " The Scarlet 
Letter," wliich he hoped to produce 
in America, was the occasion of a 
legal controversy with H. von Con- 
ried. He toured as concert pianist; 
taught piano, Milan Conservatory; 
then settled in Cincinnati as head of 
vocal department, Cincinnati College 
of Music. B. May 5, 18G0, Modica, 
Sicily; add. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Florinio (Francesco) composed a 
funeral symphony on the death of his 
friend Bellini, a Te Deum, a Credo, a 
Dixit, a cantata, and many songs; 
organized the library of the Royal 
College of Music at Naples, making 
it one of the most important collec- 
tions in Europe; founded the Bellini 
prize in that institution ; wrote " A 
History of the College of San Pietro," 
Naples, 1873; a Method of Singing; 
" Riccardo Wagner ed i Wagneristi," 
1883. B. Oct. 12, 1800, San Giorgio 
Morgeto, Calabria; d. Dec. 18, 1888, 

Flote. Ger. FLUTE. 

Flotow, Freiherr von (Fried- 
rich) composed " STRADELLA " and 
"MARTHA," both of which attained 
wide popularity; intendant of the 
Schwerin Court Theatre. 1850-03. The 
son of a noble of Mecklenberg, Flotow 
was trained for the diplomatic ser- 

vice, but in 1827 visited Paris, studied 
music under Reicha, and though forced 
to leave b}^ the Revolution of 1830, 
soon returned, and continued for many 
years to make that city his artistic 
headquarters. Tlie first and verj* brief 
version of " Stradella " was produced 
in 1837 at the Palais Royal, but his 
first success was won with " Le nau- 
frage de la Meduse," which was pro- 
duced May 31, 1839, at the ThC-atre 
de la Renaissance, and after a credit- 
able run, won further honors for the 
composer in Germany, where it was 
given as " Die Matrosen." " Stra- 
della," Hamburg, 1844, became im- 
mensely popular in Germany, though 
it proved a failure in London and 
was not produced in Paris. "Martha" 
was an instant success from its pro- 
duction in Vienna, 1847, having been 
rewritten from the earlier bullet of 
the same name composed with Burg- 
miiller and Deldevez, 1844. Other 
operas of Flotow's were " L'esclave de 
Camoens," " L'anie en peine," " Leo- 
line," "Die Grossfiirstin," '" Indra," 
"Riibezahl," "Hilda," " Albin," "La 
Veuve Grapin," " Pianella," " Zilda," 
"L'Ombre," " Naida," and "II Fior 
d'Harlem." His ballets were: "Die 
Libelle," " Tannkonig," "Am Runen- 
stein." B. April 27, 1812; d. Jan. 24, 
1883, Darmstadt. 

Flourish. Fanfare; embellish- 

Flower (Eliza) composed the origi- 
nal musical setting of " Nearer my 
God to Thee," which had been written 
by her sister Mrs. Adams; other 
hymns and anthems, " Now pray wc 
for our country," chorus; and " Four- 
teen musical illustrations of the Wav- 
erly novels." B. April 19, 1803, Har- 
low, Esse.x; daugliter of Benjamin 
Flower; d. Dec. 12. 1846. 

Flowers (Dr. George French) 
wrote books and nuisic criticism; 
plaj-ed organ in English churciies; 
composed a Mass, 1860; Tennyson's 
Ode on the death of Wellington and 
songs. B. Boston, Eng., June 28, 
1811; d. June 14, 1872, London. 

Fliichtig'. Ger. Light, rapid. 

Fludd (Robert) included disserta- 
tions on music in his " Utriusque 




cosmi majoris," etc., Oppenheim, 1624; 
Rosicriician pliilosnf)lier. B. 1574, Kent, 
Enf;. ; d. Sept. 8, 16.37, Londoa. 

Flue Work. Division of organ 
stops which inchides all pipes in which 
somid is produced by wind passing 
through a tiue or windway, and strik- 
ing against an edge above. 

Fliigel. Qer. "Wing." Name 
given both grandpiano and harpsi- 
chord because of their shape. 

Fliigel Horn. Ger. BUGLE; 
keyed brass valve instruments of 
varying range. 

Flute. As employed in modern or- 
chestra is of the transverse type, with 
a range of three octaves from c' up- 
ward. The piccolo flute, a smaller 
instrument, gives the same compass 
an octave higher. While the flute 
Bounds as an open tube, its harmonics 
are modified by the facts that the 
mouthhole is less than the diameter 
of the tube, there is an air chamber 
formed at the end nearest the mouth- 
hole by stopping the tube at the end 
with cork, and by modifications of 
the bore. The instrument is usually 
set in D, although there are flutes in 
F and in E flat for military bands. 
The material may be either wood or 
metal. The ordinary cone flute has 
six finger holes, six closed keys, and 
two opened standing keys. As im- 
proved by Boehm, the flute has 14 
orifices, largely controlled, of course, 
by keys. The transverse flute is like- 
wise known as the cross, or German 
flute, as distinguished from the direct 
or beak or flute-a-bec, which was 
blown from the end instead of from 
the side, and is now obsolete. The 
flute is among the most ancient of in- 
struments, having been common to the 
Greeks and Romans, Eg\'ptians and 
Asiatics, by all of whom it was made 
in a variety of forms, and sometimes 
doubled, so as to be capable of drone 
bass. Of the flutes-a-bec the flageolet 
is the only one to survive, altliougli in- 
struments of this type were formerly 
made in four sizes from bass to treble. 

Flute d'Amour. Fr. Obsolete 
flute which stood in A and was of 
pitch corresponding to that of the 
Oboe d'amore. 

Flute Work includes all organ 
stops based on the principle of the 
flute-a-bec not classed as Principal 
Work or Gedackt Work ; whether open 
or stopped, of wood or metal. Thus 
far organ builders have not agreed 
upon the nomenclature of flute stops, 
and the number is infinite and fanci- 
ful. In some cases the names indicate 
pitch as bass flute, kleinflote, flute des- 
cant; or the shape, as doppelflote, 
flachflote, rohrflote; or quality, as 
flute creuse, flauto dolce, oboe flute, 
but in general they are meaningless. 

Flying Dutchman. Name of the 
English version of Wagner's " FLIE- 

Fodor (Joseph) composed nine violin 
concertos, other violin pieces, and cham- 
ber music; played violin. B. 1752, 
Venloo; d. Oct. 3, 1828, St. Petersburg. 
The pianists and composers Charles 
and Anton were his brothers. 

Fodor-Mainvielle (Josephine) 
sang sop. in opera; debut 1814, at 
the Paris Op6ra Comique; retired 
1833. B. 1793, Paris. Enrichetta 
sang at Konigstadt Theatre, Bpilin, 
1846-49 ; daugliter of JOSEPHINE. 

Foggia (Francesco) composed 
church music for from two to nine 
voices, the last of Italian polyphonic 
writing in the style of Palestrina; 
court musician in Cologne, Munich, 
and Vienna, and chapelmaster at 
churches in Rome. B. 1604, Rome; d. 
Jan. 8, 16^8. His son Antonio suc- 
ceeded him as chapelmaster at Santa 
Maria Maggiore, Rome. 

Foglietto. It. The leader's or 
first violin's part, containing cues, and 
therefore available for the conductor 
if the full score is wanting. 

Fois. Fr. Time; Deuxieme, sec- 
ond time; Derniere, last time; Prem- 
iere, first time. 

Foil (Signor) was the stage name 
adopted by Allan James Foley, who 
sang bass with distinction in opera 
find concert. B. Cahir, Tipperary. Ire- 
land, Aug. 7. 1835; d. Southport, Eng., 
Oct. 20, 1899. 

Folia. Spanish dance resembling 
the fandango, sometimes like the cha- 
conne and passacaille, wrilLen on a 
•rroiind bass. 




Foliated. Melody to which orna- 
moiitiition has been added. 

Folk-Song as well as Folk-Dance 
is that music of racial or national 
character which has developed among 
various peoples and has become tradi- 
tional. The study and preservation of 
Folk Music is an important function 
of the Folk Lore Societies which have 
grown up in America and in other civ- 
ilized countries. 

Folk Song Society was founded in 
London, Juue Iti, lb!)8, for the pres- 
ervation and collection of folk songs, 
and in the first six years of its exist- 
ence had issued five publications. The 
lirst president was the late Lord Iler- 
schel, who was succeeded by Lord 

Fondamentale. Fr. Fundamental. 

Fonds d'Orgue. Fr. Foundation 
stops of the organ. 

Foot. Metrical measure; drone, 
bass; chorus of a song; the portion 
of an organ pipe below its mouth. 

Foote (Artliur) composed the can- 
tatas " The Wreck of the Hesperus," 
"The Farewell of Hiawatha," "The 
Skeleton in Armor," the symphonic 
poem " Francesca di Rimini," the over- 
ture " In the Mountains," a serenade 
for strings; suites in D minoi and E 
major; played organ and taught in 
Boston, Mass.; pupil of B. J. Lang 
and of J. K. Paine, Harvard; A.M. 
Harvard, 1875. B. Mar. 5, 1853, 
Salem, Mass.; add. Boston. 

Forbes (Henry) played piano, 
organ ; conducted Societa Armonica, 
London. B. 1804, London; d. Nov. 24, 
1859. George composed the opera 
"The Fairy Oak," Drury Lane, Lon- 
don, 1845, the oratorio " Ruth," songs 
and psalm tunes; gave concerts with 
his brother HENRY. B. 1813, Lon- 
don; d. IS83. 

Ford (Ernest) composed services in 
use at St. Paul's and Westminster 
Abbey, London; the ballets "La Fro- 
lique," " Brighton Pier," " Faust," 
" La Danse," and the operettas 
" Daniel O'Rourke," 1884, " Mr. Jeri- 
cho," " Jane Annie," the cantata " Eve 
of the Festa " ; conducted Royal Ama- 
teur Orchestral Society; pupil Royal 
Academy of Music, London; first im- 

portant work was a " Domine Deus " 
for tlie 25(Jth anniversary celebration 
of Harvard University, on which occa- 
sion he visited America. B. Feb. 17, 
1858, Warminster, Wilts, Eng. ; add. 

Ford (Thomas) composed the four- 
part songs " Since first 1 saw your 
face " and " There is a ladie sweet 
and kind," included in his publication 
" Musicke of Sundrie Kinder," Loudon, 
1GU7 ; English court musician. B. 
about 1580; d. Nov. 17, 1048. 

Forkel (Johann Nicolaus) wrote 
the first life of J. S. Bach, Eng. trans., 
London, 1820, many critical, theo- 
retical, and historical books on music; 
composed the oratorios " Hislias," 
17S9; "Die Hirten bei der Krippe," 
four cantatas for chorus and orches- 
tra. B. Feb. 22, 1749, near Coburg; 
d. Gottingen, Mar. 17, 1818. 

Forlana. It. Lively Venetian 
dance in 0-8 time. 

Form is a term which may be prop- 
erly restricted to the general prin- 
ciples governing the construction of 
Absolute or Pure music, of which the 
highest type is the Sonata. The Con- 
certo, the Symphony, the Overture, the 
String Quartet and Trio, treated under 
separate heads, are all varieties of the 
Sonata. W'here music is wedded to 
words whether in song, opera, or ora- 
torio, it must lend itself to the char- 
acter of the words, since its primary 
purpose is to add force and expression 
to whatever thought, sentiment, or 
emotion the words convey. In pro- 
gramme music the composer must be 
equally unfettered by form, since it is 
his purpose to portray a character, an 
episode, or tell a story, translating 
the ideas conveyed by words into tones. 
Absolute music speaks the higher and 
imiversal language of the emotions 
which is not dependent for expression 
upon words ; which cannot, indeed, be 
so well expressed in words. That sense 
of perspective and proportion which ia 
looked for in the work of the painter, 
the sculptor, the architect, the poet, 
must be gratified in pure music also. 
In none of the arts can it be attained 
by rule. In none of them is it capable 
of exact definition. In the course of 




centuries certain principles have de- 
veloped, however, by which symmetry 
and proportion in the sonata form 
may be sensed. When instrumental 
music began to develop apart from its 
function as accompaniment to the 
voice, the first expression of form 
was found in the Suites for orchestra 
or solo instruments. These were col- 
lections of dances so grouped as to 
afford agreeable contrast in rhythm, 
tempo, and key, and variety in melody, 
Tlie Sonata was evolved from the 
Suite, and C. P. E. Bach was among 
the first to compose sonatas in the 
three movements which still distin- 
guished it. Joseph Haydn, called the 
Father of the Symphony, confesses his 
obligations to Bach, and he, with 
Mozart, gave the sonata a still more 
definite form. Beethoven enlarged 
upon and improved the form of the 
sonata, which remains unchanged to- 
day, and is likely to remain unchanged 
until the advent of another great 
master. In modern usage the term 
symphony is restricted to the orches- 
tral sonata, overture to a more con- 
densed orchestral composition upon 
sonata lines ; concerto to compositions 
for one or more instruments with or- 
chestra, designed to display both the 
resources of the instruments and the 
skill of the performers, while the 
word sonata itself is reserved for com- 
positions for one or two instruments. 
Bearing in mind these distinctions, it 
will suffice to know the general plan of 
the sonata and the points of difference 
between it and the several members of 
its family above enumerated. The 
sonata is usually in three movements. 
The first, which may or may not have 
a short introduction in slow time, is 
usually an allegro. The second move- 
ment may range from andante to 
adagio, while the third usually returns 
to allegro. In the early sonata form 
employed by Haydn and Mozart tlie 
first movement begins with the an- 
nouncement of a theme or melody, the 
end of which is marked by a cadence; 
then comes the second theme often in 
the dominant key, and of course con- 
trasted in melody; then another ca- 
dence, followed by the development or 

working out, and finally a return of 
both themes, the second modulated to 
the key in which the movement opens, 
concluding with a brief coda. The 
second movement is constructed in the 
same manner, usually in a related key, 
while the third movement is in RONDO 
form, and returns to the key of the 
first movement. Adhesion to closely 
related keys and a sharply defined 
cadence to close each section were char- 
acteristics of the parly sonatas. Bee- 
thoven found the general sense of key 
tonality more highly specialized when 
he reached maturit3^ and he was there- 
fore able to indulge in a wider range 
of keys, and to eliminate the frequency 
of the cadences. He likewise intro- 
duced additional themes, and expanded 
the coda, often employing fresli mate- 
rial, until it became an important 
feature of the composition. 

Formes (Karl Johann) sang bass 
in opera, debut Cologne, Jan. 6, 184:2, 
and in the principal cities of Europe 
and America. B. Aug. 7, 1810, Mlil- 
heim on the Rhine; d. Dec. 15, 1889, 
San Francisco. Theodore sang ten., 
Berlin Opera, 1851-66; toured Amer- 
ica with his brother KARL JOHANN. 
B. June 24, 1826, Mulheim; d. Oct. 
15, 1874, near Bonn. 

Fornasari (Luciano) sang bass 
in opera at Milan, Havana, Mexico 
City, New York, and London, 1828 
to 1846. 

Fornia (Rita P. Newman) sang 
coloratura sop. at Metropolitan Opera 
House, New York, and Covent Gar- 
den, London; debut, 1901, Hamburger 
Stadt Theatre; pupil of Jean de 
Reszke and of Frau Nicklass Kemp- 
ner. B. Julv 17, 1879, San Francisco, 
Cal.; add. ISTew York. 

Forster & Andrews built organs 
in England. The firm established its 
factory at Hull, 184.3. 

Forster (Emanuel Aloys) com- 
posed 48 violin quartets, preludes and 
fugues for organ, piano sonatas; 
taught and Avrote on theory and com- 
position; highly esteemed by Beetho- 
ven. B. Jan. 26, 1748, Niederstein, 
Glatz, Silesia ; d. Vienna, Nov. 12, 

Forster (Georg) edited five books 




of German secular song^, Nureniberf,', 
1539-50, including Isaac's " Insbivu-k, 
ich muss dich lassen," afterwards em- 
ployed as a chorale and harmonized 
by Bach in his "St. Matthew Passion" 
to the words beginning *' Wer hat dich 
so geschlagen," and in all .'J80 numbers, 
of whicli he composed 37 ; edited two 
books of sacred music, including selec- 
tions from Josquin and Okeghem. B. 
1514, Aniberg; d. 1568, Nuremberg. 

Forster (William) made violins of 
excellent quality; published music in 
London from 1781 to 1787, including 
many of Haydn's works; learned his 
craft from his father, William, and 
grandfather, John, who made both vio- 
lins and spinning wheels at Brampton. 
B. May 4, 1739, Brampton; d. Dec. 
14, 1808, London. William, Jr., 
made violins on the Stainer and 
Amati models; became music seller 
in London to the Prince of Wales 
and Duke of Cumberland, hence called 
"Royal" Forster. B. 1704; son of 
WILLIAM; d. 1824. William made 
violins but soon engaged in other busi- 
ness. B. 1788 ; son of WILLIAJM, JR. ; 
d. 1824. Simon Andrew wrote "The 
History of the Violin and other In- 
struments played with the Bow," Lon- 
don, 1864; made violins and continued 
the business of his father, WILLIAINI, 
JR. B. 1801 ; d. Feb. 2, 1870, London. 

Forsyth Bros, sold pianos in Man- 
chester, Eng., and engraved music. 
The business was founded by Henry 
and James Forsyth, 1857, and became 
a coi-poration under the presidency of 
James Forsyth, 1901. Henry Forsyth 
died 1885. 

Forte. It. "Loud"; indicated in 
NOTATION by abbreviation f., in a 
lesser degree by mf. Mezzoforte, and in 
the comparative and superlative de- 
grees by ff. and fff. which indicate 
Fortissimo and Fortississimo. 

Fortemente. It. Loudly, vigor- 

Forte-Piano. It. " Loud-soft." 
The sudden transition from loud to 
soft is indicated in NOTATION by the 
ablireviation fp. 

Forte Possibile. It. As loud as 

Eorti (Anton) sang bar. in opera 

and concert, debut Prosburg, 1807; 
created Lysiart in " Euryanthe," 1823. 
B. June 8, 1790, Vienna; d. July IG, 
1859, Vioima. 

Fortsetzung. Oer. Continuation 
or development of an idea. 

Forza, con. It. With force or 

Forza del Destine. Giuseppe 
Verdi's four-act opera to book by 
Piave was first performed Nov. 11, 
1802, at St. Petersburg. 

Forzando. It. " Forcing." Accent 
or emphasis indicated in NOTATION 
by sign or the abbreviations fz. or sf. 

Forzato. It. FORZANDO. 

Foster (Muriel) sang con. in con- 
cert with success in Europe and Amer- 
ica; debut in oratorio, Bradford Festi- 
val, Eng., Nov. 6, 1896; pupil Royal 
College of Music. B. Nov. 22, 1877; 
add. London. Hilda sang in concert 
with her twin sister MURIEL, but 
retired on her marriage to F. C. Bram- 
well, 1900. 

Foster (Myles Birket) composed 
" Isle of Arran," symphony in F sharp 
minor, 40 anthems, Communion Ser- 
vice in B flat, Evening SerA'ice in C 
for male voices. Festival Service in A, 
the cantatas "The Seven Last Words" 
and "Seed Time and Harvest"; the 
children's cantatas "Cinderella," 
"Lampblack," "Beauty and the 
Beast," "The Angel of the Bells"; 
wrote " Anthems and Anthem Com- 
posers," Novello, 1901; pupil Royal 
Academy of Music; played organ. B. 
Nov. 29, 1851, London, son of Birket 
Foster; add. London. 

Foster (Stephen Collins) composed 
175 songs, for most of which he wrote 
the words, including "Old Black Joe," 
"Swanee River," or "Old Folks at 
Home," "My Old Kentucky Home," 
" Old Uncle Ned," " 0, Susanna," " The 
Louisiana Belle," "Old Dog Trav," 
" ]\Iassa 's in de Cold, Cold GrouTid," 
"Gentle Annie," "Willie We Have 
Missed You," " I would not Die in 
Springtime," " Come where my love 
lies dreaming," " i see her still in my 
dreams," " Open tliv lattice. Love," 
" Laura Lee," and " Ellen Bayne," the 
last probably the original of the tune 
" John Brown's Body." Many songs 





of Foster have been harmonized aa 
part songs, and are known the world 
over. There is no foundation for the 
assumption that he utilized the melo- 
dies of the negro slaves, for he came 
little in contact with that class, the 
error having arisen from the fact that 
most of his songs were first made 
known and were written for the " NE- 
GRO MINSTRELS," who furnished 
a highly popular form of entertain- 
ment in his day. In music Foster was 
largely self taught, but he became 
familiar with the music of Beethoven, 
]\Iozart, and Weber in boyhood, had 
learned to play the flageolet at seven, 
and altliough debarred by his environ- 
ment from composing in the larger 
forms, his power of invention was re- 
markable, his taste excellent. A 
thorough Bohemian in temperament, 
he possessed a talent for painting as 
well as for music, and taught himself 
German and French, but was content 
to take the profits on his songs with- 
out striving for distinction along more 
pretentious lines. He even permitted 
the first edition of " Swanee River " 
to be published as the work of Christy, 
the minstrel. Foster was born July 
4, 1826, of Irish parentage, near Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. At 14 he entered the 
Academy at Athens, Pa., and while 
a student there published a waltz for 
four fiutes, and in 1842 his first song, 
" Open thy lattice, Love." His edu- 
cation was completed at JefTerson Col- 
lege, and thereafter he made his home 
in Pittsburgh. While in New York 
he was attacked with a malarial fever, 
and died Jan. 13, 1864. 

Fougt (Henry) published music 
in London ; ^\•as tlie pioneer in cheap 
publications, selling sheet music at a 
penny per page, while the average 
price of other publishers was sixpence. 
Probably a native of Ireland; estab- 
lished his business in 1767. 

Foundling Hospital is the Lon- 
don charity for which George Frederick 
Handel composed the anthem "Blessed 
are they that consider the poor." He 
also pave concerts that brought nearly 
$40,000 to the management; presented 
a fine organ built by Dr. Morse, and 
bequeathed to it a full part score of 

the " Messiah," which has been found 
useful in correcting later editions. 

Fourchette Tonique. Fr. Tuning 

Fourneaux (Napoleon) invented 
improvements for reed instruments, 
the aecordeon and the organ. B. 
Lizard, Ardennes, May 21, 1808; d. 
July 19, 1846, Aubantcm, Aisne. 

Fournier (Pierre Simon) engraved 
music and improved type employed in 
publishing music, substituting round 
for the old lozenge-shaped notes; wrote 
on the music publishing trade in 
France. B. Sept. 15, 1712, Paris; d. 
Oct. 8, 1768. 

Fourniture. Fr. Organ mixture 

Fourth. Interval of four notes; 
the Greek Diatessaron. 

Fra Diavolo. Daniel F. E. Auber'a 
three-act op^ra comique to book by 
Scribe was first performed Jan. 28, 
1830, at the Paris Op4ra Comique. It 
not only established the composer aa 
a favourite with music lovers in the 
French capital, but proved equally 
popular when sung elsewhere in Ital- 
ian and English. Fra Diavolo, a ban- 
dit, has failed in an attempt to rob 
Loi-d and Lady Allcash of their jewels, 
but, disguised as a marquis, he makes 
an impression upon the susceptible 
Lady Allcash, and learns the trick by 
which their property was saved. The 
party stops at the inn of Terracina, 
where Fra Diavolo plans another at- 
tempt at robbery. Meantime the car- 
bineers are endeavouring to capture 
the famous bandit, and Zerlina, the 
innkeeper's daughter, describes him in 
a popular song which celebrates his 
misdeeds, to the great delight of the 
marquis. Zerlina is to marry Lorenzo, 
the soldier who has been ordered to 
capture Fra Diavolo. Fra Diavolo 
conceals himself with two of his com- 
rades, Beppo and Giacomo, in her 
room, in order that when all are asleep 
they may gain access to the Allcash 
jewels. Returning carbineers arouse 
the guests before the bandits can carry 
out their plans, and when the com- 
pany hears a sudden noise in the 
closet, Fra Diavolo steps out, and ex- 
plains that he has been given a rendez* 




vous by Zcrlina. Ho thus cscapos sus- 
picion as a thief, although challenged 
to a duel by Lorenzo. One of the 
bandits is captured, however, and he 
betrays Fra Diavolo. The following 
day the famous bandit is killed while 
trying to escape from the soldiers, who 
have ambushed him, but not before he 
has cleared Zerlina's character. The 
principal musical numbers are: Act 1: 
" I don't object," Lord and Lady All- 
cash ; " On yonder Rock reclining," 
Zerlina; "The Gondolier, fond Pas- 
sion's Slave," Fra Diavolo; Act. II: 
" Let us, 1 pray, good wife, to rest," 
Lord and Lady Allcash ; " Young 
Agnes," Fra Diavolo; " 'T is To- 
morrow," Zerlina ; " O Holy Vir- 
gin," Zerlina; Act III: "Proudly 
and Wide my Standard flies," Fra 
Diavolo ; " Then since Life glides 
so fast away," Fra Diavolo ; " O Holy 
Virgin! bright and fair," chorus of 

Framery (Nicholas Etienne) 
wrote both words and music of the 
comic opera " La Sorciere par hazard," 
1783; adapted libretti; made trans- 
lations and wrote on music; edited 
" Le Journal de Musique," 1771-78; 
aided in the preparation of several dic- 
tionaries. B. Mar. 25, 1745; d. Nov. 
26, IS 10, Paris. 

Franc (Guillaume) edited an im- 
portant Psalter for the Calvinists of 
Lausanne, but not the famous book 
of 35 psalms published by Calvin's 
order in Geneva, 1542, long attributed 
to him, more recently to BOURGEOIS. 
In 1541 he settled in Geneva, sang at 
St. Peter's and was master of the chil- 
dren, but became a member of the 
choir at Lausanne, 1545. B. Rouen; 
d. Lausanne, 1570. 

Fran^aise. Fr. Country dance in 
triple time. 

Francesca de Rimini. Ambroise 
Tliomas's four-act opera to book by 
Barbier & Carre was first performed 
April 14, 1882, at the Grand Ojiera, 
Paris. Hermann Goetz's unfiiiislied 
opera of the same title, completed from 
the coniTioser's sketches by Ernest 
Frank, was first performed Sept. 30, 
1877, at Mannheim. Peter Ilyitch 
Tschaikowsky's sjTnplionic poem. Op. 

32, was written and first performed 
in 1870. 

Francesina, La (Elizabeth Du- 
parc) sang sop., 1730-45, in opera and 
oratorio under Handel's direction in 

Franchetti (Alberto) composed the 
operas "Asrael," Brescia, 1888; "Cria- 
toforo Colombo," Genoa, 1892; " Fior 
dAlpe," Milan, 1894; " Sig-nor di 
Pourceaugnac," Milan, 1897; " Ger- 
mania," Milan, 1902; a symphony in 
E minor. B. Sept. 18, 1860, Turin; 
add. Turin. 

Franchezza. It. Freedom, confi- 

Franchise. Fr. Freedom, confi- 

Franchomme (Auguste Joseph) 
composed adagios for 'cello which are 
highly esteemed, one concerto, pot- 
pourris, and variations, and (with 
Chopin ) a duo on " Robert le Diable " ; 
was the most famous 'cellist of his 
day; founded quartet concerts with 
Alard and Halle; pupil and after 
wards teacher at the Paris Conserva- 
toire. B. April 10, 1808, Lille; d. 
Jan. 22, 1884, Paris. 

Franciscello played 'cello in Rome 
to Scarlatti's harpsichord accompani- 
ment, at Naples, Vienna, and Genoa, 
ISth century. 

Franck (Cesar) composed " Les 
Beatitudes," oratorio; "Rebecca," 
Biblical idyl ; " Psyche," SATnphonic 
poem ; " Redemption," church music ; 
chamber music, and operas; ranked 
as the greatest of modern French 
teachers ; and was probably the great- 
est of church organists and composers 
since the time of Bach. Franck's 
education was begun in the Conserva- 
toire at Liege, but at 15 he was ad- 
mitted to the Paris Conservatoire, 
whore he studied counterpoint and 
fugue under Leborne and piano under 
Zimmerman and obtained a first prize 
in 1838 by transposing a passage at 
sight to a third below. Forbidden by 
his father to compete for the Pri.x de 
Rome, Franck left Paris, 1842, and 
taught for two years in Belgium, re- 
turning to tlie French capital 1844. 
In 1848 he became organist at Ste. 
Clotilda, a post which he filled with 




distinction for 32 years. In 1872 he 
became professor of organ at the Con- 
servatoire. Among his pupils were 
Vincent d'Indy, Henri Duparc, Ernest 
Chausson, Arthur Coquard, Samuel 
Rousseau, G. Piern6, Augusta Holmes, 
Charles Bordes, Guy Ropartz, and 
Camille Benoit. Franck's entire life 
was characterized by prodigious activ- 
ity. During many years he was cap- 
able of teaching ten hours daily with- 
out neglecting composition, and at all 
times he exerted a profound influence 
over the younger musicians, by whom 
lie was called " Angelic Doctor " and 
" Pater seraphicu ." Important works 
other than those mentioned above are : 
the operas " Le Valet de Ferme," 
1848; "Hulda," " Ghis&le," a "Pre- 
lude, Chorale, and Fugue," 1884; 
"Prelude et Finale," 1889; both for 
piano; tlie songs "Mariage des Roses," 
" Les Cloches du Soir," " La Proces- 
sion"; the part songs for female 
voices, " La Vierge a la Creche," 
"L'Ange Gardien," "Les Danses de 
Lormont," " Soleil," " Premier Sourire 
de Mai " ; " Le Chasseur Maudit," 
sjTiiphonic poem for orchestra, 1SS4; 
" Les Djinns," sj'mphonic poem for 
piano and orchestra, 1884; Variations 
Symphoniqucs for piano and orchestra, 
1885; Sonata in A for piano and 
violin, 188G; SjTuphony in D, 1889; 
Andantino for violin with piano ac- 
companiment; Mass for three solo 
voices, chorus, and orchestra; Hymne 
for four-part male choir to Racine's 
words; five pieces for harmonium; 59 
motets for harmonium ; nine Grandes 
Pieces; three offertories for soli and 
choir; four motets; Ave Maria, Veni 
Creator, for ten. and bass; Salu- 
taris, Cliants d'Eglise, in three and 
four parts with organ accompaniment; 
transcriptions from ancient composi- 
tions for organ, Sonata for piano, 
" Les Trois Exiles," national song for 
bass and bar. voices ; " Le Grade 
d'Honneur " ; three trios for piano and 
strings, F sharp, B flat, B minor, 
Op. 1 ; fourth trio for piano and 
strings, in B major, Op. 2; Eclogue 
for piano. Op. .3 ; first duet on " God 
Save the King," for piano. Op. 4; 
first Caprice for piano. Op. 5; An- 

dantino Quietoso for piano and violin, 
Op. 6 ; " Souvenir d'Aix la Chapelle," 
tor piano. Op. 7; piano transcriptions 
of four songs by Schubert, Op. 8; 
ballad for piano. Op. 9 ; solo for piano 
with quintet accompaniment, Op. 10; 
first grand fantasie for piano on Da- 
layrac's " Gulistan," Op. 11; second 
grand fantaisie on the same. Op. 12; 
fantaisie for piano. Op. 13; duet for 
piano and violin on Dalayrac's " Guli- 
stan," Op. 14; fantaisie for piano on 
two Polish airs. Op. 15 ; Fantaisie for 
organ, Op. 16; Grande Piece Sym- 
phonique for organ, Op. 17; Prelude, 
Fugue, and Variations for organ, Op. 
18; Pastorale for organ. Op. 19; 
" Pri&re " for organ. Op. 20 ; Finale 
for organ, Op. 21; Quasi Marcia for 
harmonium, Op. 22. B. Liege, Dec. 10, 
1822; d. Nov. 8, 1890, Paris. 

Franck (Melchior) composed "Jeru- 
salem, du hochegebaute Stadt," " Wenn 
ich in Todesnothen bin," and other 
chorales ; " Jesu, wie ist deine Ges- 
talt " and " Der Brautigam wird bald 
rufen" and other hymns; improved 
the accompaniments of songs; chapel- 
master to the Duke of Coburg. B. 
1573, Zittau; d. June 1, 1639, Coburg. 
Franco (Magister) wrote "Ars 
Cantus Mensurabilis," which is be- 
lieved to have been the first treatise 
on " Measured Music," and may have 
invented the Longa, Duplex Longa, 
Brevis, and Semibrevis, which were 
the four primary characters employed 
in old NOTATION. There is much 
confusion regarding Franco's identity, 
and it is possible that there may have 
been three Magister Francos in the 
11th and 12th centuries, as there are 
records of Franco de Colonia, Franco 
Leodiensis, Franco Parisiensis, Franco 
of Cologne, and Franco of Liege. 

Francoeur (Frangois) composed 
sonatas, operas, and ballets; surin- 
tendant de la musique du roi at Paris, 
1700-78. B. Sept. 28, 1698, Paris; d. 
Aug. 6, 1787. Louis Joseph, wrote on 
instrumentation; composed operas; 
conducted and from 1792 managed the 
Paris Op<5ra. B. Oct. 8, 1738, Paris; 
nephew of FRANCOIS; d. Paris, Man 
10, 1S04. 
Frank (Ernst) composed the operas 




"Adam de la Halle," Carlsruhe, 1880; 
"Hero," Berlin, 1884; " Der Sturm," 
modelled on Shakespeare's " Tempest," 
Hanover, 1887; directed the choru3 
at the Vienna Imperial Opera; cliapel- 
master at Hanover in succession to 
von Bulow. B. Feb. 7, 1847, Munich; 
d. Aug. 17, 1889, near Vienna. 

Franklin (Benjamin) found time 
amidst other activities to invent the 
HARMONICA or ilusical Glasses. B. 
170G, Boston, Mass.; d. 1790, Phila- 

Franko (Nahan) played violin, 
piano, and conducted ; debut at eight 
with Patti, with whom he toured the 
world; then studied in Berlin with 
Rappoldi, De Ahna, and Wilhelmj, 
later with Joachim; resumed concert 
playing; joined Metropolitan Orches- 
tra, New York, under Dr. Damrosch, 
1883, became concertmeister, and 
under H. von Conried, ballet conduc- 
tor, and in 1905 full conductor with 
Vigna and Hertz, the only American- 
born musician to hold such a post ; 
retired 1907, and organized his own 
orchestra, giving concerts in Central 
Park in the siimmer of 1908 and un- 
der private auspices; was concert- 
meister for Duss, Warren, and other 
concerts of large proportions. B. New 
Orleans, July 23, 1861; add. New 
York. Sam played violin and gave 
notable chamber concerts of old music 
in New York ; taught ; debut with liis 
brother NAHAN and pupil of the 
same masters, also of Vieuxtemps, 
Paris; touring with Patti, equally 
proficient as pianist. B. New Orleans, 
Jan. 20, 1857 ; add. New York. 

Franz (Karl) played French horn 
and Baryton with sucli skill that 
Haydn composed for him a cantata 
for Baryton and voice (on the death 
of Frederick the Great), which Franz 
gave in concert tours, singing and 
playing Baryton ; became court musi- 
cian at Munich, 1787. B. Langen- 
bielau, Silesia, 1738; d. 1802, Munich. 

Franz (Robert) composed 257 
songs with piano accompaniment, 
which are esteemed the best lieder 
of modem times aside from those of 
Schubert and Schumann, a Kyrie for 
four-part chorus and solo voices k 

capella; an eight-part setting of 
Psalm cxvii for double chorus; liturgy 
for the Evangelical Church, chorales, 
part songs, and for male chorus; 
made arrangements of the works of 
Bach and Handel, transcribing their 
figured bass accompaniments for mod- 
ern orchestra; wrote several books on 
music. Son of Cristoph Franz Knauth, 
a well-to-do citizen of Halle, who 
opposed his early ambition to adopt 
music as a profession; young Franz, 
as he preferred to be known, became a 
pnpil of Scliiiei(UM- at Dessau in 18.'{5. 
Two years later he returned to Halle, 
but for six years was unable to obtain 
emplojTnent, and occupied himself in 
studying the works of Bach, Beetho- 
ven, and Schubert. His first set of 
songs, published in 1843, aroused the 
admiration of Schumann, and in course 
of time Franz was made organist at 
the Ulrichskirche, conductor of the 
" Singakademie," finally royal music 
director, and doctor of music in re- 
turn for lectures before the students 
at Halle University. Deafness and 
failing health compelled him to retire 
from active work in 1SG8, and he suf- 
fered from poverty until four years 
later, when Joachim, Liszt, and Helene 
Magnus gave a series of concerts for 
his benefit which netted $25,000. B. 
June 28, 1815, Halle; d. Oct. 24, 1892, 
Halle. See Biography, Dr. W. Walde- 
man, Leipsic, 1893; sketches by Saran, 
Ambros, and Liszt. 

Franzl (Ferdinand) composed 
nine concertos and four concertinos 
for violin, overtures, a symphony, 
songs, and operas; appeared as violin 
virtuoso at Mannheim at seven; con- 
ducted at Munich Opera, 1806. B. 
Schwetzingen, Palatinate, May 24, 
1770; d. 1833, Mannheim. 

Franzton. Ger. French pitch. 

Frasi. It. Phrases. 

Frasi (Giulia) sang sop. in opera 
and oratorio under Handel in London, 

Freddaraente. It- With coldness, 

Frederick the Great composed an 
overture for " Galatea ed Acide," 
march for Lessing's " Minna von 
Barnlielm," and the " Hohenfriedberg 




Marcli," parts of the opera " II Re 
pastore," aria for " II trionfo della 
fedelta," aria for Graun's " Corio- 
lano " ( for which he wrote the lib- 
retto), many concertos, and other 
pieces for flute; played flute and 
clavier; instituted tri-weekly singing 
lessons in the Prussian schools; es- 
tablished a court band in Berlin, and 
opened a new opera house in that city, 
Dec. 7, 1742, Frederick received his 
first lessons from Gottlob Hayn, Cathe- 
dral organist, and began to study flute, 
1728, with Quantz, and retained that 
gifted musician in his employ during 
life. 120 compositions of Frederick's 
were edited by Spitta and published 
by Breitkopf & Hiirtel, 1889. See 
Spitta's essay on this publication. B. 
Jan. 24, 1712, Berlin; succeeded his 
father as King of Prussia, 1740; d. 
Aug. 17, 1786, Sans-Souci, Potsdam. 

Freddezsa, con. It. With cold- 
ness, with iiidiflereuce. 

Fredon. Fr. Vocal ornaments; 
quaver or tremolo ; humming a tune. 

Free Chant. Simple cliant for Ang- 
lican Psahus or Canticles with two- 
chord phrases to each hemistich of tiie 

Free Fugue. One in wliich tlie 
answer ami treatment are not in strict 
accordance with the rules; independent 
melodies added to a canon or fugue to 
strengthen the harmony. 

Free Reed. One Avhich does not 
strike the sides of its aperture. 

Free Style is that in which the 
rules of counterpoint are not strictly 

Frege (Livia Gerhard) sang sop. 
in opera and concert until her mar- 
riage with Dr. Frege, of Leipsic, and 
thereafter only in concert or in her 
own home, where she had a singing 
society of 50 voices, led by David and 
conducted by Lange, at which the songs 
of her friend Mendelssohn were usually 
tried before being given to the public; 
pupil of Pohlenz. B. Gera, June 13, 
1818; d. Leipsic, Sept. 22, 1S91. 

Fregiatura. It. Ornament or 

Freie Schreibart. Ger. " Free 
writincr": composition in free style. 

Freischutz, Carl Maria von Weber's 

three-act opera to book by Kind was 
first performed June 18, 1821, at Ber- 
lin, later in Italian, French, and Eng- 
lish, and with new libretti. Max, 
a skilful marksman, loves Agathe, 
daughter of Kuno, chief huntsman to 
Prince Ottakar of Bohemia, and has 
been promised his prospective father- 
in-law's post if he can prove his worth 
at a hunting match, since Kuno is 
about to retire, Caspar, who also loves 
Agathe, but who has sold himself to 
the demon Zamiel, contrives a plot by 
which Max is to be delivered to the 
evil spirit as a substitute for himself. 
With Zamiel's aid he causes Max's 
bullets to go astray during a pre- 
liminary trial of skill, and then 
prompts the despondent marksman to 
repeat the words '* In Zamiel's name " 
when he gets another shot. Max does 
so, and brings down an eagle. After 
this Caspar finds it easy to persuade 
Max that by Zamiel's aid he can get 
magic bullets which will always go 
straight to the mark, and to appoint 
a meeting in the Wolf's Glen, where 
Zamiel's aid can be evoked. The sec- 
ond act discloses Kuno's home, Agathe 
has a foreboding of evil which is con- 
firmed by the despondency of Max, 
but a hermit has given her a wreath 
of magic roses which she hopes will 
protect her. The scene shifts to the 
Wolfs Glen, where Max and Caspar 
await the coming of Zamiel, Spectres 
and grotesque beasts, even the ghost 
of his mother fail to move Max from 
his purpose, and when Zamiel appears 
seven bullets are cast. Six are to be 
used by Max, but the seventh is to be 
directed at Zamiel's pleasure. In the 
third act we see Agathe preparing for 
her wedding. She tells Aennchen 
about a dream in wliich she had as- 
sumed the form of a dove, and had 
been struck down by one of Max's 
bullets, but becomes less melancholy 
as she dons the wreath of roses given 
her by the hermit. Then the scene 
again shifts to the field in which the 
marksmen are exhibiting their skill 
before Prince Ottakar and his court. 
Six times have Max's bullets gone 
straight to the mark, Tlie seventh 
bullet is fired, by command of the 




Prince, at a dove. Agatlie cries: "I 
am the dove," and falls to the ground. 
Then Max confesses that he has been 
in league with Zaniiel, at which Otla- 
kar orders him into exile. But it 
appears that the wreath of roses has 
saved AgatJie. She is only stunned, 
and tlie bullet directed by Zainiol has 
slain Caspar. TJien the hermit inter- 
cedes for the unfortunate lover, and 
it is arranged that, after a year of 
penance, Max is to become cliief hunts- 
man and marry Agathe. The overture 
has long been a favourite in the con- 
cert room. The principal musical 
numbers are: Act I: " O diese Sonne, 
furchtbar steigt sie mir empor," Max, 
Kuno, Caspar, and chorus ; " Dureh 
die VVillder," Max; " Hier im ird' 
schen Jammerthal," Caspar; " Tri- 
imiph! die Rache, die Rache gelingt "; 
Act II: " Schehn! halt fest," Agathe; 
" Kommt ein schlanker Bursch ge- 
gaiigeii," Aeniichen ; " Leise, leise, 
froiiiiiie Weise," Agathe ; "Wie? was? 
Entsetzen," Max, Aennchen, Agathe ; 
Incantation Music at Wolf's Glen ; Act 
III : " Und ob die Wolke sie verluille," 
Agathe; " Einst traunite nieiner sel'gen 
Base," Aennchen; " Wir winden dir 
den Jungfern-Kranz," Bridal Chorus ; 
" Was gleicht Avohl auf Erden dem 
Jfigervergniigen," Hunting Ciiorus. 
The original cast was : Ottakar, 
Rubinstein, b.av. ; Kuno, Waner, bass ; 
Cas|)ar, Heinrich Blume, bass ; Max, 
Karl Stiinier, ten.; Hermit, Gern, bass; 
Killian, Wiedemann, ten. ; Agathe, 
Kaioline Seidler, sop. ; Aennchen, Jo- 
hanna Eunike, sop. 

Fremstad (Anna Olivia) made her 
operatic debut in 1895 as Azucena in 
"Trovatore"; sang in Bayreuth Festi- 
val, 1896; at the Royal Opera, Vienna, 
as Brangane in " Tristan and Isolde," 
1897, and was engaged for three years, 
from 1900, at the Munich Opera, where 
she w^as very popular as Carmen. Dur- 
ing this engagement she appeared two 
seasons at Covent Garden, London, 
where she first sang the role of Venus, 
and in 1903 joined the artists at the 
Metropolitan Opera House. New York, 
where she was heard in tlipse rAles, 
and likewise as Fricka, Briinhihle, 
Kundry, Selika, Santuzza, Isolde, and 

as Salome in the Strauss opera of 
that name. Brought to America at 
the age of 12 by her parents, who 
settled at St. Peter, Minn., Madame 
Fremstad, who had played piano in 
public at nine soon organized a music 
class, but in 1890 settled in New York 
and became soloist at St. Patrick's 
Cathedral. In 1893 she began an 18 
month sojourn in Berlin as a pupil of 
Lilli Lehmann. She was favourably 
received in Paris as Salome and like- 
wise in the name part of Bruneau's 
opera " Veronique." The French gi5v- 
ernment made her an oflicer of tlie 
Academy, and in 1907 olTicer of Public 
Instruction. B. Stockholm, Sweden; 
m. Edson Webster Sutphen, April 15, 
1900; add. New York. 

French Horn. Popular name of 
the orchestral HORN, so called from 
its having been first employed in 
France as a hunting horn. 
French Sixth. Altered SIXTH. 
French Violin Clef. G clef placed 
on the first line of the stave. 

Frescobaldi (Girolamo) became the 
most celebrated of 17th century organ- 
ists, attracting an audience of 30,000 
at his first performance in St. Peter's, 
Rome, where he played from 1008 to 
1G43, except for five years spent with 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany; composed 
madrigals, four-part fantasies; 12 
toccatas, and other organ music; 
taught Froberger; pupil of Luzzachi. 
B. Sept. 9, 1583, Ferrara; d. Mar. 2, 
1044. Rome. 

Frets are small transverse ridges 
of wood or ivory wliieh mark the 
chromatic division of the fingerboard 
of guitars and lutes, forming a tem- 
porary nut when strings are brought 
in contact with them by pressure of 
the fingers. Frets are conunon to all 
stringed instruments of oriental ori- 
gin, and were once employed for the 
viols, but abandoned owing to difficul- 
ties of temperament in extreme keys, 
and the fact that slurs are impossible 
on fretted instriunents. 

Fretta, con. It. With haste or 

Freund (John C.) wrote articles 
and criticisms in numerous American 
musical periodicals. B. Nov. '12, 1848, 




London, England ; settled in the United 
States ; add. New York. 

Friberth (Karl) wrote opera- 
libretti; composed church music; 
sang ten. at tit. Stephen's and court 
opera, Vienna ; m. Maria M. Spangler, 
with wliom he had sung in Esterliazy'« 
service under Haydn ; made Knight of 
the Golden Spur by Pius VI while 
' touring Italy. B. June 7, 1736, Wiil- 
lersdorf, Lower Austria; d. Aug. 6, 
181(), Vienna. 

Fricliot claimed to have invented 
the ophieleide. B. France, settled in 
London, 1790. 

Frick (Philip Joseph) played or- 
gan and harmonica; wrote on music, 
B. May 27, 1740, near Wurzburg; d. 
June 15, 1798. 

Frickenhaus (Fanny Evans) 
played piano and gave London cham- 
ber concerts with Joseph Ludwig, at 
which important novelties were pro- 
duced. B. June 7, 1849, Cheltenham; 
m. Augustus Frickenhaus; add. 

Friderici (Daniel) composed the 
four-part madrigal " Einstmals das 
Kind Cupido " and other secular mu- 
sic; cantor, 1617-54, at the Marien- 
kirche, Rostock, Mecklenburg. B. near 
Eisleben, about 1600. 

Friedheim (Arthur) played piano 
and conducted; debut in St. Peters- 
burg at eight, when he played Field's 
A major concerto; friend and pupil of 
Liszt; taught and played in America, 
1894; taught in Royal College of 
Music, Manchester, Eng., but re- 
signed 1904; composed the opera " Die 
Tanzerin " to his own libretto. B. 
Oct. 26, 1859, St. Petersburg; add. 

Friedlander (Max) edited vocal 
music of Schubert, Schumann, and 
Gluck; taught music University of 
Berlin; sang bar. in concert; pupil 
of Manuel Garcia and Stockhausen. 
B. Oct. 12, 1852, Brieg, Silesia; add. 

Friedlander (Thekla) sang sop. in 
concert, excelling in the songs of Schu- 
bert, Schumann, and Brahms; debut 
1873 at the Gewandhaus, Leipsic; 
jmpil of Ferdinand Hiller and Schneider, 

Frisch. Ger. Lively. 

Frit25 (Barthold) built organs, 
clavecins, and clavichords. B. Bruns- 
wick, 1697; d. July 17, 1766, Bruns- 

Froberger (Johann Jacob) held 
the post of court organist at Vienna, 
1637 to 1657; journeyed to England, 
was robbed on the way, and compelled 
by poverty to accept a place as organ 
blower at Westminster Abbey, where 
Christopher Gibbons, the organist, beat 
him for overblowing the instrument. 
By improvising at the organ on this 
occasion, he attracted the attention of 
a former pupil, who presented him to 
Charles II. Froberger was a prolific 
composer for organ and clavier, had 
been a favourite pupil of Frescobaldi, 
and was himself a gifted teacher. B. 
Halle, Saxony; son of the Cantor; d. 
May 7, 1667, at the home of his pupil 
the Duchess of Wiirtemberg, Hericourt 
near Montbelliard. 

Frohlich. Ger. Joyful, cheery. 

Frohlich (Anna) suggested to the 
Austrian poet Grillparzer the " Sere- 
nade " and " Song of Miriam," which 
Franz Schubert composed with other 
music she inspired; played piano and 
sang; pupil of Hummel, Hauss, and 
Siboni; taught vocal in Vienna Con- 
servatory. B. Sept. 19, 1793, Vienna. 
Barbara sang con.; m. Ferdinand 
Bogner, honorary flautist at the Con- 
servatory. B. Aug. 30, 1797, Vienna; 
sister of ANNA. Josephine sang in 
opera and concert with great success 
in Italy, Austria, and Scandinavia; 
court singer to King of Denmark; 
pupil of her sister ANNA and of 
Siboni. B. Dec. 12, 1803, Vienna; d. 
May 7, 1878. Katherina was the in- 
timate associate of Grillparzer, and is 
said to have been the inspiration of 
many of his songs. B. June 10, 1800; 
sister of ANNA; d. Mar. 3, 1879. 

Frosch. Ger. Lower end of a 
violin bow to which the strand of hair 
is fastened. 

Frottola. It. Ballad, either comic 
or sentimental. 

Fruytiers (Jan) wrote and com- 
posed a Dutch metrical version of the 
book of Ecclesiastes, Antwerp, 1565, 
many of the tunes being popular songs. 




F Schliissel. Gcr. F or bas3 

Fuchs (Aloys) sang bass in Vienna 
Impeiiiil chapel; wrote for musical 
journals; made valuable colleclion of 
autographs, music, books, and por- 
traits. 13. June 23, 1799, Ruasc, Sile- 
sia; d. ]Mar. 20, 1853, Vienna. 

Fuchs (Anton) sang bar. and made 
specialty of operatic stage manage- 
ment, .Munich Opera, Metropolitan 
Opera House, New York, Festspiel- 
haus, Bayreuth. B. Jan. 29, 1849, 
Municli; add. Munich. 

Fuchs (Carl) played 'cello; taught 
'cello, Royal College of J\lusic, Man- 
ciiester, Eng. B. Oflenbach, Ger., 
1865; add. Manchester. 

Fuchs (Ferdinand Carl) composed 
songs and two operas, Vienna, 1842. 
B. Feb. 11, 1811, Vienna; d. Jan. 7, 
1848, Vienna. 

Fuchs (George Friedrich) com- 
posed for wind instruments; taught 
clarinet Paris Consen^atoire. B. Dec. 
3, 1752, Mayence; d. Oct. 9, 1821, 

Fuchs (Johann Nepomuk) com- 
posed the opera " Zingara," Vienna, 
1872; chapelraaster at Vienna Opera, 
1880; director Vienna Conservatory, 
1894. B. May 5, 1842, Frauenthal; 
add. Vienna. 

Fuchs (Karl Dorius Johann) 
played piano; conducted; wrote music 
criticism; pupil of von Biilow; wrote 
( with Hugo Rieniann ) " Praktische 
Anleitung zum Phrasieren," Eng. 
trans. New York, 1886. B. Oct. 22, 
1838, Potsdam; add. Dantzic. 

Fuchs (Robert) composed five sere- 
nades for strings, symphony in C, 
Op. 37 ; two operas, chamber music, 
a Mass, piano concerto ; taught theory 
Vienna Conservatory. B. Feb. 15, 
1S47, Frauenthal, brother of JOHANN 
XEPOMUIx; add. Vienna. 

Fuentes (Don Pasquale) composed 
a Beatus Vir and other church and 
secular music; chapelmaster Valencia 
Cathedral. B. Albaida, Valencia, 
about 1700; d. April 2G, 17G8, 

Fuga. L. FUGUE. 

Fugato. It. Fugal in style but 
not in strict fugue form. 

Fuge. Ger. FUGUE. 

Fughetta. II. Fugue in condensed 

Fughette. Ger. Short fugue. 

Fugue is a contrapuntal form of 
composition which takes its name from 
the Latin word " fuga," a llight, and 
which is characterized by a theme in- 
troduced by a single voice wiiich one 
or more voices pursue. This first 
theme is called the Subject. It is 
made as short as possible, consistent 
with the definite expression of a mus- 
ical idea, and is so constructed as to 
permit the entrance of a second voice 
before its conclusion. The second 
voice then enters with the Answer, 
which may be a repetition of the Sub- 
ject in another key, usually that of 
the dominant if the Subject is in the 
tonic; and while the Answer is being 
uttered, the first voice follows it in 
counterpoint, sometimes evolving a 
definite theme, which is called Counter 
Subject, and is developed later. The 
entrance of a third voice is sometimes 
delayed by the introduction of a short 
passage called the Codetta, leading 
back to the original key of the Sub- 
ject, which is then announced by the 
third voice, the others following in 
counterpoint. This completes the Ex- 
position of the fugue, and then follows 
either an Extra Entry of the Subject 
or a Counter Exposition, in which the 
Answer is usually given before the 
Subject, and both may be in inver- 
sion. The Episode follows next, pre- 
senting new material with free imi- 
tation and modulations to related 
keys. Several such Episodes bound 
together by contrapuntal treatment, 
in the course of which Subject, An- 
swer, and Counter Subject (if there 
be one) make their appearance in 
original form or altered by Augmen- 
tation, Diminution, Inversion, or by 
Cancrizans motion. At this point 
comes the Stretto, the re-entrance of 
the Subject or Answer and Subject, 
and with this begins the Finale of the 
fugue. This Final section is, in fact, 
often called the Stretto. Here is & 
return to the original key, the Sub- 
ject is worked up to a climax and the 
conclusion follows. The fugue which 




has been described is a single fugue 
in three parts. Double, Triple, and 
Quadruple fugues are those in which 
the Subject is announced in two, three, 
or four parts, or as Cherubini would 
have it, " with one, two, or three Coun- 
ter Subjects." Fugues are classified 
according to the number of parts, as 
fugues a 2, a 3, a 4, etc. ; by the rela- 
tion of Subject and Answer, as fugues 
by Inversion, Augmentation, or Dimin- 
ution; by key relations, as the Tonal 
Fugue, in which the Answer must re- 
main in a given key or compass, or 
the Keal fugue, where the Answer ia 
given note for note at a measured in- 
terval to the Subject. A fugue is said 
to be Strict if the laws of fugue are 
closely adhered to, and Free if they 
have been violated. A Chromatic 
fugue is one in which there are many 
chromatic passages; a Diatonic fugue 
is one in which diatonic relations pre- 
dominate. Fugues likewise take the 
names of the MODES in which they 
are composed. From what has been 
said it must be apparent that fugues 
are of infinite variety. All were de- 
veloped from mediaeval Counterpoint, 
and there is an endless Latin nomen- 
clature, of which a single example 
need be given " Fuga per Canonem," 
or fugue according to canon, which we 
now call CANON. See Fux's " Gradus 
ad Pamassum," 1725, for the first 
definite codification of the laws of 
fugue; Marpurg, 1753; Albrechts- 
berger, 1790; Cherubini, 1833; Rich- 
ter, 1876; primers in Eng., by J. 
Higgs and E. Prout. 

Fiihrer. Ger. Subject of a 
FUGUE; leader or director. 

Fiihrer (Robert) wrote a handbook 
for choirmasters, method for pedal 
organ, "Praktische Anleitung zu Or- 
gelcompositionen "; composed masses 
and organ music; published in his 
own name Schubert's Mass in G. B. 
June 2, 1807, Prague; d. Nov. 28, 
1861, Vienna. 

Fulda, de (Adam) wrote a famous 
"Tract on Music," in which he eulo- 
gizes Guilielmus Dufay as the first to 
compose in regular form, 1490; com- 
posed a four-part motet, republished 
by Glareanus; court musician to the 

Bishop of Wiirzburg. B. Franconia 
about 1450; entered the church. 

Full Anthem. ANTHEM in which 
there are neither solos nor verses. 
Full Cadence. Perfect CADENCE. 
Full Chord. CHORD in which 
some essential notes are doubled; 
chord which brings out the full power 
of orchestra or choir or instrument. 

Full Organ. Great Organ with all 
stops in use. 

Full Score. SCORE giving all 
parts for both voices and instruments. 

Fullstimmen. Ger. Additional 
parts for either voices or instruments. 

Full Stop, In lute music full 
chord followed by pause; chord in 
which all available fingers are em- 
ployed in stopping the strings. 

Fumagalli (Adolfo) played piano 
in concert; composed salon music; 
pupil of Milan Conservatory. B. Oct. 
19, 1828, Inzago, Milan; d. May 3, 
1856, Florence. Luca composed the 
opera " Luigi XI," Florence, 1875; 
played piano. B. May 29, 1837, brother 
of ADOLFO. Disma and Polibio, 
brothers of ADOLFO and LUCA, were 
also pianists. 

Fundamental Bass. Root notes of 

Fundamental Tones. Tones from 
which harmonics are produced. 

Funebre. Fr. Funereal; dirge- 

Funerals. It. Funereal. 

FiinfEach. Ger. Fivefold. 

Fiinfstimmig. Ger. In five voices. 

Funzioni. If. " Functions," term 
applied to music performed in the 
Italian churches. 

Fuoco, con. It. With fire. 

Fuocoso. It. Fiery. 

Furia, con. It. With fury. 

Furiant. Term employed by DvofSk 
to describe fiery movement of the 
scherzo type. 

Furioso. It. Furiously. 

Furlano. It. The FORLANA. 

Furniture. Mixture organ stop. 

Furore, con. It. With fury or 

Fiirstenaii (Caspar) played fliite in 
the bands of the Bisliop of Miinster 
and Duke of Oldenburg and in concert 
tours. B. Munster, Feb. 26, 1772; d 




May 11, 1819, Oldenburg. Anton 
Bernhard wrote two methods for 
flute; pupil of his father CASPAR, 
with whom he played at an Oldenburg 
court concert at seven; accompanied 
von Weber on his last journey to Lon- 
don; phiyed in Dresden Court Orches- 
tra 32 years, from 1S20. B. Oct. 20, 
1792, Miinster; d. Dresden, Nov. 18, 
1852. Moritz became flautist in the 
Dresden Royal Band at 17; wrote on 
tlie history of music; taught flute 
Dresden Conservatory; custos, royal 
collections of music. B. July 26, 1824, 
Dresden; son of ANTON BERN^ 
HARD; d. Mar. 25, 1889, Dresden. 

Fusa. It. Quaver. 

Fusee. Fr. Roulade or shake. 

Fusella. L. Semiquaver. 

Fuss. Ger. Foot. 

Fux (Johann Joseph) wrote 
" Gradus ad Parnassum," a Latin 
work on music in dialogue form which 
deals with the theory and art of com- 
position. This was studied by Haydn 
and formed the basis of his teaching, 
lias been translated in French, German, 
Italian, and English, and has served 
as the text book for many generations 
of students and composers. Fux be- 
came organist in Vienna in 1090; 
and received in rapid succession ap- 
pointments as court composer, chapel- 
master at St. Steplien's, chapelmaster 
to the Dowager Empress Wilhelmine 
Amalie; then to Emperors Leopold I, 
Joseph I, and Charles VI. Besides 
being the most successful teacher of 
his day, Fux was a prolific composer 
and a complete master of counterpoint. 
His compositions include " Costanza e 
Fortezza," an opera written for the 
coronation of Charles VI, and other 
forgotten dramatic works, a cele- 
brated " Missa Canonica," 50 masses 
in all, 3 requiems, 57 vespers and 
psalms, 22 litanies, 12 graduals, 14 
offertories, 2 Dies Ira, etc.; 405 of his 
compositions are yet extant. B. 1000, 
Hirtenfeld, Styria; d. Feb. 13, 1741, 

Fz. Abbreviation for FORZANDO. 

G is the fifth tone of the natural 
scale of C; is the name of the major 

scale having F sharp in its signature, 
of which the relative minor is E; of 
the minor scale having B flat and E 
flat in its signature, of which the rela- 
tive major is B flat major. G gives 
its hame to the fourtii or lowest string 
of the violin, the third string of violas 
and 'cellos, and to the Treble Clef, the 
sign for which is a corruption of the 
letter. G is the first note of the Mixo- 
Lydian church MODE; the lowest 
note of llie grave Hexachord, called in 
the Guidonian system " Gamma ut," 
from which the word GA^MUT is de- 
rived. G is the abbreviation for 
gauche " left " in ' French, as m. g., 
main gauche, " left hand." 

Gabel. (Jer. Fork. 

Gabelton. Ger. The note A 
sounded by a tuning fork. 

Gabler (Johann) built the famous 
organ in the abbey of Weingarten, 
1750; established his business at Ulm. 
D. about 1784. 

Gabriel (Mary Ann Virginia) 
composed the cantata " Evangeline " 
to Longfellow's words, " Dreamland," 
the operetta " Widows bewitched," 
1807, and songs. B. Feb. 7, 1825, 
Banstead, Surrey, Eng. ; m. George E. 
March, 1874; d. Aug. 7, 1877. 

Gabriel (Max) composed the oper- 
ettas " Steffen Langer," ^Magdeburg, 
1889; "Der Freiwerber," 1890; " Der 
Garde-Uhlan," Breslau, 1892; con- 
ductor Residenz Theatre, Hanover; 
add. Hanover. 

Gabrieli (Andrea) composed 
" Psalmi Davidici," masses and other 
church music, madrigals, choruses for 
" Oedipus Tyrannus," 1585 ; played 
organ at St. Mark's, Venice, 1506-80; 
ranked with the best contrapuntists 
of his day; pupil of Adrian Willaort. 
B. 1510, Venice; d. 1580. Giovanni 
composed " Saerae symphoniae," 1597, 
which includes motets for 10 voices, 
and a second collection, 1015, which 
contains compositions in 19 parts; 
played organ at St. ^Mark's, Venice; 
pupil of his uncle, ANDREA, and 
teacher of Heinrich Schutz, Alois 
Grani, and Michael Pretorius. B. 
15r)7, Venice; d. Aug. 12, 1013, Venice. 

Gabrielli (Catterina) sang sop. in 
opera throughout Europe with distin- 




giiished success; called la Cochetta 
or Cochettina because she was daugh- 
ter of Prince Gabrielli's cook; pupil 
of Garcia, lo Spawnoletto and of Por- 
pora, she fascinated Metastasio, Fran- 
cis I, was imprisoned by the Infant 
Don Philip, who was madly in love 
with her, fled to Russia, where she 
demanded 5000 ducats per annum for 
singing to Catherine II, and when the 
Empress said that was more than she 
paid her field marshals, replied, " Let 
your field marshals sing for you." B. 
Nov. 12, 1730, Rome; d. 1796, Rome. 
Francesca sang second roles in opera 
with her sister CATTERINA. B. 
1755, Ferrara; d. 1795, Venice. 

Gabrielli (Count Nicole) com- 
posed 60 ballets and 22 operas. B. 
1814, Naples; d. 1891. 

Gabrielli (Domenico) composed 
" Cleobulo " and ten other operas, the 
oratorio " S. Sigismondo, re di Bor- 
gogno " ; president of the Bologna 
Societtl Filarmonica; called " II Meng- 
hino del violoncello because of his 
skill as 'cellist. B. 1640, Bologna; d. 
July 10, 1G90. 

G-abrilowitscli (Ossip) played 
piano in concert in principal cities of 
Europe and America ; pupil St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory, under Rubinstein, 
and of Leschetizky in Vienna; com- 
posed piano music. B. Jan. 26, 1878. 

Gabussi (Giulio Cesare) composed 
madrigals published 1580 and 1598, 
and church music, published 1619 and 
1G23; chapelmaster to Milan Cathe- 
dral and to the King of Poland. B. 

Gabussi (Vincenzo) composed 
vocal duets, the operas " Ernani," 
Paris, 1834; " Clemenza di Valois," 
Venice, 1841 ; taught singing in Lon- 
don. B. Bologna; d. London, Sept. 
12, 1846. 

Gade (Niels Wilhelm) composed 
symphonies, chamber music, operas, 
and songs which ranked him with the 
foremost of modern Scandinavian com- 
posers. His father was an instrument 
maker, and as a boy Gade learned a 
little about several instruments, and 
later developed rapidly under Wex- 
schall, Berggreen, and Weyse, enter- 
ing the royal orchestra at Copenhagen 

as a violinist, and won the prize of 
the Copenhagen Musical Union with 
his overture " Ossian." The King of 
Denmark then allowed him a pension, 
which permitted him to go to Leipsic, 
where he perfected himself in music, 
became the friend of Mendelssohn and 
Schumann, and acted as Mendelssohn's 
assistant and substitute at the Ge- 
wandhaus concerts. In 1848 he be- 
came organist and director of the 
oMusikverein in Copenhagen, later 
court chapelmaster, Professor, Profes- 
sor, Ph.D., and Knight Commander of 
the Order of Dannebrog. His most 
notable compositions are: Symphonies 
No. 1, in C minor, Op. 5 ; No. 2, in E, 
Op. 10; No. 3, in C, Op. 14; No. 4, 
in B fiat. Op. 20; No. 5, in D minor, 
Op. 25; No. 6, in G minor. Op. 32; 
No. 7, in F, Op. 45 ; No. 8, in B minor, 
Op. 47; \'iolin concerto, Op. 56; " Der 
Strom," cantata for soli, choir, obli- 
gate piano, and orchestra, Op. 64; 
" Balduers Drom," cantata for soli, 
orchestra, and choir; March for the 
funeral of Frederick VII, 1863; " Fest- 
musik," for the opening of the Copen- 
hagen Exposition^, 1872; " Munster- 
mode," for the Artists' Congress at 
Copenhagen, 1883; " Festmarsch," for 
the Jubilee of Christian IX, 1888; 
Jubilee work for Copenhagen L^niver- 
sity, 1879; the opera "Marietta"; 
four sonatas for violin and piano; the 
orchestral suite " Holbergiana" ; the 
cantatas "Psyche," "Comala," "Fruh- 
lingsfantasie," " Elverskud " (Earl 
King's Daughter) ; " Friihlingsbet- 
schaft," "Die heilige Nacht," " Ved 
Solnedgang," " Kalanus," " Zion," 
"Die Kreuzfahrer " (The Crusaders), 
" Den Bjaergstagne," " Gefion," string 
quintet in E minor. Op. 8, the concert- 
overtures "Hamlet," "Michaelangele," 
and " Im Hechland," and many songs 
for sole voice and part songs. B. 
Feb. 22, 1817, Copenhagen; d. Dec. 
21, 1890, Copenhagen. 

Gadsby (Henry) composed " Lord 
of the Isles," Brighton Festival, 1879; 
" Columbus," for male voices, Crystal 
Palace, London, 1881; svmphonies in 
C, A, and D ; " The Witches' Frolic " 
and the " Golden Legend," overtures ; 
" The Forest of Arden," orchestral 



/^'V JL 


scene; music to Alcestis," 1S7C; organ 
concerto in F; services, anthems, 
songs, part songs; played organ; 
taught harmony. Queen's College, Lon- 
don. B. Dec. 15, 1842, London; add. 

Gadsky (Johanna) sang sop. in 
opera, chiefly Wagnerian roles, Metro- 
politan Opera House, New York, Co- 
vent Garden, London, Bayrouth Fest- 
spielhaus (Eva in " Meistersinger "). 
B. Anclam, Prussia, June 15, 1871; 
m. H. Tauscher, 1892; add. New York. 

Gafori(Franchino)wrote on music; 
priest and chapelmaster at Milan 
Cathedral; also called Franchinus 
Gafumius. B. Jan. 14, 1451, Ospita- 
letto, near Lodi; d. June 24, 1522, 

Gagliano (Alessandro) made ex- 
cellent violins; pupil of Stradivarius. 
His instruments are dated Naples, 1695 
to 1725. Nicolo, 1700-40, and Gen- 
naro, 1710-50, sons of ALESSAN- 
DRO, succeeded to his business. Fer- 
dinando made inferior instruments, 
but founded a factory for making 
violin strings, which continues to bear 
a high reputation. B. 1736, Naples; 
son of NICOLO; d. 1781. 

Gagliano, da (Marco) composed 
the opera " Dafne," which Jacopo Peri 
said was a finer setting of Rinuccini's 
words than any other, and contained 
several songs by Cardinal Ferdinando 
Gonzaga, his patron; founded the Ae- 
cademia degl' Elevati at Florence, 
1607, for the encouragement of music; 
priest, Apostolic Prothonotary, and 
chapelmaster to the Florence Cathe- 
dral and to the Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany. B. 1575, Gagliano, near Flor- 
ence; d. Feb. 24, 1642. Florence. Gio- 
vanni Battista composed ; taught 
sacred music at S. Lorenzo, Florence; 
pupil of his elder brother, MARCO, 
and priest. B. 1585, Florence; d. 

Gagliarda. It. GALLIARD. 

Gai. Fr. Gay. 

Gailhard (Pierre) became manager 
of the Paris Grand Opera with Ritt, 
1884-91; with Bertrand, 1893-99, 
when he was made sole manager, 
on Bertrand's death, to 1908; pro- 
duced many new works by French 

composers; brought out the singera 
Ackte, Breval, Caron, Eames, jMeiba, 
Alvarez, Delmas, Renaud, the de 
Reszke brothers, and Gresse, pere et 
fils ; Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, 
1886; pupil first of the Toulouse Con- 
servatory, then of the Paris Conser- 
vatoire, where in 1867 he gained first 
prizes for singing, opera, and opera 
comique; debut in the rule of Fal- 
stafl", 1867, at the Opera Comique; 
debut at Grand Opera, 1871, as Me- 
phistopheles in Gounod's " Faust," 
highly regarded in Paris and London 
as both singer and actor; wrote li- 
bretti. B. Aug. 1, 1848, Toulouse; 
add. Paris. 

Gaiment. Fr. Gaily. 

Gajamente. It. Gaily. 

Galantemente. It. Gracefully, 

Galeazzi (Francesco) wrote one of 
the earliest instruction books for vio- 
lin, Rome, 1791; led the orchestra at 
the Teatro del Valle. B. 1758, Turin; 
d. 1819, Rome. 

Galilei (Vincenzo) took part in 
the discussions at the house of Gio- 
vanni Bardi, Florence, which resulted 
in the establishment of Italian opera 
on the lines of the Greek tragedies; 
composed the cantata " II Conte Ugo- 
lino," said by Doni to have been the 
first work for single voice ; played 
lute; wrote on music; was the father 
of the astronomer Galileo. B. Flor- 
ence about 1533; d. about 1600. 

Galimathias. Fr. Comic piece 
for orchestra with clavier and other 
instruments obbligato. 

Galitzin (Prince TTicholas Bor- 
risovich) patronized Beethoven, pay- 
ing about $115 for the dedication of 
each of the quartets in E flat. Op. 
127; A minor. Op. 132; B flat. Op. 
130; about $60 for the overture in C, 
Op. 124; and taking copies of the 
Mass in D. and Ninth S.'VTiiphony, and 
some minor works. Carl Beethoven 
presented an additional claim after 
the composer's death, which was 
paid. The Prince met Beethoven 
while at the houses of Count Rasou- 
mowsky and Count Browne, in Vienna, 
and conceived a profound admiration 
for him. He was himself a 'cellist, 


and his wife played piano. D. 18G6, His compositions are dated Leipsic, 

on his estates, Kurski, Russia. Prince 1520-45. 

George composed for voice and or- Galli-Marie (Celestine) created 

chestra and chamber music; con- the name parts in " Mignon " and 

ducted; maintained an orchestra, "Carmen"; debut, 1859, Strasburg; 

wiiich gave public concerts, and choir sang with success throughout Europe 

school for 70 boys. B. 1823, St. and at the Paris Opera Comique for 

Petersburg; son of PRINCE NICHO- forty years. B. Paris, Nov., 1840; 

LAS; d. Sept., 1872. daughter of the singer Marie (MecSne 

Gallenberg, Count von (Wenzel Marie de I'Isle) ; m. the sculptor Galli; 

Robert) composed '' Samson," Naples d. Sept. 22, 1905, near Nice, 

and Vienna, 1811; " Latona's Rache," Gallus was the Latinized name of 

Vienna, 1838, and in all nearly fifty Jacobus HANDL. 

ballets ; court director to Joseph Bona- Gallus (Joannes) composed madri- 

parte, in Naples, 1805; partner with gals and motets; chapelmaster to the 

Barbaja and impresario Vienna Court Duke of Ferrara, 1534-41; called 

Theatre; ballet master and composer "Jan le Coick " in the Netherlands 

for Barbaja, at Naples; m. Countess and " Jehan le Cocq " in France. 

Julie Guicciardi, with whom Beetho- Galop. Lively round dance in 2-4 

ven had been in love. B. Dec. 28, 1783, time. 

Vienna; d. Rome, Mar. 13, 1839. Galoubet. Fr. Small flute or 

Galli (Cornelio) sang in the chapel Tabor-PIPE. 

of Catherine, Queen to Charles II of Galuppi (Baldassare) composed 

England ; taught vocal. B. Lucca. successful comic operas, of which " II 

Galli (Filippo) sang ten. in opera, Filosofo di Campagna " (Eng. ver- 

but a serious illness altered his voice sion, "The Guardian Trick'd") was 

to bass; won the admiration of Ros- most popular; chapelmaster at St. 

sini, who composed bass roles for him. Mark's, Venice ; composer to Cath- 

B. 1783, Rome; d. Paris, June 3, 1853. erine II of Russia; director Conser- 

Galli (Signora) sang mez. sop. vatorio degli Incurabili at Venice. B. 

roles in London, 1743, and at Covent Oct. 18, 1706, near Venice; d. Jan. 3, 

Garden in 1797; favourite pupil of 1785. 

Handel. B. Italy; d. 1804, London. Gamba. Organ stop of 8 ft. pitch 

Gallia (Maria) sang sop. in Lon- having the tone quality of strings, 

don opera and oratorio, 1703-48. Gamba, Viola da. Obsolete \\o\ 

Sister of Margherita de I'Epine. instrument midway in compass be- 

Galliard. Lively dance in triple tween a viola and 'cello, held between 

time which was the precursor of the the knees while in use, hence called 

minuet. " da gamba," as opposed to " da brac- 

Galliard (John Ernst) composed cio," Italian words, meaning leg and 

the " ]\Iorning Hymn of Adam and arm. J. S. Bach was the last com- 

Eve " from " Paradise Lost " for two poser to write for this instrument, 

voices, which Dr. Benjamin Cooke which has a lovely singing quality, but 

afterwards enlarged; "Pan and has been entirely superseded by the 

Syrinx," opera, 1717; "Jupiter and 'cello. It had six strings, of various 

Europa," pantomime, 1723; much tuning. 

other dramatic music; three anthems; Gamble (John) played violin; com- 

a Te Deum and Jubilate ; played oboe; posed " Ayres and Dialogues," to be 

organist at Somerset House. B. Zell, sung with the theorbo lute or bass viol, 

Hanover, 1687; d. 1749, London. 1656; became cornettist in the Chapel 

Galliculus (Johannes) composed a Ro.val under Charles II. D. 1687. 
Passion according to St. ]\Iark and Gamme. Fr. GAMLTT. 
other church music; wrote " Isagoge Gamut. Complicated musical scale 
de Compositione Cantus," a valuable from G, which was called Gamma-Ut 
book on theory ; held that four voices to e', which seems to have fore- 
give the best results in choral works, shadowed in the Hexachord system of 

Lorenzo Perosi 
Giovanni Sgambati 

Giuseppe Verdi 


GiAcoMO Puccini 
Ruggiero Leoncavallo 




notation the modern Tonic Sol Fa. 
Gamut was formerly used as a syno- 
nym for compass, the whole range of 
the voice or instrument. With organ 
builders Gamut G refers to G in the 
bass clef. Gamut A re, E la mi, etc., 
formerly were employed to denote the 
keys by English church composers. 

Gando (Nicholas) founded musiiial 
type in Paris. B. Geneva; d. 17C7, 
Paris. Frangois Pierre became the 
assistant and successor to his father 
NICHOLAS. B. 1733, Geneva; d. 
1800, Paris. 

Gansbacher (Johann) composed 35 
masses, 8 requiems, two Te Deums, a 
symphony, music to Kotzebue's '* Die 
Kreuzfahrer," a " Liederspiel," songs, 
piano pieces ; pupil of Vogler and 
Albrechtsberger ; comrade of von 
Weber and Meyerbeer; chapelmaster at 
tlie Vienna Cathedral. B. May 8, 1778, 
Sterzing, Tyrol; d. July 13, 1844, 
Vienna. Dr. Joseph tavight singing 
at the Vienna Conservatory. B. 1829, 
Vienna, son of JOHANN. 

Gantvoort (Arnold J.) wrote 
" Music Readers " ; taught in Cincin- 
nati public schools and Cincinnati Col- 
lege of Music. B. Dec. G, 1857, Am- 
sterdam; came to America, 1876; add. 

Ganz. Ger. Whole, as Ton, whole 
tone; Note, semibreve; very, as 
Langsam, very slow. 

Ganz (Adolf) composed a melo- 
drama, overtures, lieder; chapelmaster 
at Darmstadt; conducted German 
opera in London, 1840-42. B. Oct. 

14, 179G, Mayence; d. Jan. 11, 1870, 
London. Moritz played 'cello; com- 
posed for 'cello. B. Sept. 13, 1806, 
Mayence ; brother of ADOLF ; d. Jan. 
22, 1868, Berlin. Leopold played vio- 
lin with his brother MORITZ in royal 
band, Berlin; made successful con- 
cert tours. B. Nov. 28, 1810, May- 
ence; brother of ADOLF; d. June 

15, 1869, Berlin. Eduard played 
piano; founded music school in Ber- 
lin, 1862. B. April 29, 1827, Mavence; 
son of ADOLF; d. Nov. 26, 1869, Ber- 
lin. Wilhelm conducted orchestral 
concerts in London; accompanist to 
Jenny Lind and other singers; taught 
singing Guildliall School of Music, 

London. B. Nov. 6, 1833, Mayence; 
son of ADOLF; add. London. 

Garat (Pierre Joan) sang bar. in 
opera; taught with great success; 
composed songs ; was favourite singer 
of Marie Antoinette. B. April 25, 
1764, Ustaritz; d. Paris, ^lar. 1, 

Garcia (Don Francisco Saverio) 
composed the oratorio " Tobia," 1752; 
chapelmaster at Saragossa Cathedral. 
B. 1731; d. 1809. 

Garcia (Manuel del Popolo Vi- 
cente) became the pioneer impresario 
of Italian opera in New York City, 
where he established himself in 1825 
at the Park Theatre with a company 
which included Mme. Garcia, his 
daughter, afterwards famous as Maria 
Felicita MA.LIBRAN, and his son 
MANUEL; gave 11 new works the 
first season; toured Mexico in 1827, 
but was robbed of $30,000 by bandits 
and returned to Europe. Garcia was 
a chorister in the Seville Cathedral at 
six, and was recognized as a composer, 
conductor, singer, and actor before at- 
taining his majority. In 1808 he be- 
came leading tenor at the Italian 
opera in Paris and in 1812 was first 
tenor in JNIurat's chapel at Naples, 
where he composed his highly success- 
ful opera the " Califfo di Bagdad." 
In 1816 he created the role of Alma- 
viva which Rossini had composed for 
him; then visited England and re- 
turned to Paris, dividing his time 
between the French capital and Lon- 
don, singing, and producing his operas 
" La Mort du Tasse," " Florestan," 
and " Fazzoletto " until 1823, when he 
founded a school of singing in Lon- 
don. After his American venture he 
again sang in the Theatre des Italiens, 
Paris, and established himself as a 
teacher. Besides the daughter and 
son already mentioned his next most 
famous pupils were his daughter Paul- 
ine, who became INIme. VIARDOT. and 
his wife, Eugenie, born IMeyer. In all, 
his works include 17 Spanish, 19 Ital- 
ian and seven French operas. B. Jan. 
22, 1775. Seville; d. June 2, 1832, 
Paris. Manuel invented the Laryn- 
goscope while making what was prac- 
tically the first scientific investigation 




of the vocal mechanism ; wrote " M6- 
moire sur la voix humaine" 1840, on 
which all later books on the voice are 
based; " Traite complet de I'art du 
chant," which has served as an in- 
struction book in English, German, 
and Italian versions as well as in 
French, 1847; pupil of his father 
teacher of Jenny Lind and many others 
at the Paris Conservatoire and at the 
Royal Academy of Music, London, 
1848-95; decorated by the Spanish, 
German, and English sovereigns; hon- 
oured throughout the world on the 
occasion of his centenary, 1905. B. 
Mar. 17, 1805, Madrid; d. London, 
July 1, 1906. 

Garcin (Jules Augusta) composed 
a violin concerto ; played violin ; con- 
ducted Paris Societe des concerts, 1885. 
B. Bourges, July 11, 1830; real name 
Salomon; d. Oct. 10, 1896, Paris. 

Gardane (Antonio) composed, 
printed, and published music in Ven- 
ice, 1538 to 1569. 

Garden (Mary) created " M<Sli- 
sande " in Debussy's " Pellgas et M6l- 
lisande " and other roles at Paris 
Op^ra Comique; debut there 1900; 
lived in America in childhood; pupil 
of Trabadello and Fug&re, Paris ; sang 
Manhattan Opera House, New York, 
1907-8. B. Feb. 20, 1877, Aberdeen; 
add. Paris. 

Gardiner (William) wrote " The 
Music of Nature," 1832; "Music and 
Friends," 1838; "Sights in Italy," 
1847; edited "Sacred Melodies"; 
adapted English texts to music of 
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven; com- 
posed. B. Leicester, Mar. 15, 1770; 
d. Nov. 16, 1853. 

Gardoni (Italo) sang ten. in opera ; 
debut, Viadana, 1840 to 1874; Cheva- 
lier of the Crown of Italy. B. 1821, 
Parma ; ni. daughter of Tamburini ; 
d. Mar. 30, 1882. 

Garlandia, de (Johannes) wrote 
"De Fistulis," " De Nolia," " De 
Musica Mensurabili Positio," and 
other books on theory, which have 
been reprinted by de Coussemaker; 
taught in Paris, i3th century. 

Garrett (Dr. George Mursell) 
composed the cantata " The Shula- 

mite " ; services, songs, and organ 
pieces; played organ, University of 
Cambridge. B. June 8, 1834, Win- 
chester; d. April 8, 1897, Cambridge. 

Garrire. It. To chirp or warble. 

Gaschet (John) published service 
books at York, Eng., 1516 to 1530. 

Gaspar da Saio was the name 
under which Gasparo Bertolotti be- 
came famous as a violin maker at 

Gasparini (Francesco) composed 
the oratorios "Mose liberato dal Nilo," 
Vienna, 1703; " Nascita di Cristo " 
and "Nozze di Tobia," 1724; "Santa 
Maria egittiaca," " L'Atalia," can- 
tatas, 32 operas; chapelmaster at St. 
John's Lateran, Rome; wrote " L'Ar- 
monico prattico al cembalo," etc., 
1708, one of the most valuable of 
early works on accompaniment. B. 
Mar. 5, 1G08, near Lucca; d. Mar. 22, 

Gassatio. Term employed vaguely 
for street serenade, instrumental com- 
position, farewell, or final piece. 

Gassenhauer. Ger. Dances in 
3-4 time belonging to the CHA- 

Gassier (fidonard) sang bar. in 
opera ; debut Paris Opera Comique, 
1845; pupil of Paris Conservatoire, 
where he won first prizes for opera 
and opera comique and second prize 
for singing, 1844; m. JOSEFA Fer- 
nan Fernandez. 13. Pougin, 1822; d. 
Dec. 18, 1871, Havana. Josefa sang 
sop. in opera; debut at Her Majesty's 
Theatre, London, 1846 to 1861. B. 
1821, Bill)ao; m. EDOUAPtD; d. Nov. 
8, 1866, Madrid. 

Gassmann (Florian Leopold) sug- 
gested the formation of the Vienna 
Tonkiinstler Socictat, 1771, while 
ballet composer to the Vienna Im- 
perial opera; composed " L'Amor ar- 
tigiana," " La Contessina," and in all 
23 Italian operas, the oratorio " La 
Betulia libera ta," and church music; 
chapelmaster to Emperor Joseph II; 
tausrht Salieri. B. May 4, 1729, 
BriiXi Bohemia; d. Jan. 22, 1774, 

Gastinel (Leon G. Cyprien) com- 
posed the cantata " Velasquez," with 
which he won the prix de Rome, Paris 




Conservatoire ; the ballet " Le Reve," 
Paris Grand Op6ra, 1S90. B. Aug. 15, 
1823, Villers, near Auxonne; add, 

Gastoldi (Giovanni Giacomo) com- 
posed the songs known in English 
versions as " Maidens fair of Man- 
tua's city," " Soldiers brave and gal- 
lant be " ; others which are sung in 
Germany to the hymns " In dir ist 
Freude " and " Jesu, wollst uns 
weisen"; chapelmaster at Santa Bar- 
bara, Mantua. B. Caravaggio; d. 
Mantua about 1G05. 

Gates (Bernard) composed a ser- 
vice in F; master of choristers of the 

Gaul (Alfred Robert) composed 
" Tlie Holy City," Birmingham Festi- 
val, 1882; the oratorio " Hezekiah," 
"Kuth," Psalms, "Joan of Arc," 
Passion Music, " The Ten Virgins," 
'■ Israel in the Wilderness," " Una," 
hymns, part songs, and other vocal 
music; conducted; taught theory; 
chorister Norwich Cathedral and pupil 
of Dr. Buck. B. April 30, 1837, Nor- 
wich ; add. Birmingham. 

Gaultier (Denys) composed dance 
music for lute, of which 62 composi- 
tions are preserved in the Hamilton 
Code, Royal Library, Berlin; played 
lute. B. Marseilles; d. about 1000. 

Cliapel Roval when the children first Jacques became famous as lut« player, 
sang Handel's " Esther." B. London composer, and teacher, m England and 
about 1685; d. Nov. 15, 1773, North France; 

called Gaultier or Gauthier 
" le vieux." Probably B. Lyons ; 
cousin of DENYS; d. about 1670. 
Several other members of the family 
were well known lute players during 
the reign of Louis XIII. 

Gauntlett (Henry John) composed 
and edited hymn and psalm times; 
lectured and wrote on musical topics; 
played organ. B. Wellington, Salop, 
Eng., July 9, 1805; d. London, Feb. 
21, 1876. 

Gaveaux (Pierre) composed the 
operas "Leonore,ou I'amour conjugal," 
which Beethoven afterwards set as 
" Fidelio," " Le petit Matelot," and in 
all 35 operas; sang, ten.; conducted. 
B. 1761, Beziers; d. insane at Charen- 
successful productions of the works ton, Feb. 5, 1825. 
of Debussy, Richard Strauss, Charpen- Gavinies (Pierre) composed the 
tier, Tschaikowsky, and Wagner, as " Romance de Gavinies " while im- 
well as of new works by the younger prisoned because of a love affair with 
generation of Italian composers. Dur- a lady of the French court; the ad- 
ing May, 1908, he visited New York mirable "Matinees" for violin; six 
to map out the work for the folk wing violin concertos; two sets of sonatas 
season, and in interviews then pub- for violin and bass ; played violin and 
lished gave the impression that the taught at the Paris Conservatoire, 
best of modern music of every nation- numbering among his pupils Capron, 
ality would be heard at the Metropoli- Robineau, and Le Due. ame. practically 
tan'during his regime, while many of founding the French school of vinlin- 
the standard classics would be re- ists; directed the concerts spirituel, 

Aston, near Oxford 

Gatti-Casazza (Giulio) became 
general manager of the Metropolitan 
Opera House, New York, on the re- 
tirement of Heinrich von Conried at 
the close of the season of 1907-8, hav- 
ing associated with him in the direc- 
tion ANDREAS DIPPEL. Educated 
as a naval engineer, he abandoned his 
profession at 25 to become manager 
of the Municipal Theatre of Ferrara, 
and during live years so increased the 
reputation of the house that in 1898 
he was made director of the celebrated 
"La Scala" at Milan, a post which he 
retained until accepting the New York 
engagement, and in which he made 

vived. The impresario made the en- 
gagement of ARTURO TOSCANINI, 
who had been his principal conductor 
at " La Scala," a condition in his own 
contract. B. Ferrara, 1869; add. 
New York. 
Gauche. Fr. Left. 

1773-77. B. May 26, 1726, Bordeaux; 
d. Sept. 9, 1800, Paris. 

Gavotta. It. GAVOTTE. 

Gavotte. Lively round dance in 
common time which probably origi- 
nated in Dauphine. Examples are to 
be found in the works of Couperin, 





Corelli, Bach, and Handel, forming a 
movement in suites. 

Gawler (William) composed hymns 
and psalms ; played organ ; published 
music in London. B. 1750, Lambeth; 
d. Mar. 15, 1S09. 

Gawthorn (Nathaniel) published 
" Harmonica Perfecta," which con- 
tained psalm and hymn tunes, an- 
thems, and an introduction to psalm- 
ody, London, 1730. 

Gayarre (Julian) sang ten. in 
opera; debut, Rome, 1873 to 1889; 
founded singing school for poor stu- 
dents in Madrid. B. Jan. 9, 1844; d. 
Jan. 2, 1890, Madrid. 

Gazza Ladra. G. A. Rossini's two- 
act opera, to book by Gherardini, was 
first performed May 31, 1817, at La 
Scala, Milan. 

Gazzaniga (Giuse'ope) composed 
"II barone de Trocchia," "II finto 
eieco," Vienna, 1770; "II convietato 
di pietro " and many other operas, of 
which eight have been preserved; 
three oratorios; chapelmaster at 
Crema; pupil of Porpora. B. 1743, 
Verona; d. 1819, Crema. 

G Clef. The treble clef. 

G Dur. Gcr. Key of G major, 

Gebauer (Franz Xaver) composed 
songs and choral works ; helped es- 
tablish the Vienna Gesellschaft der 
Musikfreunde ; conducted Vienna 
Spirituel-Concerte and at St. Augus- 
tin's Church ; played organ, piano, 
'cello, Jew's harp; friend of Beetho- 
ven. B. Eckersdorf, Prussian Silesia, 
1784; d. Dec. 13, 1822, Vienna. 

Gebel (Johann Georg) composed 
48 organ chorales, a thirty-part canon, 
]\Iass for double choir and instru- 
ments, psalms, clavier music; in- 
vented a clavicembalo with six com- 
plete octaves, a clavichord with 
quarter-tones; played organ Christo- 
pherkirche, Breslau. B. Breslau, 1685; 
d. 1750. Georg played harpsichord in 
public at four; composed Passion 
Music, Christmas oratorios. Services, 
the operas " Serpilias und Melissa," 
" Oedipus," " Medea," " Tarquinius 
Superbus," " Sophonisbe," " ]\Iarcus 
Antonius"; more than 100 sinfonie 
and partite; chapelmaster at Rndol- 
stadt. B. Oct. 25, 1709, Brieg; oldest 

son of JOHANN GEORG; d. Sept. 
24, 1753, Rudolstadt. Georg Sigis- 
mund composed for organ; played 
organ Elizabethkirche, Breslau. B, 
1715, Breslau; second son of JOHANN 
GEORG; d. 1775. 

Gebrochene Akkorde. Ger. Ar- 

Gedackt. Ger. Closed, covered, as 
of organ stops of which the pipes are 
closed at the top. 

Gefahrte. Ger. Answer in a 

Gefiihl, mit. Ger. With feeling. 

Gegenbewegung. Ger. Contrary 

Gegengepunkt. Ger. Counter- 

Gegengesang. Ger. Antiphonal 

Gegensatz. Ger. Counter-subject. 

Gebalten. Ger. Sustained; sos- 

Geige. Ger. Fiddle. 

Geigen-Principal. Organ stop of 
8 ft. pitch with tone resembling that 
of the violin. 

Geisler (Paul) composed the operas 
-" Ingeborg," Bremen, 1884; " Hertha," 
Hamburg, 1891; "Palm," Liibeck, 
1893; symphonic poems "Till Eulen- 
spiegel " and " The Pied Piper of 
Hamelyn " ; cantatas, music to five 
plays; directed Posen Conservatory. 
B. Stolp, Pomerania, Aug. 10, 1856; 
add. Posen. 

Geist. Ger. Genius, spirit. 

Gelassen. Ger. Tranquil, calm. 

Gelinek (Joseph) taught piano; 
composed sonatas, songs, and so many 
variations that Weber called him a 
"Variation-Smith"; chaplain and 
music master to Prince Esterhazv from 
1795. B. Selcz, Bohemia, Dec. 3,' 1758; 
d. April 13, 1825, Vienna. 

Gemahlig. Ger. Gradually. 

Gemassigt. Ger. Moderate. 

Gemessen. Ger. Measured, mod- 

Geminiani (Francesco) wrote "Art 
of Playing the Violin," London, 1740, 
the first work of its kind in the world ; 
became famous as violin virtuoso, de- 
veloped technique of that instrument 
which he had learned from Corelli ; 
composed concertos and sonatas for 




violin; played and taught with great 
sueces3 in London and Dublin ; wrote 
on theory. B. IGSO, Lucca; d. Sept. 
17, 1762. 

Gemshorn. Ger. Instrument made 
of the chamois horn ; organ stop of 
conical metal pipes, generally of 8 ft., 
sometimes of 4, or in pedal organ of 
10 ft. tone. 

Gemunder (August) made violins 
of superior quality in New York City; 
established an instrument factory and 
salesroom, conducted 1908 by his sons. 
B. Mar. 22, 1814, Ingelfingen, Wiir- 
temberg; d. New York, Sept. 7, 1895. 

Genee (Franz Friedrich. E/icharcl) 
composed " Der Geiger aus Tirol," 
1857; "Die Piraten " and "Die Zwil- 
linge," 1887, and many other oper- 
ettas; wrote many libretti for his 
own use and for Strauss, Suppe, and 
Millocker; conducted at Theater an 
der Wien, Vienna, 1868-78. B. Feb. 
7, 1823, Danzig; d. June 15, 1895, 
Baden, near Vienna. 

Generalbass. Ger. TPIOROUGH- 

General! (Pietro) composed "I Bac- 
canali di Roma," Venice, 1815; "Fran- 
cesca di Rimini," Venice, 1829; in all 
more than 45 operas; regarded as the 
precursor of Rossini, who has totally 
eclipsed him. B. Oct. 4, 1783, Mas- 
serano, near Vercelli; real name Mer- 
candetti; d. Nov. 3, 1832, Novara. 

Generator. Root, fundamental 

Genere. It. Genera, kind, class, 
manner, style. 

Generoso. It. Noble, dignified. 

Genet (Eleazar) composed masses, 
hymns, " Lamentations," long sung by 
the Papal choir, may have suggested 
the abandonment of ligatures and the 
substitution of round for square or 
diamond shaped notes, since his works, 
printed in Briand's type, are among 
the first to sliow these improvements; 
attached to Papal court from 1508 to 
1518 as priest, composer, and singer; 
became bishop; called Carpentras 
fi'om his birthplace in France. 

Genoveva. Robert Schumann's 
four-act opera, to book arranged by 
Reinick and himself from a work by 
Hebbel and Tieck, was first performed 

at Leipsic, June 25, 1850. Genoveva, 
wife of Count Siegfried of the Palati- 
nate, is left in charge of Colo while 
her husband joins Charles Martel in 
his wars against the Moors. Golo, 
who has long been secretly in love 
with his friend's wife, takes advan- 
tage of his opportunities to pay court 
to her, but when repulsed, contrives 
to make it appear that she has ac- 
cepted Drago, the steward, as her 
lover. In his machinations he is 
aided by the old witch Margaretha, 
whom he supposes to have been his 
nurse, but who was in fact his mother. 
Having convinced the servants at the 
castle of Genoveva's misconduct, Golo 
causes her to be imprisoned, and then 
goes to Strasburg, where Count Sieg- 
fried is recovering from his wounds 
after being victorious over the Moors, 
and tells him of Genoveva's faithless- 
ness. Siegfried orders Golo to kill 
Genoveva, giving him his own sword 
and ring as warrants for the deed. 
Margaretha attempts to picture Geno- 
veva's misconduct in a magic mirror, 
but the ghost of Drago, who has been 
murdered by Golo, frightens her into 
a confession of Genoveva's innocence. 
In the last act Genoveva is led into 
the wilderness to die, but not until 
she has again spurned his passionate 
appeal does Golo order his rutFians to 
kill her. She clings to a shrine and is 
praying when Siegfried appears, led 
by the penitent Margaretha. A touch- 
ing reunion ensues, and in trying to 
escape, Golo falls over a precipice and 
is killed. 

Genre. Fr. Genera, kind, class, 
manner, style. 

Gentil. Fr. Graceful, refined. 

Gentile. It. Elegant, graceful. 

Gentilezza, con. It. With ele- 
gance, grace. 

Genus. L. Kind, class, especially 
as to scales; plural is genera. 

Georges (Alexandre) composed 
the lyric dramas " Poemes d'Amour," 
1892; "Charlotte Corday," 1901; " Le 
Printemps," one-act opera comique; 
" Leila," " La Naissance de Venus." 
" Le Paradis Perdu," symphonic 
poems ; " Chansons de Miarka " for 
voice and orchestra, to words by 




Richepin; music to the plays " Le 
Nouveau Monde " and " Alceste " ; 
pupil of Niedermeyer in the " ficole 
de Musique Religieuse," where he won 
first prizes for organ, piano, and com- 
position. B. Feb. 25, 1850, Arras; 
add. Paris. 

Gerade Bewegung. Ger. Similar 

Gerade Taktart. Ger. Common 

Gerardy (Jean) played 'cello ad- 
mirably; debut as virtuoso, 1888; 
toured Europe and America; pupil 
of Verviers Conservatory. B. Dec. 
7, 1877, Spa, Belgium; add. Spa. 

Gerber (Heinrich Nicolaus) in- 
vented a keyed xylophone and other 
instruments; composed chorales and 
variations, and for clavier, organ, and 
harp; pupil of J. S. Bach, but nar- 
rowly escaped being forced into the 
regiment of giants collected by Fred- 
erick William of Prussia. B. Weiugen- 
Ehrich, Schwarzbnrg, Sept. 6, 1702 ; 
d. Aug. 6, 1775, Sondershausen. 
Ernst Ludwig wrote the first im- 
portant encyclopedia of music in Ger- 
man; collected books, pictures, and 
scores, now in the possession of the 
Vienna Gesellschaf t der Musikfreunde ; 
pupil of and assistant to his father 
HEINRICH. B. Sept. 29, 1746, Son- 
dershausen; d. June 30, 1819. 

Gerbert von Hornau (Martin) 
wrote " De cantu et musica sacra a 
prima ecclesiae aetate usque ad 
praesens terapus," 1774, which is re- 
garded as the Novum Organum of 
musical scholarship; made a collec- 
tion of important writings on music 
which was continued and reprinted 
by de Coussemaker ; entered the Order 
of St. Benedict, 1737; became Prince- 
Abbot of St. Blaise in the Black For- 
est, where he restored Gregorian 
music, opened charitable institutions 
in his chief town of Bonndorf, and 
was so universally loved that the 
peasants erected a statue to his mem- 
ory in Bonndorf market. B. Aug. 12, 
1720, Horb-on-the-Neckar; d. May 
13. 1793, St. Blaise. 

Gericke (Wilbelm) composed the 
operetta " Sohon Hannchen," Linz, 
1865; chamber music, songs, concert 

overture; conducted Boston Sym- 
phony Orchestra, 1884-89 and 1898- 
1905. Pupil of the Vienna Conserva- 
tory; his first engagement was at 
Linz, then he became assistant to Dr. 
Richter at the Vienna Court opera; 
conductor of the Vienna Gesellschafts 
concerte, 1880-84, and again between 
his engagements in America. B. Graz, 
Styria, April 18, 1845; add. Vienna. 

Gerle (Hans) made, played, and 
composed for lute; published instruc- 
tion books having lute music in tab- 
la ture, Nuremberg, 1532-52. 

German (J. Edward) composed 
" The Princess of Kensington," Savoy 
Theatre, London, 1903 ; completed 
" The Emerald Isle," left incomplete 
by Sir Arthur Sullivan; made his 
first success with incidental music to 
" Richard III " while directing music 
at the Globe Theatre during Richard 
Mansfield's engagement there; com- 
posed two symphonies, E and A minor, 
symphonic suite in D minor, " Ham- 
let," a symphonic poem ; " The Sea- 
sons," symphonic suite, " Welsh Rhap- 
sodic," Cardiff Festival, 1904; much 
vocal music and highly successful in- 
cidental dramatic music. Pupil of 
the Royal Academy of Music, London ; 
won Lucas medal, 1885, with Te 
Deum, and had his first operetta, 
"The Rival Poets," produced the fol- 
lowing year. In 1907-8 Mr. German 
visited America, producing a new 
comic opera, " Tom Jones." B. Feb. 
17, 1862, Whitchurch, Shropshire, 
Eng. ; add. London. 

German Elute. The modern cross 

German Sixth. Chord of the ex- 
treme Sixth. 

Gern (August) built organs in 
London from 1866, having learned the 
trade with Cavaille-Col, Paris. 

Gernsheim (Friedrich) composed 
" Salamis," " Hafis," " Wachterlied," 
" Preislied," " Agrippina," and other 
choral works, four symphonies, over- 
tures, and chamber music; taught 
and conducted at Stern Conservatory, 
Berlin; pupil of Moscheles, Haupt- 
mann, Rietz, and Richter at the Leip- 
sic Conservatory. B. July 17, 1839, 
Worms; add. Berlin, 




Gero (Than) composed madrigals 
and church music; chapclmaster tx) 
Orvieto Cathedral. The Maistre Jhan, 
who composed in like form, and was 
chapclmaster to the Duke of Ferrara, 
is now believed to have been a dis- 
tinct personage. Both llourislied in 
the early part of the 16th century. 

Gerster (Etelka) sang sop. in 
opera; debut in Venice as Gilda, 
1870, later in the principal cities of 
Europe and America; pupil of Mme. 
Marchesi ; founded singing school in 
Berlin, 1896. B. Kaschau, Hungary, 
June 17, 1855; add. Berlin. 

Ges. Ger. The note G flat. 

Gesang. Gei\ Song, melody. 

Geschwind. Ger. Rapid, quick. 

Ges. Dur. Ger. Key of G fiat 

Gese (Bartholomaus) composed a 
St. John Passion and every variety 
of music for the Lutheran Church ; 
cantor at Frankfort; called also 
Gesius or Barthol Goss. B. Miinche- 
berg, Brandenburg, 1555; d. 1621, 

Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde 
was founded in Vienna, 1813, largely 
through the activity of Dr. Joseph von 
Sonnleithner, to conduct subscription 
concerts and establish a library and 
museum. The library now contains 
more than 4000 volumes and 40,000 
compositions, printed or in manuscript, 
including works by Mozart, Schubert, 
Beethoven's own revision of the 
" Eroica," and choruses by Gluck and 
Handel. The society built its own 
house, 1830, and a larger edifice, 
" An der Wien," 1870, where the con- 
certs are now given. A conservatory 
and dramatic school have grown up 
about the society, the pupils number- 
ing nearly 1000 per annum. The so- 
ciety possesses an orchestra of 80 and 
a chorus of 300 to 350, which give six 
grand concerts each year, besides 
many smaller affairs. 

Gestossen. Ger. Staccato. 

Getern or Getron. Old English for 

Getragen. Ger. Leorato. 

Gevaert (Frangois Auguste) com- 
posed the successful operas " Quentin 
Durward," Paris Opf-ra Comique, 

1858; " Le Capitaine Henriot," Paris 
Op6ra Comique, 1864; wrote "His- 
toric et Theorie de la musique dans 
I'antiquit^ " and other valuable theo- 
retical and historical works; became 
director of the Brussels Conservatory, 
1871, in succession to F^tis. A pupil 
of tlie Ghent Conservatory, Gevaert be- 
came organist at tlie Jesuits' Cliurch, 
Ghent, where his Christmas cantata 
was performed, 1846. In 1847 his 
Psalm " Super flumina " was per- 
formed at the Zangverband, winning 
the praise of Spohr, and in 1848 his 
operas " Hugues de Somerghen " and 
" La comedie a la ville " were per- 
formed at Ghent and Brussels. The 
following year, having won a national 
competition which gave him two years 
abroad, he visited France and Spain, 
and composed the orchestral fantasie 
" Sobre motivos espagnoles," which, 
brought him the decoration of Isa- 
bella the CathoJic. From Spain he 
went to Italy, returning to Ghent, 
1852. Tlie cantata " I)e nationale 
verjaerdag " won him the Order of 
Leopold. He became Chef du Cliant 
at the Paris Academic de Musique, 
1867, retaining his post until the 
opera closed because of the Siege of 
Paris in 1870. Other works to be 
noted are: "Georgette," one-act opera; 
" Le Billet de j\Iarguerite," three-act 
opera ; " Les Lavandieres de San- 
tarem," " Le Diable au Moulin," 
" Chateau Trompete," " Les Deux 
Amours," the last-named opera, 
Baden-Baden, 1861; Requiem for male 
voices with orchestra, the cantata " Le 
Retour de I'armee," " Jacques van 
Artevelde," choruses and songs. B. 
Huysse, near Oudenarde, July 31, 1828; 
d. Dec. 24, 1908, Brussels. 

Gewandhaus Concerts grew out of 
those established in Leipsic by Jo- 
hann Sebastian Bach while cantor at 
the Thomasschule, 1743, continued by 
his sucessor Doles, re-established by 
Burgermeister Karl Wilhelm Muller, 
1781, with J. A. Hiller as conductor, 
and in 1908 continued to rank with 
the most important in the world. The 
name is derived from the fact that the 
concerts were given in the hall of the 
Gewandhaus, the market house of the 




linen merchants. There are 24 con- 
certs given annually besides soirees 
of chamber music. The conductors 
since Hiller have been Johann Gott- 
fried Schicht, Johann Philip Chris- 
tian Schuiz, Christian August Poh- 
lenz, Felix Mendelssohn, Ferdinand 
Hiller, N. W. Gade, Julius Pdetz, Karl 
Keinecke, Artlnir Nikisch. 

Ghazel. F. Killer's name for com- 
positions in which there is a perpet- 
ually recurring refrain. 

Gheyn, van den (Matthias) be- 
came the most famous of carillon- 
neurs, winning that post in the toAvn 
of Louvain by competition, 1745; com- 
posed sonatas for violin with organ 
or clavier; played organ at St. Peter's, 
Louvain; belonged to the family of 
bell founders who flourished in Flan- 
ders, 1516 to 1757. B. Tirlemont, 
April 7, 1721; d. June 22, 1785, Lou- 
vain. Jesse Thomas succeeded his 
father ]VL^.TTHIAS as organist at St. 
Peter's. B. 1752. 

Ghro (Johann) composed pavana 
and galliards ; played organ in Meis- 
sen, Saxony, 1604; became music di- 
rector and organist at Wesenstein, 

Gialdini (Gialdino) composed the 
successful operas " I Due Soci," Bo- 
logna, 1892; "La Pupilla," Trieste, 
1896, and comic operas; pupil of 
Mabellini, Florence; won prize of- 
fered by the Pergola Theatre, Flor- 
ence, with his successful first opera 
" Rosmunda." B. Nov. 10, 1843, Pes- 
cia; add. Florence. 

Giardini, de (Pelice) composed 
nine sets of violin sonatas, 12 violin 
concertos, 18 string quartets, and other 
chamber music; the oratorio Ruth; 
acquired great popularity in London 
as violin soloist; impresario of the 
London Italian opera, 1756-65. B. 
April 12, 1716, Turin; d. Dec. 17, 
1796, JIoscov,'. 

Gibbons ("William) was one of the 
Waits in Cambridge, Eng., and became 
the progenitor of a famous family of 
musicians. Kev. Edwrard composed 
the anthem " How hath the city sate 
solitary! " organist and custos of the 
priest-vicars of Exeter Cathedral, 1609 
to 1G44; gave $5000 to Charles I dur- 

ing the Civil War, as a result of which 
his property was confiscated and he 
was turned out of his home at 80. B. 
1570; son of WILLIAM. Ellis com- 
posed the madrigals " Long Live Ori- 
ana " and " Round about her chariot," 
published 1601 in the " Triumphs of 
Oriana"; played organ Salisbury Ca- 
thedral. Son of WILLIAM. Orlando 
became the foremost of English poly- 
phonic composers, organist to the Eng. 
Chapel Royal and to W^cstminster 
Abbey. Educated by his brother ED- 
WARD as a chorister in King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, where he remained 
until his voice broke ; he composed a re- 
markable fantasia in four parts which 
is included with works of Byrd and 
Bull in the collection of virginal music, 
" Parthenia," which established his 
reputation; thereafter led a busy life 
as court musician, organist, and com- 
poser. Among his compositions are 
a four-part morning and evening ser- 
vice in F, a five-part service in D 
minor, Te Deiim, Benedietus, Kyrie, 
Creed, Sanctus, Magnificat; the full 
anthems "Deliver us Lord," "Al- 
mighty and Everlasting God," Ho- 
sanna, " O clap your hands," " O Lord, 
in Thy Wrath," " Lord, in Thee is 
all my trust," " Why art thou so 
heaAy, O my soul ? " " Blessed be the 
Lord God of Israel," " O Lord increase 
my faith," "Lift up your heads"; 
the verse anthems " Behold thou hast 
made my days," " This is the record 
of John," " Behold I bring you glad 
tidings," " If ye be risen," " We praise 
Thee, Father," " Lord grant grace," 
" Glorious and powerful God," " See, 
see, the Word is Incarnate," " Sing 
unto the Lord," " Blessed are thev," 
"Great King of Gods," "0 all true 
faithful hearts," "I am the Resurrec- 
tion " ; the hjTnns " Lord, how do 
my woes increase," " O Lord, I lift my 
heart unto Tlice," and 16 tunes in 
" n\Tnn3 and Songs for the Church," 
reprinted by J. R."Smith, 1859; "The 
Silver Swan," "0 lliat the learned poets,"' 
"I weigli not fortune's frown," and 
other delicious madrigals; "Fancies 
for "Viols," and virginal music. B. 
1583. Cambridge; son of WILLIAM; 
m. Elizabeth Patten; d. June 5, 1625, 


Canterbury. Dr. Christopher became 
organist at W'inciiesLer Lathedral, 
1U38; t'ought with Royalists during 
Civil War, became orgauist to Charles 
li on the Restoration and at West- 
minster Abbey; composed anthems, 
hymns, and fancies for viols. B. 1G15; 
second son of ORLANDO; d. Oct. 20, 

Gibson (George Alfred) played 
violin in London opera and concert or- 
chestras ; taught Royal Academy of 
Music and Guildhall School of Music. 
B. Oct. 27, 1849, Nottingham; add. 

Giga. It. Jig or GIGUE. 

Gigelira. It. XYLOPHONE. 

Gigout (Eugene) composed more 
than 300 organ pieces, published as 
" Album Gregorien," a " Meditation " 
for violin and orchestra, piano sonata ; 
organist at Saint- Augustin, Paris, 
1863; pupil and afterwards teacher 
in Niedermeyer's " Nicole de musique 
religieuse." *B. Nancy, Mar. 23, 1844; 
add. Paris. 

Gigue. Lively dance which gave its 
name to one movement of the SUITE, 
and was so called from being played 
on the geige or violin. Forms of the 
gigue or giga or jig are found among 
nearly every people; the Chica, Csar- 
das. Reel, Hornpipe, and Bolero are 
all variations of the gigue. 

Giles (Dr. Nathaniel) composed 
anthems, services ; wrote " Lesson of 
Descant of Thirtie eighte Proportions 
of Sundrie kindes," which may be 
found in Hawkins' " History of Mu- 
sic " ; master of the children in Eng. 
Chapel Royal 38 years. B. Worcester, 
about 1550; d. Windsor, Jan. 24, 1633. 

Gillet (Ernest) composed " Loin du 
bal " and other popular music for 
orchestra and piano; first 'cellist at 
Paris Grand Op6ra; pupil of Nieder- 
meyer's " :&cole de musique religieuse," 
Paris. B. Sept. 13, 1856, Paris; add. 

Gilman (Lawrence) wrote music 
criticism for " Harper's Weekly," and 
the following books: " Phases of Mod- 
ern Music," Harper & Bros., 1904; 
" Edward MacDowell " {" Living Mas- 
ters of Music"), John Lane, 1905; 
"The Music of To-morrow," John 


Lane, 1906; " Strauss's 'Salome,' A 
Guide to the Opera," John Lane, 1907; 
■' Stories of Symphonic Music," Harper 
& Bros., 1907; "Debussy's ' Pel leas 
et Melisande,' A Guide to tlie Opera," 
G. Schirmer, 1907 ; " The Opera Since 
Wagner," John Lane, 1908. Educated 
at the Collins Street Classical School, 
Hartford, Conn., and afterwards stu- 
dent in private of musical theory, 
composition, piano, and organ play- 
ing. B. July 5, 1878, Flushing, New 
York; add. New York City. 

Gilmore (Patrick Sarsfield) gave 
festivals remarkable for the number of 
people employed, having an orchestra 
of 1000 and a chorus of 10,000 at the 
National Peace Jubilee, Boston, 1869, 
an orchestra of 2000 and chorus of 
20,000 at the World's Peace Jubilee, 
Philadelphia, 1872, with chimes of 
bells, anvils, powerful organs, and ar- 
tillery which he discharged by electric- 
ity to replace the bass drum parts. 
Gilraore's earliest musical training was 
obtained as member of a regimental 
band in Athlone, Ireland. Then he 
drifted to Canada with an English 
band, and later to the United States. 
He first organized a military band in 
Salem, Mass., then in Boston, and dur- 
ing the Civil War was a bandmaster 
in the Federal army. His first spec- 
tacular festival was given in New 
Orleans with a combination of army 
bands, 1864. He later made numerous 
concert tours of America and Europe. 
A number of arrangements for open 
air performance, and some military 
pieces and dance music are accredited 
to him. B. Galway. Ireland, Dec. 25, 
1829: d. Sept. 24, 1892, St. Louis, Mo. 

Gilson (Paul) composed " La Cap- 
tive," Brussels, 1902 ; " Francesca de 
Rimini," for soli chorus and orchestra, 
1895; Inaugural cantata for the Brus- 
sels Exposition of 1897; oratorio " Le 
Demon," humoresque for wind instru- 
ments, " La Mer," s\Tiiphonic poem ; 
the prize cantata ""Sinai," 1892, a 
Scotch rhapsodic; fantasia on Cana- 
dian airs; songs; became professor of 
harmony. 1902, at Brussels Conserva- 
tory, wliere he had been a pupil of 
Cantillon, Duyck, and Gevaert, and 
where he won the prix de Rome, 1889. 




B. June 15, 18G0, Brussels j add. 

Gimel. Discant for two voices, 
usually at the interval of a tlurd; 
parts of a vocal work temporarily 

Gingiarus or Gingras. Ancieut 
Phojuician tiute. 

Giochevole. It. Merry. 

Giocondo. It. Joyful, happy. 

Gioconda. Amilcare Pouchielli's 
four-act opera to book by Boito was 
first performed April 8, lS7ti, at La 
Scala, Milan. The story is partly 
based on Hugo's " Angelo." The scene 
is laid in Venice, to which the pre- 
scribed Prince of Santafior has re- 
turned under the name of Enzo. The 
curtain rises upon a scene of festivity 
in the courtyard of the Ducal Palace. 
Barnaba, spy of the Inquisition, loves 
La Gioconda, and when she enters 
with her mother, a blind woman — "La 
Cieca " — pleads his passion so vio- 
lently that La Cieca calls out, the 
crowd returns, and the loser in a re- 
gatta, believing that La Cieca caused 
his defeat by witchcraft, attacks her. 
Enzo returns with Gioconda, attempts 
to rescue La Cieca, but the disturbance 
is soon quelled by Aloise, one of the 
chiefs of the Inquisition, and in grati- 
tude La Cieca gives her rosary to 
Laura, the wife of Aloise. Laura, to 
whom Enzo had formerly been be- 
trothed, recognizes him. Barnaba, 
knowing that both Laura and Gio- 
conda love Enzo, contrives a plot to 
capture Gioconda and destroy Enzo 
and Laura. He tells Enzo that Laura 
still loves him, and will come to his 
ship at nightfall, and then tells Aloise 
that Laura and Enzo are about to 
elope. In the second act Barnaba 
escorts Laura aboard Enzo's vessel. 
Gioconda has followed them, and is 
about to stab Laura, when she sees the 
rosary La Cieca had given her. Then 
she suddenly determines to save her 
rival. Barnaba, who had left the ship, 
is returning with Aloise, but Gio- 
conda smuggles Laura ashore before 
thoir arrival. Meantime the Venetian 
galleys have closed about Enzo's ship, 
and he sets firp to his vessel to prevent 
its capture. The next act reveals the 

House of Gold. Aloise tells Laura 
that she must die, and sends Gioconda 
to administer poison. Gioconda, how- 
ever, substitutes a narcotic for the 
poison. She has promised herself to 
Barnaba, provided he will aid her 
in the plot she has arranged to 
free Enzo and Laura. The fourth 
act shows Gioconda's home in the 
ruined palace on the Orfano Canal. 
Street singers enter, carrying the sleep- 
ing Laura, who is placed upon a bed, 
but wakes in time to prevent Enzo 
from wreaking his fury on Gioconda, 
whom he believes to have murdered 
her. Then comes a dramatic farewell 
between the happy lovers and the girl 
who is sacrificing herself for them. 
Gioconda slips on her gayest attire, 
but when Barnaba comes to claim her 
she stabs herself, exclaiming as she 
dies, " I have sworn to be thine, take 
me, I am thine." Infuriated at this, 
Barnaba cries out that he has mur- 
dered La Cieca, but this outburst of 
villainy fails to horrify his victim, for 
La Gioconda is dead. The principal 
musical numbers are: Act I: " Feste e 
pane," regatta chorus; "E danzan su 
lor tombe," Barnaba; " Figlia, ehe 
reggi il tremulo," Gioconda, Barnaba, 
and La Cieca ; " Voce di donna," La 
Cieca ; " Per tutti ma non per me," 
Enzo and Barnaba ; "Tradita Aliime ! " 
Gioconda; "La furlana," ballet; Act 
II: "Ha! he! ha! he! " sailors' cho- 
rus; "Ah! pescator," Barnaba; "Cielo 
e mar," Enzo; " Stella del marinar," 
Laura; " E un anatema," Gioconda and 
Laura; Act III: "Si! mortis-ella de!" 
Aloise; the "Dance of the Hours," 
ballet; Act IV: " Sulle tue mani," 
Enzo, Gioconda, and Laura. The orig- 
inal cast was: Gioconda, Mariani, 
sop.; Laura, Biancolini, sop.; La 
Cieca, Barlandini, con. ; Enzo, Gay- 
orro, ten. ; Barnaba, Aldighieri, bar. 

Giocondamente. It. Joyously, 

Giocondato. It. Mirthful, happy. 

Giocondezza. Jocundity, mirth. 

Giocosamente. It. Playfully, 

Giojante, Giojoso. It. With mirth, 
joy fully. 

Giordano (Umberto) composed the 




operas " Marina," " Mala Vita," " Re- 
gina Diaz," 1894; "ANDREA CUE- 
NJER," 1896; "Fedora," 1898; "SI- 
BERIA," Milan, 1904; pupil of the 
Naples Conservatory. B. Aug. 27, 
1803, Foggia; add. Naples. 

Giorgi (Brigitta) was ilie name of 
a sinj,'er better known as BANTI. 

Giordani (Carmine) composed the 
opera "La Vittoria d'Amor," 1712, 
songs, and organ music; embarked in 
comic opera witli his family in Naples; 
appeared in London, 1753. Tommaso 
composed the comic opera " Love in 
Disguise," " Artaserse," " Persever- 
ance," taught and conducted success- 
fully in Dublin. B. 1740, Naples; 
son of CAIUIINE; d. about 1798. 
Giuseppe composed the operas ' L'As- 
tuto in imbroglio," " II Bacio," the 
oratorios " La Fuga in Egitto," " Le 
tre ore d'Agonia di Nostro Signore 
Gesu Cristo," a mass, overtures, cham- 
ber music, the songs " Caro mio ben," 
and " Let not age." B. Naples, 1744 ; 
son of CARMINE; d. 1798, Fermo. 

Giovanelli (Ruggiero) composed 
masses in eight and 12 parts, madri- 
gals ; succeeded Palestrina as chapel- 
master at St. Peter's, Rome, 1594. B. 
Velletri, near Rome, 15G0; d. Rome 
about 1020. 

Giovannini (Signer) composed a 
pasticcio " L'Incostanza delusa " and 
probably the song " Willst du dein 
Herz mir schenken"; played violin; 
pupil of Leclair; settled in Berlin, 
1740. D. Berlin, 1782. 

Gioviale. It. Pleasant, jovial. 

Giovialita, con. It. With jollity. 

Gipsy's Warning. Sir Julius 
Benedict's three-act opera to book by 
Linley and Peake was first performed 
April 19, 1838, at Drury Lane, 

Giraffe. Ancient variety of spinet. 

Girardeau (Isabella) sang sop. in 
London operas about 1700; called 
" La Isabella." 

Girelli-Aguilar (Signora) sang 
sop. in London opera, 1772-73, and in 
the music composed by Mozart for the 
wedding of Archduke Ferdinand, Oct. 
17. 1771. 

Gis. Oer. G sharp. 

Giselle. Adolphe Adam's ballet to 

plot by Tlieophile Gautier, adapted 
from Heine, was first performed July 
4, 1841, at the Grand Opera, Paris. 

Gis Moll. Ger. Key of G sharp 

Gismondi (Celeste) sang mez. sop. 
in London opera, 1732-35. M. a Mr. 
Hcmpson; d. Oct. 28, 1735. 

Gittern or Ghittern. Obsolete in- 
strument of the guitar family once 
popular in England, where it finally 
gave way to the Spanish GUlTiiR. 

Gittith. Eeh. Obscure term vari- 
ously interpreted as being the name 
of an instrument, of a vintage song, 
of a tune to which the psalms could 
be sung. 

Giubiloso. It. Jubilant. 

Giuglini (Antonio) sang ten. in 
opera, London debut, 1857 to 1802, 
when he became insane, after a Rus- 
sian tour, B. 1827, Fano; d. Oct. 12, 
1805, Pesaro. 

Giulietta e Romeo. N. Vaccaj's 
three-act opera to book by Romain, 
based on the familiar story of Romeo 
and Juliet, was first performed Oct. 
31, 1825, at Milan. 

Giuramento. G. S. Mercadante's 
opera to book by Rossi, on the same 
subject described under GIOCONDA, 
was first performed, 1837, at La Scala, 

Giustamente. It. Accurately, 

Giusto. It. Strict, suitable, cor- 

Gizziello (Giacchino Conti) sang 
sopranist roles with great success, de- 
but at 15, Rome, appearing in Naples, 
London, Lisbon, and engaged by Fari- 
nelli for Madrid, where he sang three 
years; called Gizziello from his mas- 
ter, D. Gizzi. B. Ari)ino, Naples, Feb. 
28, 1714; d. Oct. 25. 1701, Rome. 

Gladstone (Dr. Francis Edward) 
composed th.e sacred cantatas " Nico- 
demus " and " Philippi," a mass in E 
minor, overture, short mass in E flat, 
services, anthems, " A wet sheet and 
a flowing sea," chorus with orchestra, 
and much music for organ ; played 
organ in St. ]\Iary of the Angels. Bays- 
water, 1887-94; taught Royal Col- 
lege of Music. B. Summertown, near 
Oxford, Mar. 2, 1845; add, London. 




Glareanus (Henricus) wrote " Isa- 
go^e in musicen Heniici (jJlareaiii " 
and other iinpoitant works on theory, 
in which he tried to prove the identity 
of the church with the ancient Greek 
modes; became poet laureate to tlie 
liimperor, 1512, lor a poem which he 
wrote, composed, and sang to his own 
accompaniment; professor of mathe- 
matics at iiasle and, on recommenda- 
tion of Erasmus, of philosophy and 
the liberal arts in Paris; real name 
Loris. B. 14ti8, Canton of Glarus, 
Switzerland; d. Mar. 28, 1563, 

Glasenapp (Carl Friedrich) wrote 
"Eichard Wagner, Leben und Wirken," 
which is the authoritative biography; 
Eng. trans. Ashton Ellis. B. Oct. 3, 
18-17, Riga; add. Riga. 

Glaser (Franz) composed the suc- 
cessful opera " Des Adlers Horst," 
Berlin, 1832; conducted at Vienna 
theatres, court conductor at Copen- 
hagen, 1842. B. April 19, 1798, Ober- 
georgenthal, Bohemia; d. Aug 29, ISGl, 

Glasses, Musical. Glasses which 
are tuned by being partly filled with 
water, and played by rubbing the 
wetted finger across the rim. Benja- 
min Franklin's invention of an instru- 
ment comoosed of glasses is described 

Glazounow (Alexander Constan- 
tinovich) composed the very popular 
l)allet " Kayinonda," seven symphonies, 
tlie symphonic poems " Stenka Razin," 
" The Forest," " The Kremlin," much 
chamber music, ranked as the best 
song composer of the New Russian 
school. Born of a musical family, 
Glazounow had lessons in piano and 
theory at nine, and had begun to com- 
pose at 13. He was given private les- 
sons by Rimsky Korsakov on the rec- 
ommendation of Balakirev, and at 16 
composed his first symphony, the 
Quartet in D, which ranks as Op. 1, 
and a suite for piano on the theme 
S A C H A, the diminutive of his own 
name, Alexander. Rubinstein con- 
ducted the first performance of his 
overture on Greek themes, Op. 3, and 
Liszt made his works known outside 
of Russia. In 1889 Glazounow con- 

ducted at the Paris Exposition, and 
he has since officiated in that capacity 
in Russia. In 1900 he taught the class 
in instrumentation at the St. Peters- 
burg Conservatory, of which he was 
director in 1908. Among important 
compositions not already referred to 
may be mentioned : " The Sea," or- 
chestral fantasia ; '" Scenes de ballet," 
orchestral suite; Coronation cantata, 
mixed chorus, soli, and orchestra. Op. 
50; ballet, "Ruses d'Amour," Op. 61; 
Memorial cantata for the Leeds Festi- 
val, 1901, soli, choir, and orchestra; 
HjTun to Poushkin for female chorus. 
Op. 66; ballet " The Seasons," Op. 07 ; 
string quartet in D, Op. 70 ; " Chant 
du Menestrel " for 'cello, with piano or 
orchestra accompaniment; piano so- 
nata in B flat. Op. 74 ; piano sonata in 
E, Op. 75 ; orchestral suite, " Aus dem 
Mittelalter," Op. 79. B. St. Peters- 
burg, Aug. 10, 1865; add. St. 

Gleason (Frederick Grant) com- 
posed the romantic operas " Otto Vis- 
conti " and " Montezuma," the latter 
to his own libretto; the symphonic 
poem " Edris," the cantatas " God our 
Deliverer," "The Culprit Fay," "Praise 
Song to Harmony," " Auditoriimi Fes- 
tival Ode," choruses, part songs, cham- 
ber music; played organ; pupil of 
Dudley Buck in Hartford, of ilos- 
cheles, Plaidy, Richter, and Lobe at 
the Leipsic Conservatory; played or- 
gan in various American cities, set- 
tling in Chicago, 1877. B. Dec. 17, 
1848, Middletown, Conn.; d. Chicago, 
Dec. 6, 1903. 

Glee. Part song harmonized for 
three or more voices, usually male. 
This form of composition originated 
in England, where it was the fashion 
from 1760 to 1830. Samuel Webbe, 
Stevens, Callcott, and Horsley were 
foremost among the composers of 

Glee Club had its beginning in 
meetings held at the house of Robert 
Smith, London, 1783, at which part 
songs were sung after dinner ; was or- 
ganized at the Newcastle Coffee House, 
1787, and gave entertainments in 
which the best Englisli musicians par- 
ticipated until its dissolution, 1857. 




Gleich. Gcr. Equal, alike. 

Glen (Thomas Macbean) made 
musical instruments in Edinburgh, 
establishing the business, 1827. 13. 
1804, Fifeshire; d. July 12, 1873. 
His sons John and Robert continued 
the business, being noted chieliy for 
their bagpipes. 

Gli. It. The. 

Glide. GLISSANDO, portamento. 

Gliere (Reinhold Moritzovich) 
composed a symphony in E flat, 1899; 
sextet for strings. Op. 1 ; string quar- 
tet, Op. 2 ; string octet. Op. 3 ; pupil 
of the Moscow Conservatory, 1894- 
1900, where he won the gold medal. 
B. Dec. 30, 1874, Kiev; add. St. 

Glinka (Michael Ivanovich) com- 
posed the first national Russian opera, 
" A Life for the Czar," " Russian and 
Lioudmilla," based on Poushkin's 
poem, the failure of which caused him 
to thereafter devote himself to or- 
chestral works. While a school boy 
in St. Petersburg, Glinka studied 
piano for a short time with John 
Field, and afterwards with Obmana 
and Carl Meyer and violin with Bohm. 
After a tour in the Caucasus, he re- 
tired to his country estate, where he 
studied the w'orks of Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven, and Cherubini. In 1823 
he accepted an official post in St. 
Petersburg, but continued the study 
of music, even taking vocal lessons 
from Belloli, and mingling with a 
society at once artistic and aristo- 
cratic. In 1828 he made an Italian 
tour and met Bellini and Donizetti. 
In 1833 he studied composition with 
Dehn in Berlin, and on his return to 
Russia, set about his first serious work 
in music, a national opera. Jou- 
kowsky, the poet, suggested " Ivan 
Sousanin " as the hero, and Baron 
Rozen wrote the libretto for the work 
which was first performed as " A Life 
for the Czar," Nov. 27, 1836. After 
two years spent in the service of the 
Imperial Chapel, the failure of his 
second opera decided Glinka upon 
leaving Russia, and he spent some 
time in Paris, where he was deeply in- 
fluenced by Berlioz, and in Spain, 
where he gathered material for future 

work. He returned to St. Petersburg 
on the outbreak of the Crimean war, 
and again became interested in cluirch 
music. He was in Berlin in 18.50, 
studj'ing church music with Dehn, 
when seized with a fatal illness. 
Other works to be noted are two Span- 
ish overtures, " Jota Aragonese " and 
" Night in Madrid," the fantasia " Ka- 
marinskaya," incidental music to 
" Prince Kholmsky," " Valse Fantai- 
sic," 40 works for piano, " Pathetic," 
trio for piano, clarinet, and bassoon, 
string quartet in F ; Memorial cantata 
for Alexander I, the Polish hjinn for 
mixed chorus and orchestra; 85 songs, 
10 duets, and six quartets and trios. 
B. June 2, 1803, Novopasskoi, Smo- 
lensk; d. Feb. 15, 1857, Berlin. 

Glissando. It. Playing a rapid 
passage in piano music by sliding the 
finger over the keys instead of striking 
each separately; in violin music a 
rapid slur. 

Glisser. Fr. To slide. 

Glockenspiel. (ler. An instru- 
ment consisting of bells attuned to the 
diatonic scale and played by a key- 
board attachment; organ stop of two 

Gloria. The name for the hymn 
" Gloria in Excelsis " in the Roman 
Catholic liturgA', and for the " Gloria 
Patri " in the Anglican liturgy. The 
Gloria Patri is sung at the end of 
each psalm. In the SlASS the Gloria 
in Excelsis follows the Kvrie. In the 
mediately before the benediction. 

Glottis. Aperture in the LARYNX 
by which the voice is controlled; reeds 
used in ancient wood-wind instruments. 

Gloucester Festival. English 
music festival better known as the 

Glover (Charles W.) composed 
" Jeannette and Jeannot," " Sing not 
that song to me," " Of love, pretty 
maidens, beware," and other popular 
songs. B. 1806, London; d. Mar. 23, 
1863, London. 

Glover (John William) composed 
an opera on " The Deserted Village," 
1880; two Italian operas to Meta- 
stasio's books, "Ode to Thomas INIoore," 
the cantatas " St. Patrick at Tara " 




and "Erin's Matin Song"; founded 
the Dublin Choral Institute, 1851; di- 
rected music in Dublin Pro-cathedral. 
B. June 19, 1815, Dublin; d. Dec. 18, 

Glover (Sarah. Ann) developed the 
Tonic Sol-fa system; wrote "Manual 
containing a Development of the Tet- 
rachordal System," 1850. B. 1785, 
Norwich, Eng.; d. Oct. 20, 1867, 

Glover (Stephen Ralph) com- 
posed " What are the wild waves 
saying," Longfellow's " Excelsior," 
" Songs from the Holy Scriptures," 
and in all about 1500 songs and piano 
pieces. B. 1812, London; d. Dec. 7, 
1870, London. 

Glover CWilliara Howard) com- 
posed the operas " Ruy Bias," Covent 
Garden, 1801, "Once Too Often," "The 
Coquette," " Palomita," overtures to 
" Manfred " and " Comala," the can- 
tata " Tam O'Shanter," songs ; wrote 
criticisms for the London " Morning 
Post"; conducted at Niblo's Garden, 
New York. B. June 6, 1819, London; 
son of Mrs. Glover, the actress; d. 
Oct. 28, 1875, New York. 

Gluck, von (Christoph Willibald) 
reformed the opera, reducing nivisic to 
its proper function, that of seconding 
poetry by enforcing the expression of 
the sentiment and the interest of the 
situations, without interrupting the 
action or weakening it by superlluous 
ornament. To paraphrase Gluck's o\\ti 
words in his dedication to his great 
opera " Alceste," his idea was that 
the relation of music to poetry was 
much the same as that of harmonious 
colouring and well disposed light and 
shade to accurate drawing, which 
animate the figures without altering 
their outlines. These and other prin- 
ciples enunciated by Gluck have been 
the germs of all subsequent attempts 
at the improvement of opera, whetlier 
by Berlioz, Meyerbeer, Weber, or Wag- 
ner and his followers, or the " Young 
Italian " school. Born on the estates 
of Prince Lobkowitz. to whom his par- 
ents were servants, Gluck had his first 
lessons on the violin, harpsichord, and 
organ, and in singing in the Jesuit 
Bchool at Kommotau, Bohemia. He 

studied under Czernohorsky in Prague, 
1732-35, supporting himself by cliurch 
singing, concerts, and playing at coun- 
try dances. In 1836 he went to Vi- 
enna, met Prince Melzi at the Lobko- 
witz house, and in the service of that 
gentleman studied with Sammartini in 
Milan. " Artaserse," 1741, and half a 
dozen other successful Italian operas 
were the fruits of this first period in 
his development. Contemptuous treat- 
ment accorded him by Handel during 
a London engagement at which hia 
"La Caduta de' Giganti," " Arta- 
mene," and the pasticcio " Piramo e 
Tisbe " were produced only caused him 
to work with more serious purpose. 
He studied Rameau's operas during a 
sojourn in Paris, applied himself to 
the art and literature of the classic 
periods of various peoples, and ten 
years after his failure in London, or 
in 1755, established himself as a com- 
poser in Vienna. His " Antigono," 
Rome, 1756, gained him the Golden 
Spur with the title of " Ritter " and 
the prefix " von." The operas com- 
posed during this period have long 
since been forgotten, but he was mak- 
ing progress, and as singing master to 
Marie Antoinette, acquired the good 
will and esteem of that princess, which 
afterwards proved most useful. " AL- 
CESTE," Vienna, Dec. 16, 1797, and 
" Paride ed Elena," 1770, produced at 
Vienna, were the first operas in which 
he exemplified his art theories. The 
adverse criticism which they provoked 
determined his withdrawal to Paris, 
where his " IPHIGENIE EN AU- 
LIDE," based on Racine's drama, was 
produced April 19, 1774, at the Op^ra. 
Only the patronage of his former pupil, 
Marie Antoinette, now Queen of France, 
sufficed to uphold the composer, but 
this work, followed by " ORPIIEE ET 
EURYDICE," 1774, and "Alceste," 
adapted to the French stage, 1776, 
eventually resulted in the shelving 
of Rameau and Lulli. " ARMIDE " 
was produced Sept. 23, 1777. Piccinni, 
the Italian composer, produced his "Ro- 
land " on the same theme four mcjnths 
later, and then began the war of the 
Gluckists and Piccinnists. which for a 
time divided the musicians of France 




into two hostile camps, but resulted iu 
a complete victory for Gluck. liotli com- 
posers set "IPHIGENIE EN TAU- 
RIDE," but that of Gluck, May 18, 
177!), was wholly successful, while that 
of Piccinni, Jan. 23, 1781, fell Hat. 
"Echo et Narcisse," Sept. 21, 1779, 
proved to be Gluck's last opera, and it 
was not a complete success. He had 
meant to compose "Les Danaides," but 
was struck down with apoplexy, gave 
the libretto to Salieri, and retired to 
Vienna. Others of Gluck's operas 
whieli may be mentioned are: " Semi- 
ramide riconosciuta," 1748; "La Cle- 
mfmza di Tito," 1752, "Telemaoco," 
1765, " L'Arbre enchante," 1775 ; " Cy- 
there Assi(5g(5e," 1775. Besides his 
operas Gluck composed church music, 
S)^Tnphonies, a concert, a string quar- 
tet, trios, sonatas, and songs. B. July 
2, 1714, VVeidenwang, Upper Palati- 
nate; d. Nov. 15, 1787, Vienna. 

G Moll. Ger. Key of G minor. 

Gnaccare. It. Castinets. 

Gnecco (Francesco) composed the 
operas " Carolina e Filandro," Paris, 
1817; "La Prova d'un opera seria," 
Milan, 1805, and other operas. B. 
Genoa, 1769; d. 1811, Turin. 

Godard (Benjamin Louis Paul) 
composed " Tasso," dramatic sym- 
phony with soli and chorus which 
won the Paris municipal prize, 1878; 
" Scenes Po^tiques," " Diane," dra- 
matic poem; Symphonie-ballet ; 
" Ouverture dramatique," " Symphonie 
Gothique," " Symphonie Orientale," 
" Les Elephants," " Symphonie L€- 
gendaire " for orchestra with soli and 
chorus; the " Lanterne magique " 
suite, the operas " Les Bijoux de Jean- 
nette," " Pedro de Zalamea," " Joce- 
lyn," "Le Dante," "Jeanne d'Arc," 
'■ La Vivandiere," " Les Guelphes," 
and " Ruy Bias." Pupil of the Paris 
Conservatoire, he studied violin under 
Hammer and harmony with Reber; 
played viola in various chamber or- 
ganizations, and composed songs and 
chamber music as well as in larger 
forms. B. Aug. 18, 1849, Paris; d. 
Jan. 10, 1895. Cannes. 

Godbid (William) printed all the 
musical publications of John Play- 
ford, London, 1G58-78. For the next 

10 years the business was in the bands 
of his widow, and on her death it was 
taken over by J. Playford, Jr., and 
sold at auction on his death, 1686. 

Goddard (Arabella) played piano 
with distinction, debut at Loudon, 
1S50, touring Europe, America, Aus- 
tralia, and India; pupil of Kalkbren- 
ner, Tlialherg, and of .1. W. Davison, 
whom slie married, 1859. B. Jan. 12, 
1836, St. Malo, Brittany; add. Tun- 
bridge Wells, Eng. 

Godefroid (Jules Joseph) com- 
posed the comic operas " Le Diaste " 
and " La Chasse royal " ; played harp. 
B. Feb. 23, 1811, Namur; d. Feb. 27, 
1840, Paris. Dieudonne Joseph 
Guillaume Felix composed the operas 
" La harpe d'or " and " La derniere 
bataille"; the oratorio "La fille du 
Saul," and harp music; played harp. 
B. July 24, 1818, Namur; brother of 
JULES JOSEPH; d. July 8, 1897, 

Godfrey (Charles) was bassoon 
player and bandmaster of the Cold- 
stream Guards for 50 years; founded 
" JuUien's Journal," the first English 
publication devoted to military music. 
B. Ivingston, Surrey, Eng., Nov. 22, 
1790; d. Dec. 12, 1863. Daniel com- 
posed waltzes for military band; first 
bandmaster of the Grenadier Guards, 
then of his own band, with which he 
toured America, 1872. B. Sept. 4, 
1831; son of CHARLES; d. June 30, 
1903, Beeston, near Nottingham. 
Adolphus Frederick succeeded his 
father CHARLES as bandmaster of 
tire Coldstream Guards, held that post 
17 years. B. 1837, Westminster; d. 
Aug. 28, 1882. Charles, Jr., served 
as bandmaster of the Scots Fusiliers, 
1859 to 1868, when he accepted a simi- 
lar post with the Royal Horse Guards, 
and served until 1904 ; taught mili- 
tary music. Royal College of Music 
and Guildhall School of Music, London. 
B. Jan. 17, 1839; d. 1904; son of 
CHARLES. Daniel Eyers conducted 
the London Jlilitary Band. 1890, 
toured South Africa with opera com- 
pany, became conductor and manager 
of concerts at Bournemouth, Eng. 
B. 1868; son of DANIEL; add. 
Bournemouth. Arthur Eugene com- 




posed the musical comedy " Little Miss 
Nobody," a string quartet, and songs; 
conducted at London theatres; man- 
ager of Hopwood & Crew. li. Sept. 28, 
1868; son of CHAELES, JK.; add. 
London. Charles George arranged 
military music; composed for orches- 
tra; directed music at the Spa, Scar- 
borough, Eng. B. Dec, 1860; son of 
(JHAKLES, JR.; add. Scarborough. 
Herbert A. composed the ballet " The 
Home of the Butterflies " ; played solo 
cornet and conducted the Crystal Pal- 
ace Military Band. B. 1869; son of 
CHAKLES, JR.; add. London. 

Godowsky (Leopold) composed a 
Polonaise in C, two concert valses, a 
Toccata, songs, 50 studies on Chopin; 
played piano in concert with distinc- 
tion ; founded a music school in 
Chicago; pupil of Bargiel and Rudorff 
at the Berlin Hochschuie. B. Feb. 13, 
1870, Wilna, Russian Poland; add. 

God save the King was written 
and composed, in all probability, by 
Henry Carey, and sung by him as his 
own work at a dinner given in 1740 
by Admiral Vernon to celebrate the 
taking of Portobello. The authorship 
has been claimed, however, for Lulli, 
Dr. Bull, James Oswald, a Scotch 
musician, and is probably an adapta- 
tion of folksong. The so-called na- 
tional anthem of England, it senses as 
the tune of " MY COUNTRY 'T IS OF 
THEE," otherwise " America " ; as 
the tune of the Danish national air, 
" Heil Dir, dem libenden," and the 
German " Heil Dir im Siegerkranz." 
The tune was employed by von Weber 
in his Jubel overture, " Kampf und 
Sieg," No. 9, and he twice harmonized 
it for four voices, and by Beethoven 
in his " Battle Symphony." Beethoven 
wrote seven variations on it for 
piano, and arranged it for solo and 
chorus with piano, violin, and 'cello 

Goetz (Hermann) composed the 
successful opera " Der Widerspiinsti- 
gen Ziihmung " to J. V. Widmann's 
book based on *' Tlie Taming of the 
Shrew," choral setting of Schiller's 
" Niinie," Psalm cxxxvii for sop., cho- 
rus, and orchestra, symphony in F 

major, violin concerto in G major, 
songs, and the posthumous opera, 
" Francesca di Rimini," which was not 
successful. Pupil of Ulrich in com- 
position and von Billow for piano at 
the Stern Conservatory, Berlin; died 
on the threshold of a brilliant career. 
B. Dec. 17, 1840, Kunigsberg; d. Dec. 
3, 1876. 

Goldberg (Johann Gottlieb) com- 
posed a motet, psalms, instrumental 
music, all of which is unpublished; 
played organ and clavier admirably; 
Avas J. S. Bach's favourite pupil ; was 
chamber musician to Count Bruehi, 
prime minister of Saxony, for whom he 
wrote the 30 " Goldbeig Variations." 
B. 1720, Konigsberg. 

Goldberg (Joseph Pasquale) in- 
stituted reforms in the Italian music 
schools with the approval of the Min- 
istry of Public instruction, 1871; 
played violin and sang and taught 
vocal ; composed " La Marcia Trion- 
fale," to which Victor Emmanuel's 
troops first entered Rome; Chevalier 
of the Crown of Italy. B. Jan. 1, 1825, 
Vienna; d. Dec. 20, 1890, Vienna. 

Goldmark (Carl) composed the 
HEARTH" (Das Heimchen am 
VON SABA," "Goetz von Berlichin- 
gen," " Die Kriegsgefangene," " Der 
Fremdling," the widely known orches- 
tral pieces " Sakuntala," " Penthesi- 
lea," and "Landliche Hochzeit" 
(suite), and chamber music. In 1844 
he became a pupil of Bohm, Jansa, 
and Preyer at the Vienna Conserva- 
tory, and when that institution was 
temporarily closed four years later 
played in theatrical orchestras at 
Raab, where he narrowly escaped being 
shot as a rebel, and in Vienna, where 
he made his debut as a composer in 
1857. The "Queen of Sheba," or 
" Konigin von Saba," pro(luce<l at 
the Imperial Vienna Opera, 1875, es- 
tablished him as a composer. There- 
after his life was industrious but un- 
eventful. Other works to be noted 
are: Scherzo in E minor for orchestra, 
" Friihlingshymne " for con., chorus, 
and orchestra; sonata for violin and 
piano in D, Op. 25; violin concerto in 




A minor, Op. 28 ; symphony in E flat, 
Up. 35 ; sonata for piano and "cello. 
Op. 39; suite in E flat lor piano and 
violin, Op. 43; the symphonic poem 
" Zrinyi," and a second violin con- 
certo, B. Keszthely on the Platten- 
see, Hungary, May 18, 1830; add. 

Goldsclimidt, von (Adalbert) 
composed the allegorical opera '* Die 
Sielten Todsunden," Berlin, 1876, the 
music drama " Helianthus " to his own 
hook ; the trilogy " Gaea," " Die fronime 
Helene," Hamhiirg, 1897, a syni))honic 
poem and nearly 100 songs. B. May 5, 
1848, Vienna : d. Vienna, Dec. 21, 1906. 

Goldschmidt (Otto) founded the 
Bach Choir in London ; comjiosed a 
piano concf^rto and the oratorio 
"Kuth"; conducted Jenny Lind's 
American concerts in succession to 
Stemdale Bennett ; married Jenny 
Lind in Boston, Feb. 5, 1852; con- 
ducted Diisseldorf and Hamburg Festi- 
vals; vice principal Royal Academy 
of Music, London. B. Hamburg, Aug. 
21, 1829; d. Feb. 24, 1907. 

Goldwin (John) composed the an- 
them " 1 have set God ahvay before 
me," Service in F, and other church 
music; played organ St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. B. 1670; d. Kov. 
7, 1719. 

Golinelli (Stefano) composed 200 
piano pieces, including 12 studies, 48 
preludes, five sonatas; toured Europe 
as concert pianist; taught in the Bo- 
logna Liceo, 1840-70. B. Oct. 20, 1818, 
Bologna; d. July 3, 1891, Bologna. 

Gollmick (Adolf) composed the 
operas " Balthazar," " The Oracle," 
" Dona Costanza," " The Heir of 
Lynne," sjinphony in C minor, dra- 
matic cantata " The Blind Beggar of 
Bethnal Green"; gave concerts in 
Germany and England. B. Frankfort- 
am-Main, Feb. 5, 1825; d. Mar. 7, 
1883, London. 

Goltermann (August Julius) 
taught 'cello at Prague; played in 
Stuttgart court band. B. Hamburg, 
July 15, 1825; d. 1876, Stuttgart. 

Goltermann (Georg Eduard) 
composed a concerto for 'cello; a sym- 
phony, toured Europe as concert 'cell- 
ist; conducted 25 years at the Frank- 

fort Stadt Theatre. B. Aug. 19, 1824, 
iianover; d. Dec. 29, 1898, Frankfort. 

Gombert (Nicholas) composed 
songs and church music; pupil of Jos- 
quin; musician to the Emperor Charles 
v., preljend and canon of Tournai, 
attached to tiie linjierial chapel in 
Madrid. B. Bruges about 1495. 

Gomez (Antonio Carlos) composed 
" 11 baluto del Brasile " for the Pliila- 
delphia Exposition, 1876; the cantata 
" Colombo " for the Columbus Festival 
of 1892; the operas " 11 Guarany," La 
Scala, 1870; " Fosca," "Salvator 
Rosa," Genoa, 1874; "Maria Tudor," 
"Lo Schiavo," 1889, and "Condor," 
Milan, 1891. The composer's first suc- 
cess in dramatic work was " A noite 
do castello," Rio de Janeiro, 1867, 
after which he w^as sent to Europe to 
study by the Emperor of Brazil. B. 
July 11, 1839, Compinas, Brazil; d. 
Sept. 16, 1896, Para. 

Gom.pertz (Richard) composed 
sonata for violin and piano, violin 
concerto, songs and violin studies ; 
founded the Cambridge string quartet ; 
taught violin at the Royal College of 
Music, London; pupil of Joachim. B. 
April 27, 1859, Cologne; add. Dresden. 

Gondoliers. Sir Arthur Sullivan's 
comic opera to the last book written 
for him by W. S. Gilbert was first per- 
formed at the Savoy Theatre, London, 
Dec. 7, 18S9. The two gondoliers are 
ilarco and Giuseppe, one of whom is 
king of Barataria, stolen in infancy 
as punishment to the reigning king for 
having become a Methodist, and as the 
person who knows them apart or 
should, had such a terrible taste for 
tippling that he could not be relied 
upon, both gondoliers are sent back 
to Barataria to reign until the truth 
shall be disclosed, pending which there 
is much of Mr. Gilbert's keen humour 
and of Sir Arthur's best music. Some 
of the musical numbers are : " We 're 
called Gondolieri," Marco and Giu- 
seppe : " In Enterprise of Martial 
Kind," the Duke ; " There was a time," 
Casilda and Luiz; " I stab the Prince," 
Inquisitor; "When a merry maiden 
marries," Tessa; "Then one of us 
will be Queen," quartet; "For every 
one who feels inclined," ]Marco and 




chorus ; " Rising early in the morn- 
ing," (jiuseppe; " There lived a king," 
the Inquisitor; "On the Day when I 
was wedded," the Duchess; " I am a 
courtier grave and serious," quintet. 

Gong. Chinese percussion instru- 
ment consisting of a thin plate of 
bronze which emits a weird crashing 
sound when struck, or rather rubbed 
with a padded drumstick. 

Goodban (Thomas Goodhurst) 
wrote " The Rudiments of Music," 
1825, instruction books for the violin 
and piano; founded and directed the 
Canterbury Catch Club and sang in 
Canterbury Cathedral. B. Dec. 21, 
17 84, Canterbury; d. May 4, 1803, 
Canterbury. Charles played 'cello. 
B. 1ST2; son of T. G.; d. 1881. 
Henry William composed an overture 
and played 'cello. B. 18 IG, son of 
T. G. Thomas played viola. B. 1822 ; 
son of T. G. Frederic played 
violin; organist at St. John's, Pad- 
dington. B. 1833; nephew of T. G.; 
d. Feb. 1, 1903, Harborne, Kent, Eng. 

Goodgroome (John) sang in Eng. 
Chapel Royal and became musician in 
ordinary to Charles II. B. 1630; d. 
June 27, 1704, London. 

Goodson (Richard) taught music, 
Oxford Universitv ; played organ at 
Christ Church. B. 1655; d. Jan. 13, 
1718, Great Tew. Richard succeeded 
to his father's Oxford appointments 
and was also organist to New College. 
B. 1709; son of RICHARD; d. Jan, 
9, 1741. 

Goovaerts(Alphonse Jean Marie) 
helped Belgian prelates to found the 
Gregorian Association, 1881; wrote a 
" History of Music Printing in the 
Netherlands," which won the gold 
medal of the Belgian Academie; "La 
Musique d':&glise " ; composed church 
music; rendered valuable service in 
transcribing Palestrina, Lasso, etc., 
while musical secretary to the Ant- 
werp CathedraL B. May 25, 1847, 
Antwerp; add. Antwerp. 

Gordigiani (Luigi) composed tlie 
opera " Filippo," in wluch lie, his wife, 
and brother took part, Naples, 1840; 
nine other operas, and more than 300 
highly popular songs. B. June 21, 1806, 
Modena; d. May 1, 18G0, Florence, 

Gordon (John) became Gresham 
professor of music at Oxford, 1723. 
B. Mar. 26, 1702, London; d. Dec, 12, 

Gordon (William) anticipated 
Bohm's improvements of the flute, but 
failed to market his inventions and 
became insane; captain of the Swiss 
Guards in Paris and an amateur flaut- 
ist. B. Switzerland, of English de- 
scent; d. about 1840. 

Gorgheggi. It. Trills, quiverings. 

Goria (Alexandre Eduard) taught 
piano and composed drawing room 
pieces; won first piano prize Paris 
Conservatoire, 1835. B. 1823, Paris; 
d. Julv 6, ISGO. 

Gosba. Arabian FLUTE. 

Goss (Dr. Sir John) composed " If 
we believe," " Praise the Lord, my 
Soul," and in all 27 anthems; wrote 
" An Introduction to Harmony and 
Thorough Bass," 1833, and the " Or- 
ganist's Companion "; edited " Chants 
Ancient and Modern," the " Church 
Psalter and Hymnbook"; played or- 
gan St, Paul's Cathedral and became 
composer to the Eng. Chapel Royal, 
B. Dec. 27, 1800, Fareham, Hants, 
Eng.; son of an organist; d. May 10, 
1880, Brixton. 

Goss (John Jeremiah) sang alto 
in Eng. Chapel Royal; became vicar 
choral of St. Paul's, and lay vicar 
Westminster Abbey. B. 1770, Salis- 
bury; d. April 25, 1817, London. 

Gossec (Frangois Joseph) com- 
posed 26 sjTtiphonies for full orches- 
tra, the first of which appeared before 
Haydn's earliest publication, " Les 
Pecheurs," 1776, "Alexis et Daphne," 
" Phile'mon et Baucis," and other 
highly popular operas, a " Messe Des 
Morts" for St. Roch, 1760, in which 
he introduced a double orchestra for 
the "Tuba Mirum"; founded the 
" Concert des Amateurs," Paris, 1770; 
reorganized the " Concerts Spirituel," 
1773; conducted at the Acadtoie; or- 
ganized the " :6cole de Chant," which 
preceded the Conservatoire de Musique, 
1784; conducted the band of the Na- 
tional Guard during the French Revo- 
lution, and composed the " Hymne a 
I'Etre Supreme," music for Mirabeau'a 
funeral ; was joint inspector of the 




Conservatoire with Chcrubini on tlie 
establishment of that institution ; 
member of the Institut; Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. In boyhood 
Gossec was chorister in the Antwerp 
Cathedral, and when his voice broke 
he went to Paris, where he met 
Rameau, 1751, through whose inllu- 
ence he became conductor of the pri- 
vate band maintained by La Popelin- 
iere, and later composer and conductor 
to the Prince de Conde. Largely self- 
taught, almost without inlluence, Gos- 
sec's rise was wholly due his own 
talents and industry. B. Vergnies, 
Belgium, Jan. 17, 1734; d. Passy, Feb. 

16, 1829. 

Gostling (Rev. John) sang in 
Eng. Chapel Boyal, famous for com- 
pass and volume of his bass; became 
royal chaplain and sub-dean of St. 
Paul's. B. Kent, Eng., 1650; d. July 

17, 1733. 
Gotterdammerung. The fourth 

and last part of Richard Wagner's 
first performed Aug. 17, 1876, at 

Gottschalk (Louis Moreau) be- 
came the most celebrated of American 
piano virtuosi, touring Europe and 
North and South America with great 
success; composed the sjnnphonies "La 
Nuit des TropiquKs " and " Monte- 
video," the operas " Charles IX," and 
" Isaura de Salerno," for which he 
could not obtain a hearing, a tri- 
umphal cantata, grand march for the 
Emperor of Brazil, " Escenas campes- 
tres cubanas," " Tarantella " for piano 
and orchestra, and much forgotten 
piano music, including " Bananier," 
which made him famous at 16. Gotts- 
chalk was the son of an English sci- 
entist, his mother being a daughter of 
Count Antoine de Brusle. GoA'ernor 
of San Domingo. The family was 
wealthy, and having manifested a 
talent for music at an early age, he 
was sent to Paris to study, his mas- 
ters being Charles Halle, Camille 
Stamaty, and Maleden. Loss of the 
family fortune decided him upon a 
professional career, and his first tour 
in Europe was made in 1852 with com- 
plete success. Later he toured under 


the management of Mux Strakosch. 
B. May 8, 1829, New Orleans; d. Dec, 
18, 1S69, Rio do Janeiro. 

Gottsched (Johann Christopli) 
aided in establishing German opera 
and while professor at Leipsic Uni- 
versitj^ made his home an important 
music centre. B. near Konigsberg, 
Eel). 2, 1700; d. Dec. 12, 1760, Leipsic. 

Goudimel (Claude) composed five 
masses and a magnificat in early life, 
joined the Huguenots about 1558, com- 
posed numerous psalms which are re- 
printed in the psalters of tlie Re- 
formed Church in various languages 
during the 17th and 18th centuries; 
composed chansons published in Paris, 
1549, 1572. Certain of Goudimel's 
themes appear in Palestrina's works, 
but recent researches have disproved 
the tradition that he founded a music 
school in Rome where Palestrina was 
said to have been one of his pupils. 
B. about 1505, Besangon; killed in 
the attack on the Huguenots at Lyons, 
Aug. 27, 1572. 

Goulding & Co. published music 
in London, 1784 to 1835, when the 
firm became D'Almaine & Co., and con- 
tinued under that name until 1867, in 
which year the stock and plates were 
sold by auction. 

Gounod (Charles) composed 
" FAUST," which deservedly ranks 
with the most popular operas in mod- 
ern repertoire, "ROMEO ET JULI- 
ETTE," the beauty of which has only 
recently been appreciated, much church 
music of the highest order; ranked 
with the greatest of modern composers 
not only of France, but of the world. 
Gounod's mother, an able musician and 
pianist, was his first instructor, but 
liaving completed a clnssical course at 
the Lycee St. Louis, he entered the 
Paris Conservatoire. 1836, studying 
counterpoint under Hal4%y and com- 
position with Paer and Lesueur. 
" Mai'ie Stuart et Rizzio," his cantata, 
won the prix de Rome, 1837, and his 
cantata " Fernand " won the grand 
prix, 1839. In Rome he was a careful 
student of Palestrina. A mass for 
tliroe voices an<l orchestra was pro- 
duced, 1841, and the 3-part mass a 
capella, Vienna, 1842. He returned to 




Paris by way of Austria and Germany, 
and on the journey first became 
acquainted with Schumann's music. 
Again settled in Paris, he became or- 
ganist and clioirmaster at the " Mis- 
sions etrangeres," and studied for the 
priestliood, without, however, taking 
orders. His solemn mass in G, soli, 
chorus, orchestra, and organ, dates 
from this period. " Sapho," his first 
opera, was produced April IG, 1851, 
at the Academic, and in 1852 and for 
the next eight years he was conductor 
of the "ORPHEON," for which he 
composed two masses for men's voices. 
The two symphonies in D and E flat 
composed at this time added but little 
to his reputation, and his dramatic 
works met with no great success until 
the production of " Faust," Theatre 
Lyrique, Mar. 19, 1859. The imme- 
diate success of this opera enabled him 
to produce his " Reine de Saba " at 
the Academic, Feb. 28, 1862, but this 
work, although containing several 
gems still heard in concert, was soon 
retired. Then came "Mireille," founded 
on a poem by F. Mistral, " La Colombe," 
and " Rom&» et Juliette," April 27, 
1867. The Franco-Prussian war drove 
Gounod to London, where he appeared 
at many concerts and founded the 
Gounod Choir, but in 1875 he returned 
to Paris, where he produced a number 
of dramatic works, none of which was 
successful. Besides the church music 
already referred to, Gounod composed 
a Stabat Mater with orchestra, a De 
Profundis, an Ave Verum, Te Deum, 
a fourth Messe Solennelle, " Messe a 
Saint Cecile," " Messe a .Jeanne d'Arc," 
"Messe Angeli custodes," the oratorios 
" Tobie," " Les Sept Paroles de Jesus," 
" Jesus sur la lac de Tiberiade." He 
became a member of the Institut, 1866, 
and Grand Officer of the Legion of 
Honor, 1880. Other works to he noted 
are the operas " Nonne Sanglante." 
"Cinq Mars," "Le Medecin malgre lui." 
" Polyeucte," " PHILEMON ET BAU- 
CIS," "Le Tribut de Zamora " ; a sym- 
phony, " La Reine des Apetres," the 
cantata " Le vin des Gaulois et le 
danse do l'<>ppo." the posthumous 
operas "Maitre Pierre" and "Georges 
Dandin," a mass for St. Peter's, Rome; 

the lamentation, " Gallia," soprano, 
chorus, and orchestra, " The Redemp- 
tion," Birmingham Festival, 1882; 
" Mors et Vita," a Meditation for so- 
prano with obbligato violin on a Bach 
Prelude, "Nazareth," "There is a green 
hill," hymns and songs, piano music. 
He also wrote a method for cornet-a- 
piston. B. June 17, 1818, Paris; d. 
Oct. 18, 1893, St. Cloud. See Auto- 
biography; memoirs by Marie Anne 
de Bovet, 1891, and Theodore Dubois, 

Gouvy (Louis Theodore) composed 
the opera '" Der Cid," seven sym- 
phonies, Stabat Mater, Mass, Requiem, 
the cantata " Golgotha," much cham- 
ber music; pupil of Elwaert; member 
of the Berlin Academy, 1895 ; Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor, 1896. B. 
July 2, 1819, Goffontaine, Saarbruck; 
d. April 21, 1898, Leipsie. 

Gow (Niel) became famous for his 
performance of Scotch reels at fash- 
ionable gatherings in London, playing 
violin, aided by his brother Donald, a 
'cellist. Some compositions, such as 
" Caller Herrin," are included with 
those of his four sons in a collection 
issued by the family. B. IVLar. 22, 1727, 
Inver, near Dunkeld; d. there. Mar. 1, 
1807. Nathaniel published music in 
Edinburgh in partnership with Wil- 
liam Shepherd, 1796, later with his 
son Niel ; played violin and led dance 
music; failed in business, but was 
pensioned by George IV and by the 
Caledonian Hunt. B. May 28, 1763, 
Inver; son of NIEL; d. Jan. 19, 1831. 
William played violin and composed 
dance music. B. 1751; son of NIEL; 
d. 1791. John played violin; com- 
posed dance music. B. 1764; son of 
NIEL; d. 1826. Niel, Jr., composed 
" Flora INIacdonald's Lament." " Cam' 
ye by Athol " ; assisted his father 
NATHANIEL in business. B. 1795; 
d. Nov. 7, 1S23. 

Grabu (Louis) composed the opera 
" Ariadne," Drury Lane. 1674, and 
Dryden's " Albion and Albanius "; led 
court band of Charles II. B. France; 
settled in England, 1666; last publi- 
cation 1690. 





TURNS, SHAKES, and other orna- 
ments in vocal and instriunentiil 
music, indicated by various signs in 

Gracieux. Fr. Graceful. 

Gracile. It. Thin, small. 

Grad. Ger. Degree or step in the 

Gradation. By degrees of the 

Gradener (Carl Georg Peter) 
composed two symphonies, the oratorio 
" Johannes der TiLufer," chamber mu- 
sic ; founded tlie Hamburger Ton- 
ktinstlerverein, 1867 ; taught vocal and 
theory in Vienna and Hamburg Con- 
servatories. B. Rostock, Jan. 14, 1812; 
d. June 10, 1883, Hamburg. Hermann 
Theodor Otto composed chamber mu- 
sic and for orchestra; lectured on 
counterpoint and harmony, University 
of Vienna. B. Kiel, May 8, 1844; son 
of C. G. P. ; add. Vienna. 

Gradevole. It. Grateful. 

Gradevolmente. It. Gratefully. 

Graditissimo. It. Most grateful. 

Gradleiter. Ger. Scale. 

Grado. L. Degree or step in the 

Gradual. In the Roman Catholic 
liturgy, music between the Epistle and 
the Gospel ; hence tlie book containing 
the music of the ]\iASS for the use 
of choirs, as distinguished from the 
Missal which is reserved for the 

Gradus ad Parnassum. L. "Tlie 
Road to Parnassus." Joseph FUX 
so entitled his great work on counter- 
point and composition, and the name 
was also adopted by Muzio Clementi 
for his collrrtion of piano studies. 

Grafton (Richard) published Cran- 
mer's Litany, 1544, and reprinted John 
Marbecke's " Booke of Common praier 
noted," 1550. B. London; d. about 

Graham (George Parquhar) com- 
posed ballads and wrote articles on 
musical subjects for the Encyclopedia 
Britannica; largely self tavight in 
music. B. Dec. 29, 1789, Edinburgh; 
d. Mar. 12, 1867. 

Gran Cassa or Tamburo. It. 

Grancino (Paolo) made violins in 

Milan; pupil of Nicolo Amati. B. 
Milan; his instruments are dated from 
16U5 to 1090. Giovanni made viol in- 
struments of quality superior to those 
of his father PAOLO, wiiicli are dated 
1606 to 1715. The business was con- 
tinued by his sons Giambattista and 
Francesco as Fratelli Grancini. 

Grand means in complete classic 
form wlien prefixed to sonata, sym- 
phony, or concerto; complete when pre- 
li.xcd to orchestra; of the largest pro- 
portions, volume, and form when ap- 
plied to a piano; of serious purport 
and sung throughout when prefixed to 

Grand Barr^. Fr. To stop all the 
strings at once with the forefinger in 
guitar playing, thus altering the pitch 
of the instrument. 

Grand Bourdon. 32 ft. pedal 
organ stop. 

Grandezza. It. Grandeur. 

Grandi (Alessandro) composed 
madrigals and church music ; chapel- 
master at San Spirito, Ferrara, 1610- 
17 ; deputy at St. Mark's, Venice, 
1019; chapelmaster Bergamo, 1628; 
d. about 1637. 

Grandiose. It. Grandly. 

Grand Jeu. Fr. With the full 
power of the instrument, full organ. 

Grand Prix de Rome was estab- 
lished 1803 under the control of the 
Academie des Beaux-Arts, which is a 
branch of the Institut de France. 
Competitions are held annually in 
June and the prize is awarded for the 
best composition, formerly a cantata, 
now generally a one-act opera, or if no 
worthy composition is presented, there 
is no award, and two prizes may be 
awarded the following year. The 
winner becomes a pensioner of the 
Government for four years, during 
part of which time he resides at 
the Villa Medici, Rome, which has 
belonged to France since its pur- 
chase by Louis XIV. Besides the 
awards for music, there are prizes for 
painting, sculpture, engraving, archi- 

Grande Orgue. Fr. Full organ; 
great organ. 

Grandsire. Form of Change- 




Gran Gusto. It. Great taste or 

Graninger (Charles Albert) 
founded piano school in Cincinnati; 
conducted the Orpheus Society; pupil 
and later a teacher in Cincinnati Col- 
lege of Music. B. Jan. 2, 1861, Cin- 
cinnati ; add. Cincinnati. 

Granjon (Robert) was among the 
first to substitute round for square or 
lozenge-shaped notes in music print- 
ing. His publications are dated 1523 
in Paris and 1582 at Rome. 

Granom (Lewis Christian Aus- 
ton) composed 12 sonatas for flute, 
published 1751, six trios for flute, 
1755; English songs with string 

Grappa. It. Brace connecting the 

Gras (Julie Aimee Josephe Dorus) 
sang sop. in opera, debut in Brussels, 
1825, at the Paris Opera, and in Lon- 
don to 1849; daughter of the band- 
master Steenkiste, who educated her; 
later a pupil of the Paris Conserva- 
toire. B. Valenciennes, Sept. 7, 1805; 
d. Feb. 6, 1896, Paris. 

Grasset (Jean Jacques) composed 
three violin concertos, sonata for vio- 
lin and piano, five books of violin 
duos; played violin Italian Opera, 
Paris, and taught in the Conserva- 
toire. B. 1769, Paris; d. 1839. 

Grasshopper. Escape jack in 

Grassi (Cecilia) sang sop. in Lon- 
don opera, 1706-72 ; m. John Christian 
Bach. B. Italy, 1746; retired to Italy 
on her husband's death, 1782. 

Grassineau (James) translated 
Brossard's " Dictionnaire de ]\Iusique " 
into English, 1740, while secretary to 
Dr. Pepusch. B. 1715, London; d. 

Grassini (Josephina) sang con. in 
opera, debut in Milan, 1794 ; accom- 
panied Napoleon to Paris after Ma- 
rengo and took part in the national 
fetes and in the opera; engaged for 
London at $15,000 per season, 1804, 
where she became a prime favourite; 
last appearances at Milan, 1817. B. 
1773, Varese, Lombardy; d. Jan. 3, 
1850, Milan. 

Grau (Maurice) was the first 

American manager to make a profit 
on performances of serious opera, earn- 
ing a large fortime as impresario of 
the Metropolitan Opera House, New 
York. Brought to iimerica at the age 
of five by his parents, he was gradu- 
ated from the Free Academy, 1867, 
then spent two years at Columbia Uni- 
versity Law School. In 1872 he formed 
a partnership with Aime in the man- 
agement of Rubinstein, Clara Louise 
Kellogg, and other artists; then be- 
gan business as a manager on his own 
account; became partner of Henry 
Abbey in that gentleman's unfortunate 
enterprises; then a member of the 
firm of Abbey, ShoelTer, and Grau, 
lessees of the Metropolitan Opera 
House, and on the dissolution of that 
firm was made sole lessee and mana- 
ger. Mr. Grau made no pretensions to 
musical culture himself, but was a 
shrewd business man, knowing the 
taste of the New York public. Owing 
to ill health he retired in favour of 
Heinrich Conried in Feb., 1903, and 
settled on his estate at Croisy, France, 
where he died three years later. B. 
1849, Brunn, Austria. 

Graun (Karl Heinrich) became 
chapelmaster to Frederick the Great 
on his accession to the Prussian 
throne, 1740, and in that capacity 
composed "Rodelinda," "Merope," and 
in all 28 Italian operas for the com- 
pany he founded in Berlin by his 
master's orders; composed the famous 
" Tod Jesu," 1755, which has been 
sung in Germany during Passion-week 
every year since then, a Te Deum for 
Freclerick's victory at Prague, etc. 
As a boy Graun was treble singer to 
the town council of Dresden. He was 
a hard student, and at 15 composed a 
creditable " Grosse Passions-Cantata " 
and other works. In early manhood 
he sang ten. at the Dresden opera, for 
which he composed " Pollidoro," 1726, 
and four other operas. In 1735 he be- 
came the guest of Crown Prince Fred- 
erick at Rheinsberg, for whom he com- 
posed 50 Italian cantatas, as well as 
" Trauermusik " for the Duke of 
Brunswick and King Frederick Wil- 
liam I of Prussia; remaining con- 
stantly with Frederick through life. 




B. May 7, 1701, Wahrenbriick; d. Aug. 
8, 1759, Berlin. Johann Gottlieb 
composed violin sonatas, for liarpsi- 
chord, organ, and llute; conducted 
Royal Berlin Orchestra, which he 
brought to high repute. B. 1G98, 
Wahrenbruck; brother of HEIXRICH 
KARL; d. Oct. 27, 1771. August 
Friedrich became cantor of Merse- 
burg, 1727. Eldest brotlier of KARL 
HEINRICH; d. Merseburg, 1771. 

Graupner (Christoph) composed 
" Dido," 1707, " Die Lustige Hoch- 
zeit," and eight other operas performed 
at Hamburg and Darmstadt, church 
and chamber music; chapelmaster at 
Darmstadt. B. Kirchberg, Saxony, 
1687; d. May 10, 1760. 

Grave. Slow and solemn in time; 
deep in pitch. 

Grave Mixture. Organ stop of 
pipes of grave tones. 

Gravement. Fr. In slow solemn 

Graves (Thomas) composed songs, 
madrigals, etc., published London, 
1604; ■' lutenist to Sir Henrie Pierre- 
pont. Knight." 

Gravicembalo. It. Clavicembalo 

Gravita, con. It. With dignity 
and weight. 

Gray (Alan) composed the can- 
tatas " Widow of Zarephath," " Are- 
thusa," Leeds Festival, 1892; "Leg- 
end of the Rock Buoy Bell," Hoving- 
ham Festival, 1893; "Vision of Bel- 
shazzar," Hovingham Festival, 1896; 
" Song of Redemption," Leeds Festi- 
val, 1898; Easter ode. Festival Te 
Deum, chamber music, and songs ; Dr. 
Mus. Trinity, Cambridge, where he 
played organ and conducted. B. York, 
Eng., Dec. 2.3. 185.5: add. London. 

Gray & Davison built organs in 
Eng., 1774. having factory in London. 
Robert, William, and John Gray and 
Frederic Davison were members of the 
firm, which acquired a second factory 
in Liverpool, 1876. 

Grazia, con. If. Gracefully, with 

Graziani (Francesco) sang bar. in 
opera, London, 1855-65. B. April 16, 
1829, Pernio. Lodovico created Al- 
fredo in "Traviata." B. 1823, Fermo; 

brother of FRANCESCO; d. 1SS5, 

Graziosamente. It. Gracefully, 

Grazioso. It. With grace. 

Great Octave. The tones from 
C to B. 

Great Organ. That department of 
the ORGAN which has the greater 
number of stops and those of the 
greatest power. Formerly, when there 
were two or more organs in cathe- 
drals, the largest and most powerful 
was called tlie great organ. 

Greatheed(Rev. Samuel Stephen- 
son) composed 10 anthems and other 
church music; wrote on music; rector 
of Corringham, Essex, Eng., 1862. B. 
Feb. 22, 1813, Somersetshire. 

Greatorex (Thomas) played organ 
Carlisle Cathedral and Westminster 
Abbey ; conducted Concerts of Ancient 
Music in succession to Bates, 1793, 
Birmingham and other festivals; har- 
monized psalms, composed for orches- 
tra. B. Oct. 5, 1758, Derbyshire; d. 
July 18, 1831. 

Greber (Jakob) composed the opera 
" Gli amori d'Ergasto," which he 
adapted to the English stage as " The 
Loves of Ergasto," Haymarket, April 
24, 1705, on visiting London with the 
singer Margarita de I'Epine. 

Grechaninov (Alexander Tikho- 
novich) composed symphony in B 
minor. Op. 6; choruses, songs, cham- 
ber music ; pupil of Rimsky-Korsakov. 
B. Oct. 26, 1864, Moscow; add. St. 

Greco (Gaetano) composed for 
harpsichord ; pupil of Scarlatti, taught 
Durante, Pergolesi, and Vinci as Scar- 
latti's successor in the Conservatorio 
dei Poveri, Naples, 1717. B. about 
1680, Naples. 

Greek Music has survived in 
greatly modified form in Gregorian 
Chant, since the old Church Modes 
were based upon those of the Greeks, 
but otherwise possesses only historical 
interest. There is no reason to be- 
lieve the Greeks possessed a sense of 
harmony in the modern significiition 
of that word, or of counterpoint. The 
lyre originally possessed but four 
strings, and was therefore incapable 




accompaniment in the modern sense, 
equally so of melody. Even the Egyp- 
tian lyre which came into later use 
had but eight strings, although a 
later fingerboard development of the 
instrument gave it greater compass. 
There were varieties of tiute or 
'• aulos," which word seems to have 
included primitive forms of both oboe, 
clarinet, and tlute, but the instruments 
were crude, few in number, and were 
always of secondary importance to 
song. The earliest Italian opera was 
an attempt to present tragedy in the 
Greek form, but however much various 
musical reformers have endeavoured 
to adapt their ideas to their concep- 
tions of the ancient tragedies, it is a 
debatable question whetiier even the 
choruses of Greek tragedy were 
chanted. Yet the Greeks could dis- 
criminate between the intervals of a 
fourth and a third of a tone; music 
played a highly important part in the 
religious and civic ceremonies of the 
people ; music was treated as a branch 
of higher mathematics, like astronomy, 
by Greek philosophers, and was like- 
wise supposed to have a highly im- 
portant ethical influence as well. Thus 
there were three Genera. Diatonic mu- 
sic was preferred for the expression of 
virile and severe matter; the Chro- 
matic was plaintive and sweet, and 
the Enharmonic stirring and agree- 
able. These genera differed from each 
other in important details. The primi- 
tive scale consisting of four notes 
sounded by the lyre in order not of 
ascent but of descent was the tetra- 
chord. Taking a tetrachord of the 
tonic A, the three genera may be indi- 
cated as follows: Diatonic, a, g, f, e; 
Chromatic, a, f sharp, f , e ; Enhar- 
monic, a, f, e quarter-tone sharp, e. Two 
or more tetrachords were developed 
into a scale of greater compass by 
Conjunction, in which the highest note 
of the lower tetrachord is identical 
with the lowest note of the higher; or 
by Disjunction, which places an addi- 
tional tone between the lowest of the 
upper tetrachord and the highest of 
tlie lower ; or by a combination of 
both processes. These processes, and 
the addition of a lower A called Pro- 

slambanomenos gave a two octave 
scale which was in use in the 3d cen- 
tury B. C. Besides the distinction of 
genera there was that of Mode. The 
Dorian, lastian or Ionian, Phrygian, 
Aeolian, and Lydian were tlic prin- 
cipal modes, and each had its Hypo 
or Dominant and Hyper or Sub-Dom- 
inant relative, maldng 15 diatonic 
scales. The higher modes were em- 
ployed for the expression of passion 
ur grief; while the lower were re- 
garded as erotic. Aristoxenus, Aris- 
totle, Euclid, and Plato were among 
the most eminent of Greek theorists. 
See: "Modes of Ancient Greek Mu- 
sic," Monro, Clarendon Press, 1894; 
" Harmonics of Aristoxenus," Macran, 
Clarendon Press, 1902 ; " Aristoxene 
de Tarente." Louis Lalor, 1904. 

Green (James) edited Psalms pub- 
lished in London, 1724-51; played or- 
gan at Hull, Eng. 

Green (Samuel) built many Eng- 
lish cathedral organs, learning the 
business with Byfield, Jordan, and 
Bridge. B. 1740; d. Sept. 14, 179G. 

Greene (Harry Plunket) sang bar, 
at the principal English and American 
festivals, and in concert, debut, 1888, 
in the Messiah, London. B. June 24, 
18G5, Old Connaught House, Wicklow, 
Ireland; add. London. 

Greene (Dr. Maurice) composed 
" Forty Select Anthems," Te Deum, 
Service in C, the oratorio, " Force of 
Truth," the pastoral opera, " Phoebe," 
songs; helped found The Society of 
Musicians; played organ St. Paul's 
Cathedral; composed for Chapel 
Royal ; sang at the Academy of 
Ancient Music that madrigal by Lotti 
which Bononcini had represented to 
be his own, and which was the begin- 
ning of the Italian composer's down- 
fall ; aided in founding rival series 
of concerts on Bononcini's expulsion 
from the Academy. B. 1695, London; 
d. Dec. 1, 1755. 

Greensleeves. Probably dates 
from the reign of Henry VIII ; is re- 
ferred to in " The Merry Wives of 
Windsor," and became a favourite song 
with the Cavaliers in their wars with 

Greeting (Thomas) taught Sam. 




Pepys and his wife to play flageolet; 
wrote an instruction book for that in- 
strument, puhli.slied in London, 1680. 

Gregoir (Jacques Mathieu Jo- 
seph) composed a piano concerto, Op. 
lUU, the opera *' Le Gondolier de 
Venise," the cantata " Faust " ; debut 
as a pianist at eight. B. Jan. 18, 1817, 
Antwerp; d. Oct. 29, 1876, Brussels. 
Eduard. Georges Jacues composed 
the symphony " Los Croisades," the 
oratorio '• La Vie," the symphonic ora- 
torio " Marguerite d'Autriehe," tiie 
dramas "De Belgen," "La derniere nuit 
du Comte d'Egmont," the comic operas 
"Willcra Beukels" and "La Belle 
Bourbonnaise " ; wrote on music- B. 
Nov. 7, 1822, Turnhout; brother of 
J. M. J.; d. June 28, 1890, Antwerp. 

Gregorianischer Gesang. Ger. 
Gregorian song. 

Gregorian Music is the name of 
the vast collection of church music 
which was edited and revised under 
the personal supervision of Pope Greg- 
ory the Great and remains to-day the 
oflicial liturgical music of the Roman 
Catholic Church throughout the world. 
The present Pope and his illustrious 
predecessor Leo XIII urged the aban- 
donment of the operatic style of church 
music, use of which had grown to 
formidable proportions, and the Medi- 
cean edition of the Gregorian Music 
having become corrupt, the task of 
revision was placed in the hands of 
the Order of St. Benedict, which pos- 
sessed at its house in Solesmes, France, 
a large collection of the chants in their 
earlier and purer forms. Tlie superior 
solemn and religious beauty of this 
music has commended itself wherever 
it has been restored. The collection 
of music for the MASS comprises more 
than 600 compositions. The music for 
the Hours includes some 2000 Anti- 
phons and 800 Greater Responds, and 
if less authentic than the first collec- 
tion, closely resembles it in all re- 
spects. Much of the music in the 
earlier collection made by St. Ambrose 
in Milan is practically identical with 
that which bears stamp of St. Greg- 
ory's approval, the variations in mel- 
ody being superficial. 

Gregory the Great became Pope 

590 and devoted much time to the 
personal revision and reformation of 
music in the church, establishing the 
great collection of plain-song which 
have since been called GREGORIAN 
MUSIC. B. Rome, .540 ; d. 604, Rome. 

Gregorian Tones are the eight 
groups of chants in the eight different 
MODES to which the psalms are 
chanted in the Gregorian antiphonal 
system. Their restoration to the lit- 
urgy of the Anglican Church is a 
matter of current record, and it is 
worth while to note that they were 
almost wholly employed in the service 
up to tlie time of tiie Commonwealth. 

Greiter (Matthias) composed part 
songs, psalms, and hymns; originally 
a monk, joined the Lutherans and 
founded a choir school, 1549. 

Grell (Eduard August) composed 
a 16-part Mass a capella, other church 
music, songs, the oratorio " Der Israel- 
iten in der Wuste." B. Nov. 6, 1800, 
Berlin; d. Aug. 10, 1886, Steglitz, 
near Berlin. 

Gresham (Sir Thomas) founded 
not only the college bearing his name, 
but a lectureship in music worth about 
$500 per annum, frequently bestowed 
until recent years upon men having 
no knowledge of music. D. London, 
Nov. 21, 1579. 

Gretry (Andre Ernest Modeste) 
composed the operas " Richard Coeur 
de Lion," which contains the famous 
air " Richard, o mon roi, I'univers 
t'abandonne," produced Oct. 21, 1784, 
and still in repertoire; " Le parlant 
tableau," " Huron," " Zemire et Azor," 
"L'Epreuve villageoise," and "L'Amant 
jaloux," in all 50 dramatic works, 
notable for their wealth of melody. 
As a child Gretry was a chorister in 
the church of St. Denis, Liege, but was 
dismissed as incapable at 11. He man- 
aged to obtain lessons, however, and 
to hear the performances of an Italian 
opera company, and at 18 had com- 
posed six sjTnphonies and a solemn 
mass. These interested the Canon du 
Harlez, who provided the young com- 
poser with means to travel to Rome, 
where he remained seven years at the 
" College de Lidge." Casali having 
vainly tried to teach him counterpoint 




and harmony during this period, dis- 
missed him as incapable of learning, 
notwithstanding which he produced his 
operetta " La Vendemmiatrice " at 
the Aliberti Theatre with success, and 
also composed a De Profundis and 
other church music. Determined to 
devote himself to French opera com- 
ique, he went to Geneva, 1707, where 
he tried to induce Voltaire to write 
a libretto. Though that illustrious 
author could not comply, he suggested 
" Isabelle et Gertrude," which had been 
previously composed by Blaise to Fa- 
vart's book, and after this had been 
performed, advised Gretry to go to 
Paris. Acting upon this suggestion, 
Gretry journeyed to the Frencli capital, 
secured the book for " Les Mariages 
Samnites " from an amateur, and 
finally obtained a performance of that 
opera through the kindness of the 
Swedish ambassador, Counte de Cruez. 
This enabled him to stage "Le Huron" 
and " Lucile," and thereafter he ranked 
as the most popular of French dramatic 
composers. Mozart and Beethoven 
wrote variations on his songs, the 
Prince Bishop of Liege made him pri\'y 
councillor. Napoleon gave him a pen- 
sion and the Cross of the Legion of 
Honor, and in his old age he bought 
" I'Ermitage," Rousseau's house near 
Montmorency, and there wrote his 
amusing memoires. Of his other works 
" Pierre le Grand " and " Guillaume 
Tell" were the most ambitious, and the 
most popular were " La double epreuve, 
ou Colinette a la Cour," " La Caravane 
du Caire," 1783, to book by the Bour- 
bon prince who later became Louis 
XVIII, " Anacreon chez Polycrate," 
" Le Jugement de Midas," satirizing 
French music and the Academic, " Le 
Magnifique," " La Rosiere de Salency," 
" Aucassin et Nicolette," " Lisbeth," 
" Le deux Avares." Breitkopf & Hartel 
uiulertook the publication of Gretry's 
complete works. B. Feb. 8, 1741, 
Lit^ge; son of a violinist; d. Sept. 24, 
181.3, near Montmorency. See biog- 
raphies by A. J. Gretry, E. Gregoir, M. 
Brenet. Lucile composed the success- 
ful opera " Le Mariage d'Antonio " at 
13, which wns orchostratod bv her 

and produced, 1786, at the Paris Op6ra 
Comique. B. 1773, Paris; married 
unhappily: d. 1793. 

Greunberg (Eugene) composed 
symphony played at the Gewandhaus, 
Leipsic ; wrote " Theory of Violin 
Playing"; played violin in the Ge- 
wandhaus and Boston Symphony or- 
chestra ; tauglit Boston and New Eng- 
land Conservatories. B. Oct. 30, 1854, 
Galicia ; add. Boston. 

Grieg (Eduard Hagerup) com- 
posed two suites to Ibsen's " Peer 
Gynt," No. 1, Op. 23, piano four hands, 
afterwards developed for orchestra as 
No. 1, Op. 46, and No. 2, Op. 55, which 
ranked him at once as the leading 
composer of Scandinavia, and first 
aroused interest in the play in many 
parts of the world. Grieg's mother, a 
cultivated amateur, gave him his first 
lessons; he began to compose at nine, 
and on the advice of Ole Bull, was 
sent to the Leipsic Conservatory, where 
he was a pupil of Hauptmann and 
Richter in counterpoint, of Rietz and 
Reinecke in composition, and of VVen- 
zel and Moscheles for piano from 1858 
to 1862, completing his studies with 
Niels Gade in Copenhagen. Returning 
to Norway he founded the musical 
union in Christiana, 1866, which he 
conducted until 1880, and with his 
friend Nordraak devoted himself to 
developing the national music of Nor- 
way. In 1865 and in 1870 he visited 
Rome, where he became intimate with 
Liszt. In 1879 he played his own 
piano concerto, A minor, Op. 16, at the 
Gewandhaus, Leipsic, to an enthusias- 
tic audience. In 1888 he conducted his 
" Two Elegiac iMelodies " for strings at 
the London Philharmonic, and gave a 
joint recital of his compositions with 
his wife, who was an excellent singer. 
In 1894, while again visiting England, 
he received the degree Dr. Mus. at Cam- 
bridge, but the greater part of his life 
was spent at his country home near 
Bergen, Norway. His larger composi- 
tions include, besides those already 
named, the concert overture " Im 
Herbst," sonata for violin and piano, 
in G, Op. 13, "Two Symphonische 
Stiicke," piano four hands, Op. 14; 
sonata for piano and 'cello, Op. 36; 




sonata for piano and violin, C minor, 
Op. 45 ; scenes from Bjornson's *' Olav 
TrygA-ason," solo, chorus, and orclies- 
tra. Op. 50; "Sigurd Jorsalfar," for 
orchestra, Op. 5G; symphonic dances 
for piano, four hands and strings, Op. 
64; a Funeral Hymn in memory of his 
father, for four voices, the song cycle 
" Haugtussa," Op. 07. His preference 
as a composer was for songs, of which 
he left nearly 150, and short piano 
pieces, wliich, while wholly original, 
are often mistaken for elaborations of 
folk songs. B. June 15, 1843, Bergen, 
Norway; d. Sept. 4, 1907. 

Griesbach (John Henry) com- 
posed the oratorio " Belshazzar," after- 
wards performed, 1854, as " Daniel," 
the dramatic works "James the First," 
"The Goldsmith of West Cheap," 
" Eblis," cantatas, songs; wrote "An 
Analysis of Musical Sounds "; director 
Philharmonic Society, 14 terms; played 
'cello; pupil of his father, 'cellist to 
Queen Charlotte, and of his uncle G. 
L. J. Griesbach. B. June 20, 1798, 
Windsor; d. Jan. 9, 1875, London. 

Griesinger (Georg August) wrote 
biographical notice of Haydn, whom he 
knew intimately, Breitkopf & Hiirtel, 
1810. D. April 27, 1828, Leipsic. 

Griflfbrett. Ger. Fingerl)oard of 
string iiisLnnnents. 

Grifl3.n (George Eugene) helped 
found London Pliilharmonie Society ; 
composed three string quartets and 
piano music, including a concerto in 
which he made his debut, London, 
1797. B. Jan. 8, 1781, London; d. 
May 186.3. 

Griffin (Thomas) built organs in 
London; one of the numerous pro- 
fessors on the Gresham foundation 
who couldn't lecture. D. 1771. 

Griffith (Frederick) taught flute. 
Royal Academy of Music, London, 
having toured the world with Melba 
and played in Covent Garden Orches- 
tra. B. Nov. 12, 1SG7, Swansea; add. 

Grimaldi was the name of a cele- 
brated sopranist better known as 

Grimm (Otto) composed a suite 
for orchestra in canon form, symphony 
in D minor, songs ; played piano ; con- 

ducted. B. Pernau, Livonia, Mar. 0, 
1827; d. Dec. 7, 1903, Munster. 

Grisar (Albert) composed "Sarah," 
Paris Op6ra Comique, 1836; " Gilles 
Ravisseur," 1848; " Les Porcherons," 
1850; " Bon Soir, M. Pantalon," 1851, 
in all more than 30 operas, of which 
19 were produced. B. Dec. 20, 1808, 
Antwerp; d. Jime 15, 1869, Asni&res. 

Grisi (Giulia) sang sop. in opera; 
debut, Italian opera, Paris, 1832, hav- 
ing already won the admiration of 
Bellini and Rossini in Milan; toured 
America with Mario, 1854. B. July 
28, 1811, Milan; m. Count de Melcy, 
1836; divorced, and m. Mario; d. 
Nov. 29, 18G9, Giuditta sang niez. 
sop. in opera; sister of GIULIA and 
her first teacher. B. July 28, 1805, 
Milan; m. Count Barni, 1834; d. 
May 1, 1840. Carlotta became the 
most famous ballerina of the same 
period, although educated originally 
as a singer. She was a cousin of the 
singers above mentioned. 

Groppo. It. Group of notes. 

Gros Fa. Obsolete square NOTA- 

Grosse. Oer. Major, as to inter- 
vals ; great or grand. 

Grosse Caisse. Fr. Bass DRUM. 

Grosse Trommel. Ger. Bass 

Grosso. It. Great, grand, full. 

Gros Tambour, Fr. Big DRUM. 

Grossvater Tanz. 17th century 
German dance, literally " Grand- 
father's Dance," used at weddings, em- 
ployed by Schumann in two composi- 
tions, the "Carneval" and "Papillons." 

Ground Bass. Old form of discant 
in which a theme in the bass, usually 
short, is constantly repeated with 
overlaid melody or harmony. Ground 
basses were often employed as themes 
for " extemporising." A chaconne by 
Handel gives 62 variations on a ground 
bass, and a modern example will be 
found in Brahms' orchestral Varia- 
tions on a Theme by Haydn. 

Group. Series of small notes sung 
to one syllable; division; section of 
instruments in the orchestra; ar- 
rangement of parts in a score. 

Grove (Dr. Sir George) wrote 
" Beethoven and his Nine Sympho- 




nies"; edited "Grove's Dictionary 
of Music " and Macmillan's Maga- 
zine; helped organize, and was first 
director of the Royal College of Music, 
London, 1883, for which he was 
knighted; in early life a civil engi- 
neer, but a devoted amateur of music; 
secretary of the Society of Arts and 
a director of the Crystal Palace. B. 
Clapham, Eng., Aug. 13, 1820; d. 
May 28, 1900. See " Life of Sir George 
Grove," C. L. Graves, Macmillan, 

Grua (Carl Luigi Pietro) com- 
posed the operas " Telegono " and 
"Camillo"; court musician at Dres- 
den, 1G91; vice chapelmaster, 1693. 
Paul composed the opera " Tele- 
macco," Munich, 1780, a Miserere, and 
other church music. B. Feb. 2, 1754; 
son of C. L. P.; d. July 5, 1833. 

Grund (Friedrich Wilhelm) 
helped found the Hamburg Siiigakade- 
mie; composed the operas "Mathilde" 
and " Die Burg Falkenstein," sympho- 
nies, a mass, cantatas, and chamber 
music. B. Oct. 7, 1791, Hamburg; d. 
Nov. 24, 1874. 

Grundstimme. Ger. Bass part. 

Grundton. Ger. Bass note; fun- 
damental bass. 

Gruppetto. If. Group of notes; 
division ; turn ; trill. 

Griitzmacher (Friedrich. Wilhelm 
Ludwig) composed 'cello concertos 
and songs; played first 'cello at the 
Gewandhaus and taught in Leipsic 
Conservatory. B. Mar. 1, 1832, Des- 
sau; d. Dresden, Feb. 23, 1903. Leo- 
pold played 'cello Meiningen Court 
Orchestra; pupil of his brother 
F. W. L. B. Sept. 4, 1834; d. Feb. 
26, 1900. 

G-Schliissel. Treble or G clef. 

G String. The fourth on the vio- 
lin; third on viola, 'cello, and guitar; 
first on doublebass. 

Guadagni (Gaetano) sang con. 
in "The Messiah" and "Samson" 
Tinder Handel ; developed into sopran- 
ist, and became a higlily popular singer 
in Paris, creating " Telemacco " for 
Gluck, singing at Vienna and Berlin 
operns. B. 1725, Lodi; d. 1797. 

Guadagnini (Johann Baptist;) 
made violins in Cremona style which 

are dated Milan, Piacenza, and Turin, 
1690-1740; pupil of Stradivarius. 
Lorenzo made violins of equally fine 
quality but departing from the Strad. 
model; worked with JOHN BAPTIST. 
John Baptist II made violins of Strad. 
model dated chiefly from Piacenza, 
having a high coloured varnish. Prob- 
ably son of LORENZO. Joseph made 
violins dated generally Milan, 1740- 
60. Probably brother of JOHN BAP- 
TIST II. Succeeding generations of 
this family have continued to make 
violins, but without attaining the ex- 
cellence of those named. 

Guaracha. Spanish dance in lively 
3-4 time. 

Guarducci (Tommasso Toscano) 
sang in English oratorios and opera, 
1766-71, with Grassi, having previ- 
ously established his reputation in 
Italy. B. 1720, Montefiascone. 

Guarnerius (Andreas) made ex- 
cellent violins, dated Cremona at the 
sign of St. Theresa ; pupil with Stradi- 
varius of Nicolo Amati. B. about 
1626; d. 1098. Pietro Giovanni 
made violins in Mantua but describes 
himself in his labels as " from Cre- 
mona." B. 1655; instruments bear 
dates 1690-1725. Joseph made vio- 
lins first on his father's model, but 
later developing an individual style; 
called himself " Filius Andreae " to 
distinguish himself from a cousin. B. 
1666; instruments dated 1690-1730; 
d. about 1739. Peter of Venice made 
violins superior to those of his uncle 
PIETRO GIOVANNI and on the same 
model. B. 1695; instruments are 
dated 1730-55. Joseph del Gesu be- 
came the most famous instrument 
maker of his family, making violins 
more remarkable for power and fine 
tone than beaut3% one of which was a 
favourite with Paganini. He was a 
nephew of JOSEPH FILIUS AN- 
DREAE and therefore a grandson of 
ANDREAS, although his father, Giam- 
Battista,was not an instrument maker. 
The name del Gesu came from the 
I. H. S. which he added to his label. 
B. 16S7; d. 1745. 

Guddok. Russian fiddle. 

Gudehus (Heinrich) sang ten. in 
Wagnerian operas Bayreuth, London, 


New York, Berlin ; originally a school- of the Gamut, the Ilexachords ; Di3- 

master. B. Altenhagen, Hanover, Mar. cant, Organum, and Counterpoint; the 

30, 1845; add. Berlin. Monochord, the Spinet, and the mod- 

Guedron (Pierre) composed songs ern Five Line Stave. According to 

and ballets for Henri IV of France; Dom Germain Morin, he was at first 

became surintendant de la musique a simple Benedictine monk in the 

to Louis XIIL B. about L56.T. monastery of St. Maur des Fosses. 

Guerrero (Francisco) compo'=ed His talent for music was so pro- 
" Sacrae Cantiones," 1555, masses, and nounced that he was called to Rome 
Passion according to St. Matthew; by Pope Benedict VIH in 1022 
chapelmaster at Seville Cathedral; (Baronius), treated with great con- 
made pilgrimage to Palestine at 60; sideration, and recalled two years 
pupil of Morales. B. 1528, Seville; later by Pope John XIX, to whom he 
d. 1599. taught his new system of notation. 

Guerriero. It. Warlike. Leaving Rome with a promise to re- 
Guest (Ralph) composed psalms, turn, he settled at the Monastery of 
hymns, songs; played organ. B. Pomposo in Ferrara, where he wrote 
Shropshire, 1742; d. 1830, Bury St. his " Micrologus," a treatise reprinted 
Edmunds, Eng. George composed an- 1904 with critical notes by Dom A. 
thems, hymns, glees, organ pieces, Arnelli, O.S.B., Monte Cassino, and 
songs; played organ; as a boy, sang other books. Finally he became Abbot 
in Eng. Chapel Royal. B. 1771, Bury of Santa Croce, Avellano, near Arezzo. 
St. Edmunds; son of RALPH; d. B. about 990; called also Guido Are- 
Sept. 10, 1831, Wisbech. tinus, Fra Guittone, Guy of Arezzo; 

Guet. Fr. Trumpet flourish. d. 1050, Santa Croce. 

Guglielmi (Pietro) composed the Guidonian Syllables. Aretinian 

operas "I due Gemelli," 1789; many syllables in UT QUEANT LAXIS. 

other forgotten operas, dividing the Guignon (Jean Pierre) composed 

favour of the Italian public with Cima- violin concertos, sonatas, duos; played 

rosa and Paisiello ; said to have aban- violin in the service of the French 

doned his wife in London; became court, 1733-73; was the last musician 

chapelmaster at the Vatican, 1793, and to hold the title " Roi des violons," 

thereafter devoted himself to compo- and to attempt to enforce the regula- 

sition of church music. B. about tion of the COXFRERIE of the min- 

1727; d. Rome, Nov. 19, 1804. strels. B. Feb. 10, 1702, Turin; d. 

Guida. It. Guide or direct. Jan. 30, 1774, Versailles. 

Guide-Main. Fr. Mechanical ap- Guildhall School of Music was 

pliance to regulate the position of the established 1880 by the City of Lon- 

wrist in piano playing, invented by don to teach music in all branches. 

Kalkbrenner. Weist-Hill was the first principal. 

Guidetti (Giovanni) aided Pales- Sir Joseph Barnby succeeded him, 
trina in the revision and purification 1S92, and on his death in 1890, Dr. 
of Gregorian music ordered by Pope W. H. Cummings took ofiice. The 
Gregory XIII, 1576-81; pupil of Pal- institution grew rapidly, received the 
estrina ; priest and conductor. B. support of many distinguished musi- 
1532, Bologna; d. Nov. 30, 1592, cians, and in 1905 had reached an en- 
Rome, rolment of nearly 3000 students. 

Guido d'Arezzo devised the prin- Guillaume Tell. Gioacchino Ros- 

ciple upon which the stave is con- sini's four-act opera, to book by Bis 

structed, invented the F and C clefs, and Jouy, founded on Schiller's play, 

Solmisation, and the " Harmonic was first performed Aug. 3, 182*9. 

Hand" (by which tones were indi- Leutold, the herdsman, kills one of 

eated on the joints of the left hand), Gessler's followers while defending his 

and did much to reform and syste- daughter, and seeks the protection of 

matize music. By Kircher he was Tell, who places him in safety. Melch- 

likewise accredited with the invention tal is accused by Gessler of having 




incited rebellion, and is executed. Ar- 
nold, Melchtal's son, loves Mathilde, 
daughter of Gessler, but casts his lot 
with the deputies of the three cantons, 
who determine to free Switzerland 
under Tell's leadership. The third act 
opens with a love scene between Ma- 
thilde and Arnold. Then Gessler's hat 
is set upon a pole, and the Swiss are 
commanded to do reverence to this 
emblem of authority. Tell and his 
son refuse, are arrested, and Tell is 
ordered to shoot an apple from his 
son's head. This he does, but Gess- 
ler has noted a second arrow, and 
Tell manfully tells him that arrow 
was meant for his destruction had he 
slain his son. The tyrant thereupon 
orders Tell's arrest, and he is led 
away in fetters, despite Mathilde's 
plea for mercy. Mathilde then joins 
the patriots. Their battles are suc- 
cessful, and finally Tell, who has es- 
caped from prison and slain Gessler, 
appears, and the opera closes with a 
hymn to freedom. The principal mu- 
sical numbers are: Act I: "II ciel 
sereno," Alpine chorus ; " Cinto il 
erine," chorus and dance; Act II: 
" Qual silvestre metro intorne," chorus 
of huntsmen and shepherds ; " Selva 
opaca," Mathilde ; " La gloria in- 
fiammi," Tell and Walther; Act III: 
"0 muto asil,*' Arnold; "I boschi, i 
monti," the hymn to freedom. As now 
performed, the opera consists of three 
acts, the third having been eliminated, 
the fourth and fifth condensed. The 
original cast was: Mathilde, Damo- 
reau-Cinti, sop. ; Hedwig, Mori, mez. 
sop. ; Jemmy, Tell's son, Dabodie, sop. ; 
Gessler, Prevost, bass ; Rudolph, Massol, 
ten. ; Tell, Dabodie, bar. ; Walther, 
Levasseur, bass; Melchtal, Dupont, 
bass; Arnold, Nourrit, bar.; Leuthold, 
Prevot, bar. ; Fisherman, ten. 

Guilmant (Felix Alexandre) be- 
came organist of Trinite church, 
Paris, 1871, and ranked in 1908 as the 
dean of French organists and one of 
the greatest living performers on that 
instrument. Guilmant's father w\is an 
organist, and his first teacher. At 16 
he became organist of St. Joseph's, 
Boulogne, and later chapelmaster at 
the Church of St. Nicholas. In 18G0 

he received lessons from Lemmens, and 
since then he has been one of the 
world's most useful teachers. He com- 
posed a symphony for organ with or- 
chestra, seven organ sonatas, con- 
certos, and hymns, " Belsazar," a 
scene lyrique for soli, chorus, and or- 
chestra, the hymn " Christi Vincit." 
In 1893 he received the Legion of 
Honor, in 1896 became professor at 
the Conservatoire; made successful 
concert tours of Europe in 1897-98 
and 1904-5 ; retired from his post at 
Trinite, 1901. B. Mar. 12, 1837, 
Boulogne; add. Paris. 

Guimbarde. Fr. JEW'S HARP. 

Guiraud (Ernest) composed " Roi 
David," an opera produced at New 
Orleans when he was but 15, " Frede- 
gonde," completed by Saint-Saens 
after his death, and produced Dec. 18, 
1895, at the Paris Grand Op6ra; won 
the prix de Rome, Paris Conservatoire, 
1859, with his " Bajazet et le jouer de 
flute"; the one-act opera " Sylvie " 
while in Rome, " En Prison," " Le 
Kobold," "Madame Turlupin," " Pic- 
colino," the ballet "Gretna Green"; 
fought with French in Franco-Prus- 
sian war; taught composition at the 
Conservatoire, 1876; Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. B. June 23, 1837, 
New Orleans; d. May 6, 1892, Paris. 

Guitar is the only modern repre- 
sentative of the numerous instruments 
of the lute, cither, or gittern families, 
with the exception of the MANDOLIN. 
The resonance box has a flat back, 
although the sides are curved some- 
what like those of viols. There is a 
fretted keyboard, and there are six 
strings, three of gut and three of wire, 
attuned as follows: E, A, d, g, b, e, 
and sometimes E, B, e, g, b, e. The 
compass is E to a", and the music is 
written an octave higher than its 
sounds. Instruments of this class are 
doubtless of oriental origin. The ob- 
solete English guitar was a wire-strung 
instrument replaced by the Spanish 
guitar, described above. Both Berlioz 
and Paganini were guitarists, but the 
instrument has of late years been 
superseded for dance music and ac- 
companiments in English-speaking 
countries by the piano. 


Gulli (Luigi) played piano and 
taught in Rome; founded the "Societi 
del quintetto Gulli " for chamber 
music; pupil of Cesi, Royal College 
of Music, Naples. B. Calabria, June 
17, 1859; add. Rome. 

Gumpeltzliairaer (Adam) com- 
posed church music; cantor at St. 
Anna, Auj;sburfi, 15Sl-l()21. H. Tro.-l- 
bcr<;. Bavaria, 1500; d. 1G25, Augsburg. 

Gung'l (Joseph) composed 300 
dances and marches; bandmaster in 
Austrian army; made concert tours of 
Europe and America; became chapel- 
master to the Emperor of Austria. B. 
Dec. 1, 1810, Zsa.mbek, Hungary; d. 
Jan. 31, 1889, Weimar. Virginia 
sang in opera; debut, Berlin, 1871 ; 
daughter of JOSEPH. Johann com- 
posed dance music ; made concert 
tours of Europe. B. Zsamb&k, Mar. 
5, 1828; d. Nov. 27, 1883, Funf- 
kirclien, Hungary. 

Gunn (Barnabas) composed so- 
natas for harpsichord, " Two Canta- 
tas and Six Songs," 1736, and church 
music; played organ Gloucester Ca- 
thedral. B. about 1680, Gloucester; 
d. about 1743. Barnaby played organ 
Chelsea Hospital, London, 1730-53. 
Probably related to BARNABAS. 

Gunn (John) taught flute and 
'cello; wrote on music. B. 1765, Edin- 
burgh; d. 1824, London. Anne 
Young played piano; wrote "An 
Introduction to Music." illustrated by 
games, Edinburgh, 1803. Wife of 

Guntram. Richard Strauss's three- 
act opera was first performed May 10, 
1S94. at Weimar. 

Gura (Eugen) sang " Donner " and 
" Gunther " at the performance of the 
cycle " Der Ring des Nibelungen," 
Bayreuth, 1876; debut, 1865, Munich; 
retired. 1895. B. Nov. 8, 1842, Pres- 
sern, Bohemia; d. Aug. 26, 1906. Her- 
mann sang bar. in opera. Son of 

Gurlitt (Cornelius) composed the 
opera " Sclieik Hassan," operettas, 
piano studies; organist at Altona 
and Royal Music Director. B. Feb. 
10, 1820, Altona; d. June 17, 1901, 

Gusikow (Michael Joseph) played 



xylophone so well as to win the ad- 
miration of F6tis and Mendelssohn. 
B. Sept. 2, 1806, Sklow, Poland; d. 
Oct. 21, 1837, Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Gustave III. Auber's opera on the 

Gusto, con. It. With taste and 

Gustoso. It. With taste and ex- 

Gutmann (Adolph) composed ten 
"Etudes caracteristiques "; pianist 
and friend of Chopin. B. Jan. 12, 
1819, Heidelberg; d. Oct. 27, 1882. 

Guttural. Throaty. 

Guzla. Primitive rebec played in 
the Balkan states. 

Gwendoline. Alexis Emmanuel 
Chabrier's three-act opera, to book by 
Catulle Mendes, was first performed 
April 10, 1886, at Brussels. 

Gymnase de Musique Militaire 
w^as founded in Paris, 1836, to edu- 
cate musicians for the military bands, 
but was abolished, 1856, when its 
functions devolved upon the Conser- 
vatoire. Berr and Carafa were the 

Gyrowetz (Adalbert) composed 
" Agnes Sorel," " Robert, oder die Prii- 
fung," and in all 30 operas, 19 masses, 
60 symphonies, 60 string quartets, 40 
piano sonatas, ballets ; wrote an auto- 
biography, Vienna, 1847. B. Budweis, 
Bohemia, Feb. 19, 1763; d. Mar. 19, 
1850, Vienna. 

H is the German name of the note 
B natural, B in German always mean- 
ing B flat. 

Haas (Alma) played violin ; taught 
at Royal Academy of Music, London, 
King's College, London. B. Ratibor, 
Silesia, Jan. 31, 1847; daughter of 
the schoolmaster HoUaender; m. Dr. 
Ernst Haas, 1872, London; add. 

Habanera. Popular Cuban dance 
in 2-4 time, said to have been brought 
from Africa by negro slaves. A fine 
example occurs in CARMEN. 

Habeneck (Francois Antoine) 
composed the ballet " Le page incon- 
stant." 1823, \iolin concertos; taught 
in Paris Conservatoire; foimded the 




Concerts of the Conservatoire, where 
he first introduced Beethoven's sym- 
phonies to France, 1828-48; con- 
ducted Louis Philippe's concerts at 
the Tuileries; Clievalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor. B. Jan. 23, 1781, 
Mezieres; d. Feb. 8, 1849, Paris.